共同把经济全球化动力搞大、阻力搞小

WTqPx-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 11:36:54

“神彩趋势软件下载”Inlikemanner,theperemptoryalternativebetweenconsummatewisdomandutterfollywassofteneddownbyadmittingthepossibilityofagradualprogressfromonetotheother,itselfsubdividedintoanumberofmoreorlessadvancedgrades,recallingAristotle’sideaofmotionasalinkbetweenPrivationandForm.60

InthisconnexionwemaydealwiththequestionwhetherthephilosophyofPlotinusisproperlydescribedasapantheisticsystem.PlotinuswascertainlynotapantheistinthesamesenseasSpinozaandHegel.Withhim,theOneandtheAllarenotidentical;althoughimpersonalandunconscious,hissupremeprincipleisnotimmanentintheuniverse,buttranscendsandcreatesit:thetotalityofthingsaredependentonit,butitisindependentofthem.EvenwerewetoassumethattheOneisonlyideallydistinctfromtheexistencewhichitcauses,stilltheNouswouldremainseparatefromtheworld-soul,thehigherSoulfromNature,and,withinthesphereofNatureherself,MatterwouldcontinuetobeperpetuallybreakingawayfromForm,free-willwouldbeleftinunreconciledhostilitytofate.Once,andonceonly,ifwerememberrightly,doesourphilosopherrisetothemodernconceptionoftheuniverseasanabsolutewholewhoseparts347arenotcausedbutconstitutedbytheirfundamentalunity,andarenotreallyseparatedfromoneanotherinNature,butonlyideallydistinguishedinourthoughts.Andheaddsthatwecannotkeepupthiseffortofabstractionforlongatatime;thingsescapefromus,andreturntotheiroriginalunity.517WithPlotinushimself,however,thecontrarywastrue:whathecouldnotkeepupwashisgrasponthesyntheticunityofthings.Andhehimselfsuppliesuswithareadyexplanationwhyitshouldbeso,whenhepointstothedividingtendencyofthoughtasopposedtotheunitingtendencyofNature.WhatheandtheotherHellenicthinkerswantedaboveall,wastomaketheworldcleartothemselvesandtotheirpupils,andthistheyaccomplishedbytheirmethodofserialclassification,bybringingintoplaywhatwehaveoftenspokenofasthemomentsofantithesis,mediation,andcircumscription,Stoicismalsohadjusttouchedthepantheisticidea,onlytoletitgoagain.Afterbeingnominallyidentifiedwiththeworld,theStoicGodwasrepresentedasadesigningintelligence,liketheSocraticGod—anideawhollyalienfromrealpantheism.

Thecriticaltendencyjustalludedtosuggestsonemorereasonwhyphilosophy,fromhavingbeenamethodofdiscovery,shouldatlastbecomeameremethodofdescriptionandarrangement.Thematerialsaccumulatedbynearlythreecenturiesofobservationandreasoningweresoenormousthattheybegantostifletheimaginativefaculty.Iftherewasanyopeningfororiginalityitlayinthetaskofcarryingorderintothischaosbyreducingittoafewgeneralheads,bymappingoutthewholefieldofknowledge,andsubjectingeachparticularbranchtothenew-foundprocessesofdefinition325andclassification.Andalongwiththeincapacityforframingnewtheoriestherearoseadesiretodiminishthenumberofthosealreadyexisting,toframe,ifpossible,asystemwhichshouldselectandcombinewhateverwasgoodinanyorallofthem.

Movingaboutinworldsnotrealised;

