A gravity wheel must have a diameter equal to the fall of water, or, to use the technical name, the height of the head. The speed at the periphery of the wheel cannot well exceed sixteen feet per second without losing a part of the effect by the wheel anticipating or overrunning the water. This, from the large diameter of the wheels, produces a very slow axial speed, and a train of multiplying gearing becomes necessary in order to reach the speed required in most operations where power is applied. This train of gearing, besides being liable to wear and accident, and costing usually a large amount as an investment, consumes a considerable part of the power by frictional resistance, especially when such gearing consists of tooth wheels. Gravity wheels, from their large size and their necessarily exposed situation, are subject to be frozen up in cold climates; and as the parts are liable to be first wet and then dry, or warm and cold by exposure to the air and the water alternately, the tendency to corrosion if constructed of iron, or to decay if of wood, is much greater than in submerged wheels. Gravity wheels, to realise the highest measure of effect from the water, require a diameter so great that they must drag in the water at the bottom or delivering side, and are for this reason especially affected by back-water, to which all wheels are more or less liable from the reflux of tides or by freshets. These disadvantages are among the most notable pertaining to gravity wheels, and have, with other reasons—such as the inconvenience of construction, greater cost, and so on—driven such wheels out of use by the force of circumstances, rather than by actual tests or theoretical deductions.
It is, of course, very difficult to deal with so complex a subject as the present one with words alone, and the reader is recommended to examine drawings, or, what is better, water-wheels themselves, keeping the above propositions in view.
The action of steam-hammers may also be divided into what is termed elastic blows, and dead blows.
Third. The difference between what it costs to plan and construct machinery and what it will sell for, is generally as the amount of engineering knowledge and skill brought to bear in the processes of production.
The use of hand tools should be learned by employing them on every possible occasion. A great many of the modern improvements in engine lathes are only to evade hand tool work, and in many cases effect no saving except in skill. A latheman who is skilful with hand tools will, on many kinds of light work, perform more and do it better on a hand lathe than an engine lathe; there is always more or less that can be performed to advantage with hand tools even on the most elaborate engine lathes.Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (ASIPP, HFIPS) undertakes the procurement package of superconducting conductors, correction coil, superconducting feeder, power supply and diagnosis, accounting for nearly 80% of China's ITER procurement package.
"I am so proud of our team and it’s a great pleasure for me working here," said BAO Liman, an engineer from ASIPP, HFIPS, who was invited to sit near Chinese National flay on the podium at the kick-off ceremony to represent Chinese team. BAO, with some 30 ASIPP engineers, has been working in ITER Tokamak department for more than ten years. Due to the suspended international traveling by COVID-19, most of the Chinese people who are engaged in ITER construction celebrated this important moment at home through live broadcasting.
One of ASIPP’s undertakes, the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (or PF6 coil) , the heaviest superconducting coil in the world, was completed last year, and arrived at ITER site this June. PF6 timely manufacturing and delivery made a solid foundation for ITER sub-assembly, it will be installed at the bottom of the ITER cryostat.
Last year, a China-France Consortium in which ASIPP takes a part has won the bid of the first ITER Tokamak Assembly task, TAC-1, a core and important part of the ITER Tokamak assembly.
Exactly as Bernard BIGOT, Director-General of ITER Organization, commented at a press conference after the ceremony, Chinese team was highly regarded for what they have done to ITER project with excellent completion of procurement package.
The kick-off ceremony for ITER assembly (Image by Pierre Genevier-Tarel-ITER Organization)
the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
ITER-TAC1 Contract Signing Ceremony (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
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