北京高速公路出口ETC车道可显示本次行程全部通行费用

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“pk10二 合 一 投 注 法”V.

WiththeEpicureantheoryofJustice,thedistortion,alreadysufficientlyobvious,iscarriedstillfurther;althoughwemustfranklyadmitthatitincludessomeaper?usstrikinglyinadvanceofallthathadhithertobeenwrittenonthesubject.Justice,accordingtoourphilosopher,isneitheraninternalbalanceofthesoul’sfaculties,noraruleimposedbythewill70ofthestronger,butamutualagreementtoabstainfromaggressions,varyingfromtimetotimewiththevaryinginterestsofsociety,andalwaysdeterminedbyconsiderationsofgeneralutility.141Thisisexcellent:wemiss,indeed,theStoicideaofacommonhumanity,embracing,underlying,andtranscendingallparticularcontracts;butwehave,inexchange,theideaofageneralinterestequivalenttothesumofprivateinterests,togetherwiththemeansnecessaryfortheirjointpreservation;andwehavealsotheformunderwhichthenotionofjusticeoriginates,thoughnotthemeasureofitsultimateexpansion,whichisregardforthegeneralinterest,evenwhenwearenotboundbyanycontracttoobserveit.Butwhenwegoontoaskwhycontractsshouldbeadheredto,Epicurushasnoreasontoofferbeyonddreadofpunishment.Hiswords,astranslatedbyMr.Wallace,are:— ‘Injusticeisnotinitselfabadthing,butonlyinthefeararisingfromanxietyonthepartofthewrong-doerthathewillnotalwaysescapepunishment.’142ThiswasevidentlymeantforadirectcontradictionofPlato’sassertion,that,apartfromitspenalconsequences,injusticeisadiseaseofthesoul,involvingmoremischieftotheperpetratorthantothevictim.Mr.Wallace,however,takesadifferentviewofhisauthor’smeaning.Accordingtohim,

norgodhashigherglory

And,infact,itwasbyaclosestudyofthatwriter’svoluminoustreatisesthathewasabletocovertheimmenseextentofgroundwhichScepticismthenceforwarddisputedwiththedogmaticschools.NorwerehisattacksdirectedagainstStoicismonly,butagainstallotherpositivesystemspastandpresentaswell.WhathesaysaboutthesupposedfoundationofknowledgeisevennowanunanswerableobjectiontothetranscendentalrealismofMrHerbertSpencer.Statesofconsciousnessspeakforthemselvesalone,theydonotincludetheconsciousnessofanexternalcause.234Butthegroundsonwhichherestshisnegationofallcertaintyarestillsuperficialenough,beingmerelythosesensibleillusionswhichthemodernscienceofobservationhasbeenableeithertoeliminatealtogetherortorestrictwithinnarrowanddefinablelimits.Thatphenomena,sofarfrombeingnecessarilyreferredtoacausewhichisnotphenomenal,cannotbethoughtofatallexceptinrelationtooneanother,andthatknowledgemeansnothingmorethanaconsciousnessofthisrelation,washardlyperceivedbeforethetimeofHume.

ThemonotheismoftheJehovistreligionwouldseemtohavemarkeditoutasthenaturalfaithofauniversalempire.Yet,strangetosay,itwasnotbythiselementofJudaismthatproselytesweremostattracted.Ourauthoritiesareunanimousinspeakingofthesabbath-observanceasthemostdistinguishingtraitoftheJewsthemselves,andthepointinwhichtheyweremostscrupulouslyimitatedbytheiradherents;whilethedutyofcontributingtothemaintenanceofthetempleapparentlystoodnextinpopularestimation.Butifthisbetrue,itfollowsthattheliberationofthespiritualisticelementinJudaismfromitsceremonialhuskwasalessessentialconditiontothesuccessofChristianitythansomehavesupposed.WhattheworldobjectedtoinJudaismwasnotitsconcrete,historical,practicalside,butitsexclusiveness,andthehatredforothernationswhichitwassupposedtobreed.WhatthenewconvertswishedwastotaketheplaceoftheJews,tosupersedetheminthedivinefavour,nottoimproveontheirlaw.Itwasuselesstotellthemthattheywereundernoobligationtoobservethesabbath,whentheinstitu219tionofadayofrestwaspreciselywhatmostfascinatedtheminthehistoryofGod’srelationswithhischosenpeople.AnditwasequallyuselesstotellthemthatthehourhadcomewhentheFathershouldnotbeworshippedanymoreatJerusalembuteverywhereinspiritandintruth,whenJerusalemhadbecomeirrevocablyassociatedintheirmindswiththeestablishmentofadivinekingdomonthisearth.Thus,whilethereligionoftheMiddleAgesreacheditsintensestexpressioninarmedpilgrimagestoPalestine,thereligionofmodernPuritanismhasembodieditselfbypreferenceintheobservanceofwhatitstilldelightstocallthesabbath.