Yettherewasadifferencebetweenthem,markingoffeachastheheadofawholeSchoolmuchwiderthantheAcademyortheLyceum;adifferencewhichwecanbestexpressbysayingthatPlatowaspre-eminentlyapractical,Aristotlepre-eminentlyaspeculativegenius.Theobjectoftheonewastoreorganiseallhumanlife,thatoftheothertoreorganiseallhumanknowledge.Hadtheonelivedearlier,hewouldmoreprobablyhavebeenagreatstatesmanoragreatgeneralthanagreatwriter;theotherwouldatnotimehavebeenanythingbutaphilosopher,amathematician,orahistorian.Evenfrombirththeyseemedtoberespectivelymarkedoutforanactiveandforacontemplativelife:theone,acitizenoftheforemostStateinHellas,sprungfromafamilyinwhichpoliticalambitionwashereditary,himselfstrong,beautiful,fascinating,eloquent,andgiftedwiththekeenestinsightintomen’scapacitiesandmotives;theotheraStagiriteandanAsclepiad,thatistosay,withoutopportunitiesforapubliccareer,andpossessingahereditaryaptitudeforanatomyandnaturalhistory,fittedbyhisinsignificantpersonanddelicateconstitutionforsedentarypursuits,andbetterabletoacquireaknowledgeevenofhumannaturefrombooksthanfromalivingconversewithmenandaffairs.Ofcourse,wearenotforamomentdenyingtoPlatoafore294mostplaceamongthemastersofthosewhoknow;heembracedallthescienceofhisage,andtoagreatextentmarkedoutthecoursewhichthescienceoffutureageswastopursue;nevertheless,forhim,knowledgewasnotsomuchanendinitselfasameansfortheattainmentofotherends,amongwhichthepreservationoftheStateseemstohavebeen,inhiseyes,themostimportant.MAristotle,ontheotherhand,afterdeclaringhappinesstobethesupremeend,definesitasanenergisingofman’shighestnature,whichagainheidentifieswiththereasoningprocessorcognitioninitspurestform.Euripidesgivesusaninterestingexampleofthestyleinwhichthisethicalapplicationofphysicalsciencecouldbepractised.WehaveseenhowEteoclêsexpresseshisdeterminationtodoanddareallforthesakeofsovereignpower.Hismother,Jocastê,gentlyrebukeshimasfollows:—

