A book containing the pattern record should be kept, in which these catalogue numbers are set down, with a short description to identify the different parts to which the numbers belong, so that all the various details of any machine can at any time be referred to. Besides this description, there should be opposite the catalogue of pattern numbers, ruled spaces, in which to enter the weight of castings, the cost of the pattern, and also the amount of turned, planed, or bored surface on each piece when it is finished, or the time required in fitting, which is the same thing. In this book the assembled parts of each machine should be set down in a separate list, so that orders for castings can be made from the list without other references. This system is the best one known to the writer, and is in substance a plan now adopted in many of the best engineering establishments. A complete system in all things pertaining to drawings and classifications should be rigidly adhered to; any plan is better than none, and the schooling of the mind to be had in the observance of systematic rules is a matter not to be neglected. New plans for promoting system may at any time arise, but such plans cannot be at any  time understood and adopted except by those who have cultivated a taste for order and regularity.
Fourth.—Cores, where used, how vented, how supported in the mould, and I will add how made, because cores that are of an irregular form are often more expensive than external moulds, including the patterns. The expense of patterns is often greatly reduced, but is sometimes increased, by the use of cores, which may be employed to cheapen patterns, add to their durability, or to ensure sound castings.
(1.) What analogy may be found between steam and water power?—(2.) What is the derivation of the name turbine?—(3.) To what class of water-wheels is this name applicable?—(4.) How may water-wheels be classified?—(5.) Upon what principle does a reaction water-wheel operate?—(6.) Can ponderable weight and pressure be independently considered in the case?—(7.) Why cannot radial running joints be maintained in machines?—(8.) Describe the mechanism in common use for sustaining the weight of turbine wheels, and the thrust of propeller shafts.
Other reasons for the extended and general use of steam as a power, besides those already named, are to be found in the fact that no other available element or substance can be expanded to a given degree at so small a cost as water; and that its temperature will not rise to a point injurious to machinery, and, further, in the very important property of lubrication which steam possesses, protecting the frictional surfaces of pistons and valves, which it is impossible to keep oiled because of their inaccessibility or temperature.Reciprocating tools are divided into those wherein the cutting movement is given to the tools, as in shaping and slotting machines, and machines wherein the cutting movement is given to the material to be planed, as in a common planing machine. Very strangely we find in general practice that machine tools for both the heaviest and the lightest class of work, such as shaping, and butting, operate upon the first principle, while pieces of a medium size are generally planed by being moved in contact with stationary tools.
Rapping plates, draw-irons, and other details of pattern-making are soon understood by observation. Perhaps the most useful suggestion which can be given in reference to draw-irons is to say they should be set on the under or bottom side of patterns, instead of on the top, where they are generally placed. A draw-plate set in this way, with a hole bored through the pattern so as to insert draw-irons from the top, cannot pull off, which it is apt to do if set on the top side. Every pattern no matter how small, should be ironed, unless it is some trifling piece, with dowel-pins, draw and rapping plates. If a system of draw-irons is not rigidly carried out, moulders will not trouble themselves to take care of patterns.The principal improvements and changes in machine fitting at the present time is in the application of special tools. A lathe, a planing machine, or drilling machine as a standard machine, must be adapted to a certain range of work, but it is evident that if such tools were specially arranged for either the largest or the smallest pieces that come within their capacity, more work could be performed in a given time and consequently at less expense. It is also evident that machine tools must be kept constantly at work in order to be profitable, and when there are not sufficient pieces of one kind to occupy a machine, it must be employed on various kinds of work; but whenever there are sufficient pieces of the same size upon which certain processes of a uniform character are to be performed, there is a gain by having machines constructed to conform as nearly as possible to the requirements of special work, and without reference to any other.
I will, in connection with this subject of patterns and castings, suggest a plan of learning especially applicable in such cases, that of adopting a habit of imagining the manner of moulding, and the kind of pattern used in producing each casting that comes under notice. Such a habit becomes easy and natural in a short time, and is a sure means of acquiring an extended knowledge of patterns and moulding.
The relation between the feeding and cutting motion of reciprocating machines is not generally considered, and forms an interesting problem for investigation.
To summarise, we have the following propositions relating to steam machinery:—Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (ASIPP, HFIPS) undertakes the procurement package of superconducting conductors, correction coil, superconducting feeder, power supply and diagnosis, accounting for nearly 80% of China's ITER procurement package.
"I am so proud of our team and it’s a great pleasure for me working here," said BAO Liman, an engineer from ASIPP, HFIPS, who was invited to sit near Chinese National flay on the podium at the kick-off ceremony to represent Chinese team. BAO, with some 30 ASIPP engineers, has been working in ITER Tokamak department for more than ten years. Due to the suspended international traveling by COVID-19, most of the Chinese people who are engaged in ITER construction celebrated this important moment at home through live broadcasting.
One of ASIPP’s undertakes, the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (or PF6 coil) , the heaviest superconducting coil in the world, was completed last year, and arrived at ITER site this June. PF6 timely manufacturing and delivery made a solid foundation for ITER sub-assembly, it will be installed at the bottom of the ITER cryostat.
Last year, a China-France Consortium in which ASIPP takes a part has won the bid of the first ITER Tokamak Assembly task, TAC-1, a core and important part of the ITER Tokamak assembly.
Exactly as Bernard BIGOT, Director-General of ITER Organization, commented at a press conference after the ceremony, Chinese team was highly regarded for what they have done to ITER project with excellent completion of procurement package.
The kick-off ceremony for ITER assembly (Image by Pierre Genevier-Tarel-ITER Organization)
the number 6 poloidal field superconducting coil (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
ITER-TAC1 Contract Signing Ceremony (Image by ASIPP, HFIPS)
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