73

Notwithstandingthesterilitycommonlyassociatedwithmerenegation,itwasthiswhich,ofallthelaterGreekschools,possessedthegreatestpowersofgrowth.Besidespassingthroughmorethanonestageofdevelopmentonitsownaccount,ScepticismimposedseriousmodificationsonStoicism,gavebirthtoEclecticism,andcontributedtotheestablishmentofNeo-Platonism.Theexplanationisnotfartoseek.Themorehighlyorganisedasystemis,themoreresistancedoesitoffertochange,themoredoesitstransmissiontendtoassumearigidlyscholasticform.TosuchdogmatismtheScepticswere,onprinciple,opposed;andbykeepingtheproblemsofphilosophyopen,theyfacilitatedthetaskofallwhohadanewsolutiontooffer;whilemindanditsactivitiesbeing,tosomeextent,safefromtheuniversaldoubt,thescepticalprinciplespontaneouslythrewbackthoughtonasubjectiveinsteadofanobjectivesynthesisofknowledge—inotherwords,onthatpsychologicalidealismthepregnancyandcomprehensivenessofwhichareeverydaybecomingmoreclearlyrecognised.Andweshallnowseehowthesamefertilisingpowerofcriticismhasbeenmanifestedinmoderntimesaswell.

Yetanotherstepremainedtotake.Punishmentmustbetransferredfromaman’sinnocentchildrentothemanhimselfinafuturelife.ButtheOlympiantheologywas,originallyatleast,powerlesstoeffectthisrevolution.Itsgods,beingpersonificationsofcelestialphenomena,hadnothingtodowiththedarkunderworldwhithermendescendedafterdeath.Thereexisted,however,sidebysidewiththebrilliantreligionofcourtsandcampswhichGreekpoetryhasmadesofamiliartous,anotherreligionmorepopularwithsimplecountry-folk,53towhomwarmeantruin,courtsofjusticeameansinventedbykingsforexactingbribes,sea-voyagesasenselessimprudence,chariot-racingasinfulwasteofmoney,andbeautifulwomendronesinthehumanhive,demonsofextravaganceinventedbyZeusforthepurposeofventinghisspiteagainstmankind.Whatinterestcouldthesepoorpeopletakeintheresplendentguardiansoftheirhereditaryoppressors,inHêrêandAthênê,ApolloandPoseid?n,ArtemisandAphroditê?Buttheyhadothergodspeculiartothemselves,whoseworshipwaswrappedinmystery,partlythatitsobjectsneednotbeluredawaybytheattractionofricherofferingselsewhere,partlybecausetheactivityoftheseChthoniandeities,astheywerecalled,wasnaturallyassociatedwithdarknessandsecresy.Presidingoverbirthanddeath,overseed-timeandharvestandvintage,theypersonifiedthefrost-boundsleepofvegetationinwinteranditsreturnfromadarkunderworldinspring.OutoftheirworshipgrewstorieswhichtoldhowPersephonê,thefairdaughterofDêmêtêr,orMotherEarth,wascarriedawaybyPlutotoreignwithhimovertheshadesbelow,butafterlongsearchingwasrestoredtohermotherforeightmonthsineveryyear;andhowDionysus,thewine-god,wastwiceborn,firstfrom67theearthburnedupandfaintingundertheintolerablefireofasummersky,respectivelypersonifiedasSemelêandherloverZeus,thenfromtheprotectingmistwrappedroundhimbyhisdivinefather,ofwhomitformedapart.Dionysus,too,wassubjecttoalternationsofdepressionandtriumph,fromtherecitalofwhichAtticdramawasdeveloped,andgainedafootingintheinfernalregions,whitherweaccompanyhimintheFrogsofAristophanes.AnothercountrygodwasHermês,whoseemstohavebeenassociatedwithplantingandpossessionaswellaswiththedemarcationandexchangeofproperty,andwhowasalsoaconductorofsoulstoHades.Finally,thereweretheErinyes,childrenofnightanddwellersinsubterraneandarkness;theycouldbreedpestilenceanddiscord,