Asomewhatsimilarveinofreflectionisworkedoutinthe209Cratylus,aDialoguepresentingsomeimportantpointsofcontactwiththeTheaetêtus,andprobablybelongingtothesameperiod.ThereisthesameconstantreferencetoHeracleitus,whosephilosophyisherealsotreatedasingreatmeasure,butnotentirely,true;andtheopposingsystemofParmenidesisagainmentioned,thoughmuchmorebriefly,asavaluableset-offagainstitsextravagances.TheCratylusdealsexclusivelywithlanguage,justastheTheaetêtushaddealtwithsensationandmentalimagery,butinsuchaplayfulandironicaltonethatitsspeculativeimportanceislikelytobeoverlooked.SomeoftheGreekphilosophersseemtohavethoughtthatthestudyofthingsmightadvantageouslybereplacedbythestudyofwords,whichweresupposedtohaveanaturalandnecessaryconnexionwiththeiracceptedmeanings.ThisviewwasparticularlyfavouredbytheHeracleiteans,whofound,orfanciedthattheyfound,aconfirmationoftheirmaster’steachinginetymology.Platoprofessestoadoptthetheoryinquestion,andsupportsitwithanumberofderivationswhichtousseemludicrouslyabsurd,butwhichmaypossiblyhavebeentranscribedfromthepagesofcontemporaryphilologists.Atlast,however,heturnsroundandshowsthatotherverbalarguments,equallygood,mightbeadducedonbehalfofParmenides.Butthemostvaluablepartofthediscussionisaprotestagainstthewholetheorythatthingscanbestudiedthroughtheirnames.Platojustlyobservesthatanimage,tobeperfect,shouldnotreproduceitsoriginal,butonlycertainaspectsofit;thattheframersoflanguagewerenotinfallible;andthatwearejustascompetenttodiscoverthenatureofthingsastheycouldbe.Onecanimaginethedelightwithwhichhewouldhavewelcomedthemoderndiscoverythatsensations,too,arealanguage;andthattheassociatedgroupsintowhichtheymostreadilygatheraredeterminedlessbythenecessaryconnexionsofthingsinthemselvesthanbytheexigenciesofself-preservationandreproductioninsentientbeings.WehavealreadyobservedthatScepticismamongtheancientswasoftencultivatedinconnexionwithsomepositivedoctrinewhichitindirectlyservedtorecommend.Inthecaseofitslastsupporters,thiswasthestudyofmedicineonanempiricalasopposedtoadeductivemethod.TheScepticalcontentionisthatwecannotgobeyondappearances;theempiricalcontentionis,thatallknowledgecomestousfromexperience,andthatthisonlyshowsushowphenomenaarerelatedtooneanother,nothowtheyarerelatedtotheirunderlyingcauses,whetherefficientorfinal.Thesealliedpointsofviewhavebeenbroughtintostillmoreintimateassociationbymodernthought,which,aswillbeshownintheconcludingchapter,hassprungfromamodifiedformoftheancientScepticism,powerfullyaidedbyasimultaneousdevelopmentofphysicalscience.Atthesametime,thenewschoolhavesucceededinshakingoffthenarrownessandtimidityoftheirpredecessors,whowerestillsofarundertheinfluenceoftheolddogmatistsastobelievethattherewasaninherentoppositionbetweenobservationandreasoninginthemethodsofdiscovery,betweenfactsandexplanationsinthetruthsofscience,andbetweenantecedenceandcausationintherealitiesofNature.Inthisrespect,astronomyhasdonemorefortherightadjustmentofourconceptionsthanany190otherbranchofknowledge;anditisremarkablethatSextusEmpiricus,thelasteminentrepresentativeofancientScepticism,andtheonlyone(unlessCiceroistobecalledaSceptic)whosewritingsarestillextant,shouldexpresslyexceptastronomyfromthedestructivecriticismtowhichhesubjectsthewholerangeofstudiesincludedinwhatweshouldcalltheuniversitycurriculumofhistime.301Weneednotenterintoananalysisoftheponderouscompilationreferredto;fornearlyeverypointofinterestwhichitcompriseshasalreadybeentouchedoninthecourseofourinvestigation;andSextusdiffersonlyfromhispredecessorsbyaddingtheargumentsoftheNewAcademytothoseofProtagorasandPyrrho,thuscompletingtheScepticalcycle.Itwillbeenoughtonoticethesingularcircumstancethatsocopiousandcarefulanenumerationofthegroundswhichitwaspossibletourgeagainstdogmatism—including,aswehaveseen,manystillemployedforthesameorotherpurposes,—shouldhaveomittedthetwomostpowerfulsolventsofany.ThesewereleftfortheexquisitecriticalacumenofHumetodiscover.Theyrelatetotheconceptionofcausation,andtotheconceptionofourownpersonalityasanindivisible,continuouslyexistingsubstance,beingattemptstoshowthatbothinvolveassumptionsofanillegitimatecharacter.SextuscomesuptotheveryvergeofHume’sobjectiontotheformerwhenheobservesthatcausationimpliesrelation,whichcanonlyexistinthought;302buthedoesnotaskhowwecometothinksucharelation,stilllessdoesheconnectitwiththeperceptionofphenomenalantecedence;andhisattacksonthevariousmentalfacultiesassumedbypsychologistspassoverthefundamentalpostulateofpersonalidentity,thusleavingDescarteswhatseemedasafefoundationwhereontorebuildtheedificeofmetaphysicalphilosophy.

Platoseemstohavefeltverystronglythatallvirtuousactiontendstowardsagoodexceedinginvalueanytemporarysacrificewhichitmayinvolve;andtheacceptedconnotationofethicaltermswententirelyalongwiththisbelief.Buthecouldnotseethataparticularactionmightbegoodforthecommunityatlargeandbadfortheindividualwhoperformedit,notinadifferentsensebutintheverysamesense,asinvolvingadiminutionofhishappiness.ForfromPlato’sabstractandgeneralisingpointofviewallgoodwashomogeneous,andthewelfareoftheindividualwasabsolutelyidentifiedwiththewelfareofthewholetowhichhebelonged.Asagainstthosewhomaderightdependentonmightanderectedself-indulgenceintothelawoflifePlatooccupiedanimpregnableposition.Heshowedthatsuchprinciplesmadesocietyimpossible,andthatwithouthonourevenagangofthievescannotholdtogether.140Healsosawthatitisreasonwhichbringseachindividualintorelationwiththewholeandenableshimtounderstandhisobligationstowardsit;butatthesametimehegavethis232reasonapersonalcharacterwhichdoesnotproperlybelongtoit;or,whatcomestothesamething,hetreatedhumanbeingsaspureentiarationis,thusunwittinglyremovingthenecessityforhavinganymoralityatall.Onhisassumptionitwouldbeabsurdtobreakthelaw;butneitherwouldtherebeanytemptationtobreakit,norwouldanyunpleasantconsequencesfollowonitsviolation.Platospeaksofinjusticeasaninjurytothesoul’shealth,andthereforeasthegreatestevilthatcanbefallahumanbeing,withoutobservingthattheinferenceinvolvesaconfusionofterms.Forhisargumentrequiresthatsoulshouldmeanboththewholeofconsciouslifeandthesystemofabstractnotionsthroughwhichwecommunicateandco-operatewithourfellow-creatures.Allcrimeisaseriousdisturbancetothelatter,foritcannotwithoutabsurditybemadethefoundationofageneralrule;but,apartfrompenalconsequences,itdoesnotimpair,andmaybenefittheformer.

