CHAPTER XX. GENERALISATION OF SHOP PROCESSES.Power derived from water by means of wheels is due to the gravity of the water in descending from a higher to a lower level; but the question arises, What has heat to do with this? If heat is the source of power, and power a product of heat, there must be a connection somewhere between heat and the descent of the water. Water, in descending from one level to another, can give out no more power than was consumed in raising it to the higher level, and this power employed to raise the water is found to be heat. Water is evaporated by heat of the sun, expanded until it is lighter than the atmosphere, rises through the air, and by condensation falls in the form of rain over the earth's surface; then drains into the ocean through streams and rivers, to again resume its round by another course of evaporation, giving out in its descent power that we turn to useful account by means of water-wheels. This principle of evaporation is continually going on; the fall of rain is likewise quite constant, so that streams are maintained within a sufficient regularity to be available for operating machinery.
These are, however, not the only reasons which have led to a running platen for planing machines, although they are the most important.
In arranging the details of machines, it is impossible to have a special standard of dimensions for each case, or even for each shop; the dimensions employed are therefore made to conform to some general standard, which by custom becomes known and familiar to workmen and to a country, or as we may now say to all countries.
First. Gravity wheels, acting directly from the weight of the water which is loaded upon a wheel revolving in a vertical plane, the weight resting upon the descending side until the water has reached the lowest point, where it is discharged.
No subject connected with mechanics has been more thoroughly investigated than that of gearing. Text-books are replete with every kind of information pertaining to wheels, at least so far as the subject can be made a mathematical one; and to judge from the amount of matter, formul?, and diagrams, relating to the teeth of wheels that an apprentice will meet with, he will no doubt be led to believe that the main object of modern engineering is to generate wheels. It must be admitted that the teeth of wheels and the proportions of wheels is a very important matter to understand, and should be studied with the greatest care; but it is equally important to know how to produce the teeth in metal after their configuration has been defined on paper; to understand the endurance of teeth under abrasive wear when made of wrought or cast iron, brass or steel; how patterns can be constructed from which correct wheels may be cast, and how the teeth of wheels can be cut by machinery, and so on.
To exert a powerful force acting through but a short distance, percussive devices are much more effective and simple than those acting by maintained or direct pressure. A hammer-head may give a blow equal to many tons by its momentum, and absorb the reactive force which is equal to the blow; but if an equal force was to be exerted by screws, levers, or hydraulic apparatus, we can easily see that an abutment would be required to withstand the reactive force, and that such an abutment would require a strength perhaps beyond what ingenuity could devise.
No computations, drawings, or demonstrations of any kind will be employed to relieve the mind of the reader from the care of remembering and a dependence on his own exertions. Drawings, constants, formul?, tables, rules, with all that pertains to computation in mechanics, are already furnished in many excellent books, which leave nothing to be added, and such books can be studied at the same time with what is presented here.
Second.—The steam establishes the greatest possible elasticity in the connection between a hammer and the driving power, and at the same time serves to cushion the blows at both the top and bottom of the stroke, or on the top only, as occasion may require.Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (ASIPP, HFIPS) undertakes the procurement package of superconducting conductors, correction coil, superconducting feeder, power supply and diagnosis, accounting for nearly 80% of China's ITER procurement package.
"I am so proud of our team and it’s a great pleasure for me working here," said BAO Liman, an engineer from ASIPP, HFIPS, who was invited to sit near Chinese National flay on the podium at the kick-off ceremony to represent Chinese team. BAO, with some 30 ASIPP engineers, has been working in ITER Tokamak department for more than ten years. Due to the suspended international traveling by COVID-19, most of the Chinese people who are engaged in ITER construction celebrated this important moment at home through live broadcasting.
One of ASIPP’s undertakes, the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (or PF6 coil) , the heaviest superconducting coil in the world, was completed last year, and arrived at ITER site this June. PF6 timely manufacturing and delivery made a solid foundation for ITER sub-assembly, it will be installed at the bottom of the ITER cryostat.
Last year, a China-France Consortium in which ASIPP takes a part has won the bid of the first ITER Tokamak Assembly task, TAC-1, a core and important part of the ITER Tokamak assembly.
Exactly as Bernard BIGOT, Director-General of ITER Organization, commented at a press conference after the ceremony, Chinese team was highly regarded for what they have done to ITER project with excellent completion of procurement package.
The kick-off ceremony for ITER assembly (Image by Pierre Genevier-Tarel-ITER Organization)
the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
ITER-TAC1 Contract Signing Ceremony (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
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