butcouldalsoavertthem;theycouldblasttheproduceofthesoilorincreaseitsluxurianceandfertility;whenbloodwasspiltontheground,theymadeitblossomupagaininaharvestofretributivehatred;theypursuedtheguiltyduringlife,anddidnotrelaxtheirgraspafterdeath;alllaw,whetherphysicalormoral,wasundertheirprotection;thesameErinyeswho,intheOdyssey,avengeonOedipusthesuicideofhismother,intheIliadwillnotallowthemiraculousspeakingofahorsetocontinue;andwehaveseeninthelastchapterhow,accordingtoHeracleitus,itistheywhoalsopreventthesunfromtransgressinghisappointedlimits.54DêmêtêrandPersephonê,too,seemtohavebeenlaw-givinggoddesses,astheirgreatfestival,celebratedbywomenalone,wascalledtheThesmophoria,whileeternalhappinesswaspromisedtothosewhohadbeeninitiatedintotheirmysteriesatEleusis;andwealsofindthatmoralmaximsweregravenonthemarblebustsofHermêsplacedalongeverythoroughfareinAthens.WecanthusunderstandwhythemutilationoftheseHermaecausedsuch68rageandterror,accompanied,asitwasrumouredtobe,byaprofanationoftheEleusinianmysteries;foranyattackonthedeitiesinquestionwouldseemtoprefigureanattackonthesettledorderofthings,thepopularrightswhichtheybothsymbolisedandprotected.

399

Allvirtue,withPlotinus,restsonthesuperiorityofthesoultothebody.Sofar,hefollowsthecommondoctrineofPlatoandAristotle.Butinworkingoutthedistinction,heisinfluencedbytheindividualisingandtheoreticphilosophyofthelatterratherthanbythesocialandpracticalphilosophyoftheformer.Or,again,wemaysaythatwithhimtheintellectualismofAristotleisheightenedandwarmedbythereligiousaspirationsofPlato,strengthenedandpurifiedbytheStoicpassionlessness,theStoicindependenceofexternalgoods.Inhisethicalsystem,thevirtuesarearrangedinanascendingscale.EachgradereproducestheoldquadripartitedivisionintoWisdom,Courage,TemperanceandJustice,butineachtheirrespectivesignificancereceivesanewinterpretation.Ascivicvirtues,theycontinuetobearthemeaningassignedtotheminPlato’sRepublic.Wisdombelongstoreason,Couragetopassionatespirit,Temperancetodesire,whileJusticeimpliesthefulfilmentofitsappropriatefunctionbyeach.493Butallthisonlyamountstotherestrictionofwhatwouldotherwisebeunregulatedimpulse,theimpositionofFormonMatter,thesupremacyofthesouloverthebody;whereaswhatwewantistogetridofmatteraltogether.Herealso,Platosetsusontherighttrackwhenhecallsthevirtuespurifications.Fromthispointofview,forthesoultoenergisealonewithoutanyinterference,isWisdom;nottobemovedbythepassionsofthebodyisTemperance;nottodreadseparationfromthebodyisCourage;andtoobeytheguidanceofreasonisJustice.494SuchadispositionofthesouliswhatPlatomeansbyflyingfromtheworldandbecominglikeGod.Isthisenough?No,itisnot.Wehave,sofar,beendealingonlywiththenegativeconditionsofgood,notwithgooditself.Theessentialthingisnotpurification,butwhatremainsbehindwhentheworkofpurificationis332accomplished.Sowecometothethirdandhighestgradeofvirtue,thetrulydivinelife,whichisacompleteconversiontoreason.Ourphilosopherendeavourstofitthisalsointotheframeworkofthecardinalvirtues,butnotwithoutimposingaseriousstrainontheordinarymeaningofwords.OfWisdomnothingneedbesaid,foritisthesameasrationality.Justiceistheself-possessionofmind,Temperancetheinwarddirectiontowardsreason,Couragetheimpassivityarisingfromresemblancetothatwhichisbynatureimpassive.495