Sofar,virtuewaswiththeGreekswhatitmustinevitablybewithallmenatfirst,chieflyself-regarding,arefinedformofprudence.Moreover,other-regardingvirtuesgavelessscopeforreflection,beingoriginallycomprehendedunderobediencetothelaw.Butthereweretwocircumstanceswhichcouldnotlongescapetheirnotice;first,thatfraudandviolenceareoften,atleastapparently,profitabletothosewhoperpetratethem,afactbitterlyremarkedbyHesiod;50andsecondly,thatsocietycannotholdtogetherwithoutjustice.ItwaslongbeforeGovernmentsgrewupwillingandabletoprotecttheirsubjectsfrommutualaggressions,nordoespositivelawcreatemorality,butimpliesit,andcouldnotbeworkedwithoutit.Norcouldinternationalobligationsbeenforcedbyasuperiortribunal;hencetheyhaveremaineddowntothepresentdayafertilethemeforethicaldiscussion.Itisatthispointthatmoralityformsajunctionwithreligion,thehistoryofwhichishighlyinteresting,butwhichcanherebe64onlybrieflytraced.TheOlympiandivinities,asplacedbeforeusbyHomer,areanythingbutmoral.Theirconducttowardseachotheristhatofadissolutenobility;towardsmenitisthatofunscrupulouspartisansandpatrons.Aloyaladherencetofriendsandgratitudeforsacrificialofferingsaretheirmostrespectablecharacteristics,raisingthemalreadyalittleabovethenature-powerswhencetheywerederived.Now,markhowtheyfirstbecomemoralised.Itisbybeingmadewitnessestoanoath.Anyonewhoiscalledintotestifytoapromisefeelsaggrievedifitisbroken,lookingonthebreachasaninsulttohisowndignity.AstheThirdCommandmentwellputsit,hisnamehasbeentakeninvain.Thusithappenedthatthesamegodswholefteveryothercrimeunpunished,visitedperjurywithsevereandspeedyretribution,continuedevenaftertheoffender’sdeath.51Respectforacontractistheprimaryformofmoralobligation,andstillseemstopossessapeculiarholdoveruneducatedminds.Weseeeverydayhowmanypersonswillabstainfromactionswhichtheyknowtobeimmoralbecausetheyhavegiventheirwordtothateffect,notbecausetheactionsthemselvesarewrong.Andforthatreasonlawcourtswouldbemorewillingtoenforcecontractsthantoredressinjuries.If,then,onepersoninflicteddamageonanother,hemightafterwards,inordertoescaperetaliationfromtheinjuredparty,orfromhisfamily,engagetogivesatisfaction,andthecourtwouldcompelhimtoredeemhispromise.52Thuscontract,byprocuringredressforeveryspeciesofwrong,wouldgraduallyextenditsownobligatorycharactertoabstinencefrominjuryingeneral,andthedivinesanctionsprimarilyinvokedonbehalfofoathswouldbeextended,withthem,overthewholedomainofmoralconduct.Norwasthistheonlyreasonwhythespiritualistslosttouchoftheirage.IfinsomerespectstheywerefarinadvanceofearlyGreekthought,inotherrespectstheywerefarbehindit.Theirsystemswerepervadedbyanunphilosophicaldualismwhichtendedtoundomuchthathadbeenachievedbytheirlessprejudicedpredecessors.Forthiswehavepartlytoblametheirenvironment.TheoppositionofGodandtheworld,heavenandearth,mindandmatter,necessityinNatureandfree-willinman,wasaconcession—thoughofcourseanunconsciousconcession—tothestupid3bigotryofAthens.YetatthesametimetheyhadfailedtosolvethosepsychologicalproblemswhichhadmostinterestforanAthenianpublic.InsteadoffollowinguptheattemptmadebytheSophistsandSocratestoplacemoralityonascientificfoundation,theybusiedthemselveswiththeconstructionofanewmachineryfordiminishingtheefficacyoftemptationorforstrengtheningtheefficacyoflaw.Tothequestion,Whatisthehighestgood?Platogaveananswerwhichnobodycouldunderstand,andAristotleananswerwhichwasalmostabsolutelyuselesstoanybodybuthimself.Theothergreatproblem,Whatistheultimatefoundationofknowledge?wasleftinanequallyunsatisfactorystate.Platoneveranswereditatall;Aristotlemerelypointedoutthenegativeconditionswhichmustbefulfilledbyitssolution.