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  • 雨花郡主bUqPg

    Withregardtoethics,thereis,ofcourse,agreatdifferencebetweentheinnovating,creativegeniusoftheGreekandthereceptivebuttimidintelligenceoftheRoman.Yettheuncertaintywhich,intheonecase,wasduetotheabsenceofanyfixedsystem,isequallypresentintheother,owingtotheembarrassmentofhavingsomanysystemsamongwhichtochoose.ThreeethicalmotiveswereconstantlypresenttothethoughtsofSocrates:theutilityofvirtue,fromamaterialpointofview,totheindividual;itssocialnecessity;anditsconnexionwiththedualconstitutionofmanasabeingcomposedoftwoelementswhereoftheoneisinfinitelysuperiortotheother;butheneverwasable,orneverattemptedtoco-ordinatethemunderasingleprinciple.Hissuccessorstriedtodiscoversuchaprincipleintheideaofnaturallaw,butcouldneitherestablishnorapplyitinasatisfactorymanner.CiceroreproducestheSocraticelements,sometimesintheiroriginaldispersionandconfusion,sometimeswiththeadditionalcomplicationandperplexityintroducedbytheideathroughwhichithadbeenhopedtosystematiseandreconcilethem.Tohim,indeed,thatideawasevenmoreimportantthantotheGreekmoralists;forhelookedonNatureasthecommongroundwherephilosophyanduntrainedexperiencemightmeetformutualconfirmationandsupport.274Wehaveseenhowheadoptedthetheory—asyetnotveryclearlyformulated—ofamoralsense,orgeneralfacultyofintuition,fromPhilo.Tostudyandobeythedictatesofthisfaculty,asdistinguishedfromthedepravinginfluenceofcustom,washismethodofarrivingattruthandright.Butif,whenproperlyconsulted,italwaysgavethesameresponse,asimilarunanimitymightbeexpectedinthedoctrinesofthevariousphilosophicalschools;andtheadhesionofAcademicians,Peripatetics,andStoicstotheprecept,FollowNature,seemedtodemonstratethatsuchanagreementactuallyexisted.HenceCicerooverandoveragainlabourstoprove173thattheirdisputesweremerelyverbal,andthatStoicisminparticularhadborroweditsethicswholesalefromhisownfavouritesect.Yetfromtimetotimetheirdiscrepancieswouldforcethemselvesonhisnotice;andbynonehavethedifferencesseparatingStoicismfromitsrivalsbeenstatedwithmoreclearness,concision,andpoint.275Theserelatetotheabsoluteself-sufficingnessofvirtue,itsunity,andtheincompatibilityofemotionwithitsexercise.ButCiceroseemstohaveregardedthetheoryofpreferenceandrejectionasaconcessiontocommonsenseamountingtoasurrenderofwhateverwasparodoxicalandexclusiveintheStoicstandpoint.276Andwithrespecttothequestionroundwhichcontroversyragedmostfiercely,namely,whethervirtuewasthesoleormerelythechiefconditionofhappiness,Cicero,asamanoftheworld,consideredthatitwaspracticallyofnoconsequencewhichsideprevailed.277Itwouldbeunfairtoblamehimfornotseeing,whatthestricterschoolfeltratherthansaw,thatthehappinessassociatedwithgoodnesswasnotofanindividualbutofasocialcharacter,andthereforecouldnotproperlybecomparedwithobjectsofpurelyindividualdesire,suchashealth,wealth,friends,andworldlyfame.