Letallmylifebeguiltlesssaveinthis:

Possiblytheworldmaymove,andpossiblyitmaybeatrest.Possiblyitmayberound,orelseitmaybetriangular,orhaveanyothershape.Possiblythesunandthestarsmaybeextinguishedatsetting,andbelightedafreshattheirrising:itis,however,equallypossiblethattheymayonlydisappearundertheearthandreappearagain,orthattheirrisingandsettingisduetoyetothercauses.Possiblythewaxingandwaningofthemoonmaybecausedbythemoon’srevolving;oritmaybeduetotheatmosphericchange,ortoanactualincreaseordecreaseinthemoon’ssize,ortosomeothercause.Possiblythemoonmayshinewithborrowedlight,oritmayshinewithitsown,experiencesupplyinguswithinstancesofbodieswhichgivetheirownlight,andofotherswhichhavetheirlightborrowed.FromtheseandsuchlikestatementsitappearsthatquestionsofnaturalscienceinthemselveshavenovalueforEpicurus.Whilstgrantingthatonlyonenaturalexplanationofphenomenaisgenerallypossible,yetinanyparticularcaseitisperfectlyindifferentwhichexplanationisadopted.169

文章推荐:

网络人士革命传统教育和沙龙活动在延安举行

【郊区天气】郊区天气预报,一周、15天、30天郊区天气预报查询

【永定天气】永定天气预报,一周、15天、30天永定天气预报查询

“检察护航民企发展”活动在福建泉州举行

【郧阳天气】郧阳天气预报,一周、15天、30天郧阳天气预报查询

新疆保护各民族传统文化

【丰泽天气】丰泽天气预报,一周、15天、30天丰泽天气预报查询

网友评论

  • 雨花郡主MeplJ

    ButifAristotlehadnothismaster’senthusiasmforpracticalreforms,norhismaster’scommandofalltheforcesbywhichhumanityisraisedtoahigherlife,hehad,moreeventhanhismaster,theGreekpassionforknowledgeassuch,apartfromitsutilitarianapplications,andembracinginitsvastorbthelowliestthingswiththeloftiest,themostfragmentaryglimpsesandthelargestrevelationsoftruth.Hedemandednothingbutthematerialsforgeneralisation,andtherewasnothingfromwhichhecouldnotgeneralise.Therewasaplaceforeverythingwithinthelimitsofhisworld-widesystem.Neverinanyhumansouldidthe309theorisingpassionburnwithsoclearandbrightandpureaflame.Underitsinspirationhisstylemorethanoncebreaksintoastrainofsublime,thoughsimpleandruggedeloquence.Speakingofthateternalthoughtwhich,accordingtohim,constitutesthedivineessence,heexclaims:

     WehaveseenhowEpicuruserectedthesensesintoultimatearbitersoftruth.Bysodoing,however,heonlypushedtheolddifficultyastepfurtherback.Grantingthatourperceptionsfaithfullycorrespondtocertainexternalimages,howcanwebesurethattheseimagesarethemselvescopiesofasolidandpermanentreality?Andhowarewetodeterminethevalidityofgeneralnotionsrepresentingnotsomesingleobjectbutentireclassesofobjects?Thesecondquestionmaybemostconvenientlyansweredfirst.Epicurusholdsthatperceptionisonlyafinersortofsensation.Generalnotionsarematerialimagesofaverydelicatetextureformed,apparently,ontheprincipleofcomposition-photographsbythecoalescenceofmanyindividualimagesthrownofffromobjectspossessingagreaterorlessdegreeofresemblancetooneanother.186Thoughtisproducedbythecontactofsuchimageswiththesoul,itself,itwillberemembered,amaterialsubstance.