     III.

  • 雪灵芝nKPox

  • 如萱紫儿iNzwe

  • 但法国OtDqW

    Again,Platoisfalsetohisownrulewhenheselectshisphilosophicgovernorsoutofthemilitarycaste.Ifthesameindividualcanbeawarriorinhisyouthandanadministrator255inhisriperyears,onemancandotwothingswell,thoughnotatthesametime.Ifthesamepersoncanbebornwiththequalificationsbothofasoldierandofapolitician,andcanbefittedbyeducationforeachcallinginsuccession,surelyamuchgreaternumbercancombinethefunctionsofamanuallabourerwiththoseofanelector.WhatpreventedPlatofromperceivingthisobviousparallelwasthetraditionofthepaterfamiliaswhohadalwaysbeenawarriorinhisyouth;andacommendableanxietytokeepthearmycloselyconnectedwiththecivilpower.Theanalogiesofdomesticlifehavealsoagreatdealtodowithhisproposedcommunityofwomenandchildren.Insteadofundervaluingthefamilyaffections,heimmenselyovervaluedthem;asisshownbyhissuppositionthatthebondsofconsanguinitywouldpreventdissensionsfromarisingamonghiswarriors.Heshouldhaveknownthatmanyahomeisthesceneofconstantwrangling,andthatquarrelsbetweenkinsfolkarethebitterestofany.Then,lookingontheStateasagreatschool,Platoimaginedthattheobedience,docility,andcredulityofyoungscholarscouldbekeptupthroughalifetime;thatfull-growncitizenswouldswallowtheabsurdestinventions;andthatmiddle-agedofficerscouldbesentintoretirementforseveralyearstostudydialectic.Tosupposethatstatesmenmustnecessarilybeformedbythedisciplineinquestionisanotherscholastictrait.Theprofessionalteacherattributesfarmorepracticalimportancetohisabstruserlessonsthantheyreallypossess.Heisnotcontenttowaitfortheindirectinfluencewhichtheymayexertatsomeremoteperiodandincombinationwithforcesofperhapsawidelydifferentcharacter.Helooksforimmediateandtellingresults.Heimaginesthatthehighesttruthmusthaveamysteriouspoweroftransformingallthingsintoitsownlikeness,oratleastofmakingitslearnersmorecapablethanothermenofdoingtheworld’swork.HerealsoPlato,insteadofbeingtoological,wasnotlogical256enough.Byfollowingoutthelawsofeconomy,asappliedtomentallabour,hemighthavearrivedattheseparationofthespiritualandtemporalpowers,andthusanticipatedthebestestablishedsocialdoctrineofourtime.

     

  • 大笨蛋6Mc8e

    v

  • 扒皮成CCRmr

    IfPlotinusroseabovethevulgarsuperstitionsoftheWest,while,atthesametime,usingtheirlanguagefortheeasierexpressionofhisphilosophicalideas,therewasonemorerefinedsuperstitionofmixedGreekandOrientaloriginwhichhedenouncedwiththemostuncompromisingvigour.ThiswasGnosticism,astaughtbyValentinusandhisschool.Towardsthecloseofourlastchapter,wegavesomeaccountofthetheoryinquestion.ItwasprincipallyasenemiesoftheworldandmalignersofitsperfectionthattheGnosticsmadethemselvesoffensivetothefounderofNeo-Platonism.Tohim,theantithesisofgoodandevilwasrepresented,notbytheoppositionofspiritandNature,butbytheoppositionbetweenhisidealprinciplethroughalldegreesofitsperfection,andunformedMatter.LikePlato,helookedonthe348existingworldasaconsummateworkofart,anembodimentofthearchetypalIdeas,avisiblepresentationofreason.ButinthecourseofhisattackontheGnostics,518otherpointsofgreatinterestareraised,showinghowprofoundlyhisphilosophydifferedfromtheirs,howentirelyhetakeshisstandonthefixedprinciplesofHellenicthought.ThusheparticularlyreproacheshisopponentsfortheirsystematicdisparagementofPlato,towhom,afterall,theyowewhateveristrueandvaluableintheirmetaphysics.519Heridiculestheirbeliefindemoniacalpossession,withitswhollygratuitousandclumsyemploymentofsupernaturalagenciestoaccountforwhatcanbesufficientlyexplainedbytheoperationofnaturalcauses.520And,morethananythingelse,heseverelycensurestheirdetachmentofreligionfrommorality.Onthislastpoint,someofhisremarksaresostrikingandpertinentthattheydeservetobequoted.