  • 雪灵芝wZfgM

    Thatwhentheshipsinkswenolongermaybe!

  • 如萱紫儿KNgWU

  • 但法国iR6bs

     ItmustnotbesupposedthattheinfluxofAsiaticreligionsintoEuropewasattendedbyanylossoffaithintheoldgodsofGreeceandItaly,orbyanyneglectoftheirworship.TheresearchesofFriedl?nderhaveprovedtheabsoluteerroneousnessofsuchanidea,widelyentertainedasithasbeen.InnumerablemonumentsareinexistencetestifyingtothecontinuedauthorityoftheOlympiandivinities,andparticularlyofJupiter,overthewholeextentoftheRomanempire.Ampleendowmentswerestilldevotedtothemaintenanceoftheirservice;theirtemplesstillsmokedwithsacrifices;theirlitanieswerestillrepeatedasadutywhichitwouldhavebeenscandaloustoneglect;inallhoursofpublicandprivatedangertheirhelpwasstillimplored,andacknowledgedbythededicationofvotiveofferingswhenthedangerwasovercome;itwasstillbelieved,asinthedaysofHomer,thattheyoccasionallymanifestedthemselvesonearth,signalisingtheirpresencebyworksofsuperhumanpower.339Norwasthereanythinganomalousinthispeaceableco-existenceoftheoldwiththenewfaiths.SofarbackaswecantracetherecordsbothofGreekandRomanpolytheism,theyareremarkablefortheirreceptiveandassimilativecapacity.ApolloandArtemiswereimportedintoGreecefromLycia,HeraclesandAphroditefromPhoenicia,DionysusandAresprobablyfrom220Thrace.RomanreligionunderitsoldestformincludedbothaLatinorSabineandanEtruscanelement;atasubsequentperioditbecameHellenisedwithoutlosinganythingofitsgraveanddecorouscharacter.InGreece,theelasticsystemofdivinerelationshipswasstretchedalittlefurthersoastomakeroomforthenewcomers.Thesamesystem,whenintroducedintoRomanmythology,servedtoconnectandenlivenwhatpreviouslyhadbeensomanyrigidandisolatedabstractions.Withboth,thesupremereligiousconceptioncontinuedtobewhatithadbeenwiththeirAryanancestors,thatofaheavenlyFatherJove;andthefashionabledeitiesoftheempirewerereceivedintothepantheonofHomerandHesiodasrecoveredoradoptedchildrenofthesameOlympiansire.ThedangertoHellenisticpolytheismwasnotfromanotherformofthesametype,butfromafaithwhichshouldrefusetoamalgamatewithitonanyterms;andintheenvironmentcreatedbyRomanimperialismwithitsunifyingandcosmopolitancharacter,suchafaith,ifitexistedanywhere,couldnotfailinthelong-runtosupersedeandextinguishitsmoretolerantrivals.Buttheimmediateeffectproducedbygivingfreeplaytomen’sreligiousinstinctswasnottheconcentrationoftheirbeliefonasingleobject,oronnewtotheexclusionofoldobjects,butanextraordinaryabundanceandcomplexityofsupernaturalismunderallitsforms.Thisgeneraltendency,again,admitsofbeingdecomposedintotwodistinctcurrents,accordingasitwasdeterminedbytheintroductionofaliensuperstitionsfromwithout,orbythedevelopmentofnativeandpopularsuperstitionfromwithin.But,ineachcase,theretrogressivemovementresultedfromthesamepoliticalrevolution.Atoncecriticalandconservative,thecity-aristocraciespreventedtheperennialgermsofreligiouslifefrommultiplyingtoanyseriousextentwithinthelimitsoftheirjurisdiction,nolessvigilantlythantheyprohibitedtheimportationofitscompletedproductsfromabroad.Wehavenowtostudythe221behaviourofthesegermswhentherestrainttowhichtheyhadformerlybeensubjectedwaslightenedorwithdrawn.

  • 大笨蛋lsMIo

    v

  • 扒皮成WzXZX

     BeforeascertaininginwhatdirectionPlatosoughtforanoutletfromtheseaccumulateddifficulties,wehavetoglanceataDialoguebelongingapparentlytohisearliestcompositions,butinonerespectoccupyingapositionapartfromtherest.TheCritotellsusforwhatreasonsSocratesrefusedtoescapefromthefatewhichawaitedhiminprison,as,withtheassistanceofgenerousfriends,hemighteasilyhavedone.TheagedphilosopherconsideredthatbyadoptingsuchacoursehewouldbesettingtheAthenianlawsatdefiance,anddoingwhatinhimlaytodestroytheirvalidity.Now,weknowthatthehistoricalSocratesheldjusticetoconsistinobediencetothelawoftheland;andhereforoncewefindPlatoagreeingwithhimonadefiniteandpositiveissue.Suchasuddenandsingularabandonmentofthescepticalattitudemeritsourattention.Itmight,indeed,besaidthatPlato’sinconsistenciesdefyallattemptsatreconciliation,andthatinthisinstancethedesiretosethismalignedfriendinafavourablelighttriumphedovertheclaimsofanimpracticablelogic.Wethink,however,thatadeeperandtruersolutioncanbefound.IftheCritoinculcatesobediencetothelawsasabindingobligation,itisnotforthereasonswhich,accordingtoXenophon,wereadducedbytherealSocratesinhisdisputewiththeSophistHippias;generalutilityandprivateinterestwerethesolegroundsappealedtothen.Plato,on185theotherhand,ignoresallsuchexternalconsiderations.Truetohisusualmethod,hereducesthelegalconsciencetoapurelydialecticalprocess.Justasinanargumentthedisputantsare,oroughttobe,boundbytheirownadmissions,soalsothecitizenisboundbyatacitcompacttofulfilthelawswhoseprotectionhehasenjoyedandofwhoseclaimshisprotractedresidenceisanacknowledgment.Herethereisnoneedofatranscendentfoundationformorality,asnonebutlogicalconsiderationscomeintoplay.Anditalsodeservestobenoticedthat,wherethisveryideaofanobligationbasedonacceptanceofserviceshadbeenemployedbySocrates,itwasdiscardedbyPlato.IntheEuthyphro,aDialoguedevotedtothediscussionofpiety,thetheorythatreligionrestsonanexchangeofgoodofficesbetweengodsandmenismentionedonlytobescornfullyrejected.Equallyremarkable,andequallyinadvanceoftheSocraticstandpoint,isaprincipleenunciatedintheCrito,thatretaliationiswrong,andthatevilshouldneverbereturnedforevil.120AndbotharedistinctanticipationsoftheearliestChristianteaching,thoughbothareimplicitlycontradictedbytheso-calledreligiousservicescelebratedinChristianchurchesandbythedoctrineofadivineretributionwhichisonlynotretaliatorybecauseitisinfinitelyinexcessoftheprovocationreceived.

  • 草莓果UUJAq

    Aftertherevolutionwhichdestroyedthepoliticalpoweroftheoldaristocracy,therecameafurtherrevolutiontheeffectofwhichwastodiminishlargelyitssocialpredominance.WelearnfromthebittersarcasmsofHoraceandJuvenalthatundertheempirewealthtooktheplaceofbirth,ifnot,asthosesatiristspretend,ofmerit,asapassporttodistinctionandrespect.Merelytopossessacertainamountofmoneyprocuredadmissiontotheequestrianandsenatorialorders;whileasmallerpecuniaryqualificationentitledanyRomancitizentorankamongtheHonestioresasopposedtotheHumiliores,thelatteronlybeingliable,iffoundguiltyofcertainoffences,tothemoreatrociousformsofcapitalpunishment,suchasdeathbythewildbeastsorbyfire.314Evenareputationforlearningwassupposedtobeamarketablecommodity;andwhensupremepowerwasheldbyaphiloso207pher,thevulgarrichcouldstillhopetoattracthisfavourablenoticebyfillingtheirhouseswithbooks.315WealsoknowfromJuvenal,whatindeedtheanalogyofmoderntimeswouldreadilysuggest,thatlargefortuneswereoftenrapidlymade,andmadebythecultivationofverysordidarts.Thusmembersofthemostignorantandsuperstitiousclasseswereconstantlyrisingtopositionswheretheycouldsetthetoneofpublicopinion,oratleasthelptodetermineitsdirection.

     

  • 绿卡纸3G644

     233

标签列表