     AfteritstemporaryadoptionbytheAcademy,Pythagoreanismhadceasedtoexistasanindependentsystem,butcontinuedtoleadasortofundergroundlifeinconnexionwiththeOrphicandDionysiacmysteries.Whenorwhereitreappearedunderaphilosophicalformcannotbecertainlydetermined.ZellerfixesonthebeginningofthefirstcenturyB.C.asthemostprobabledate,andonAlexandriaasthemostprobablesceneofitsrenewedspeculativeactivity.385Somefiftyyearslater,wefindPythagoreanteachersinRome,andtracesoftheirinfluenceareplainlydiscernibleintheAugustanliterature.Underitsearliestform,thenewsystemwasanattempttocombinemathematicalmysticismwithprinciplesborrowedfromtheStoicandotherphilosophies;orperhapsitwassimplyareturntothepoeticalsyncretismofEmpedocles.Althoughcomposedoffireandair,thesoulisdeclaredtobeimmortal;andlessonsofholinessareaccompaniedbyanelaboratecodeofrulesforceremonialpurification.TheelderSextius,fromwhomSenecaderivedmuchofhisethicalenthusiasm,probablybelongedtothisschool.HetaughtamoralityapparentlyidenticalwiththatofStoicismineverypointexcepttheinculcationofabstinencefromanimalfood.386Tothismightbeaddedthepracticeofnightlyself-confession—anexaminationfromthemoralpointofviewofhowone’swholedayhasbeenspent,—werewecertainthattheStoicsdidnotoriginateitforthemselves.387

  • 草莓果zTxE8

    TherulesforbreedingandeducationsetforthintheRepublicarenotintendedforthewholecommunity,butonly244fortherulingminority.ItwasbythecorruptionofthehigherclassesthatPlatowasmostdistressed,andthesalvationoftheStatedepended,accordingtohim,ontheirreformation.Thisleadsusontohisschemeforthereconstitutionofsociety.Itisintimatelyconnectedwithhismethodoflogicaldefinitionandclassification.Heshowswithgreatforcethatthecollectiveactionofhumanbeingsisconditionedbythedivisionoflabour;andarguesfromthisthateveryindividualought,intheinterestofthewhole,toberestrictedtoasingleoccupation.Therefore,theindustrialclasses,whoformthebulkofthepopulation,aretobeexcludedbothfrommilitaryserviceandfrompoliticalpower.ThePeloponnesianWarhadledtoageneralsubstitutionofprofessionalsoldiersfortheoldleviesofuntrainedcitizensinGreekwarfare.Platowasdeeplyimpressedbythedangers,aswellasbytheadvantages,ofthisrevolution.Thateachprofessionshouldbeexercisedonlybypersonstrainedforit,suitedhisnotionsalikeasalogician,ateacher,andapracticalreformer.Buthesawthatmercenaryfightersmightusetheirpowertooppressandplunderthedefencelesscitizens,ortoestablishamilitarydespotism.And,holdingthatgovernmentshould,likestrategy,beexercisedonlybyfunctionariesnaturallyfittedandexpresslytrainedforthework,hesawequallythataprivilegedclasswouldbetemptedtoabusetheirpositioninordertofilltheirpocketsandtogratifytheirpassions.Heproposedtoprovideagainstthesedangers,firstbythenewsystemofeducationalreadydescribed,andsecondlybypushingthedivisionoflabourtoitslogicalconclusion.Thattheymightthebetterattendtotheirspecificduties,thedefendersandtherulersoftheStatewerenottopractisetheartofmoney-making;inotherwords,theywerenottopossessanypropertyoftheirown,butweretobesupportedbythelabouroftheindustrialclasses.Furthermore,thattheyneednotquarrelamongthemselves,heproposedthateveryprivateinterestshouldbeeliminated245fromtheirlives,andthattheyshould,asaclass,beunitedbytheclosestbondsoffamilyaffection.Thispurposewastobeeffectedbytheabolitionofmarriageandofdomesticity.Thecoupleschosenforbreedingweretobeseparatedwhentheobjectoftheirunionhadbeenattained;childrenweretobetakenfromtheirmothersimmediatelyafterbirthandbroughtupattheexpenseandunderthesupervisionoftheState.Sicklyanddeformedinfantsweretobedestroyed.Thosewhofellshortofthearistocraticstandardweretobedegraded,andtheirplacesfilledupbytheexceptionallygiftedoffspringoflow-classparents.Membersofthemilitaryandgoverningcasteweretoaddresseachotheraccordingtothekinshipwhichmightpossiblyexistbetweenthem.Intheabsenceofhome-employments,womenweretobe,sofaraspossible,assimilatedtomen;topassthroughthesamebodilyandmentaltraining;tobeenrolledinthearmy;and,iftheyshowedthenecessarycapacity,todischargethehighestpoliticalfunctions.Inthispracticaldialectictheidentifyingnolessthanthedifferentiatingpoweroflogicisdisplayed,anddisplayedalsoindefianceofcommonideas,asinthemodernclassificationsofzoologyandbotany.Platointroducesdistinctionswheretheydidnotbeforeexist,andannulsthosewhichwerealreadyrecognised.Thesexesweretobeassimilated,politicallifewastobeidentifiedwithfamilylife,andthewholecommunitywastopresentanexactparallelwiththeindividualsoul.Therulingcommitteecorrespondedtoreason,thearmytopassionatespirit,andtheindustrialclassestotheanimaldesires;andeach,initsperfectconstitution,representedoneofthecardinalvirtuesasreinterpretedbyPlato.Wisdombelongedtotherulingpart,couragetotheintermediateexecutivepower,andtemperanceorobediencetotheorgansofmaterialexistence;whilejusticemeantthegeneralharmonyresultingfromthefulfilmentoftheirappropriatefunctionsbyall.WemayaddthatthewholeStatereproducedtheGreekfamilyinamuch246deepersensethanPlatohimselfwasawareof.Forhisaristocracyrepresentstheman,whosevirtue,inthewordsofGorgias,wasto‘administertheState;’andhisindustrialclasstakestheplaceofthewoman,whosedutywas‘toorderherhouse,andkeepwhatisindoors,andobeyherhusband.’146

     Butwhilephilosopherscannotprescribeamethodtophysicalscience,theymay,toacertainextent,bringitundertheircognisance,bydisengagingitsfundamentalconceptionsandassumptions,andshowingthattheyarefunctionsofmind;byarrangingthespecialsciencesinsystematicorderforpurposesofstudy;andbyinvestigatingthelawoftheirhistoricalevolution.Furthermore,sincepsychologyisthecentralscienceofphilosophy,andsinceitiscloselyconnectedwithphysiology,whichinturnreposesontheinorganic152sciences,acertainknowledgeoftheobjectiveworldisindispensabletoanyknowledgeofourselves.Lastly,sincethesubjectivespherenotonlyrests,onceforall,ontheobjective,butisalsoinacontinualstateofactionandreactionwithit,nophilosophycanbecompletewhichdoesnottakeintoaccounttheconstitutionofthingsastheyexistindependentlyofourselves,inordertoascertainhowfartheyareunalterable,andhowfartheymaybemodifiedtoouradvantage.Wesee,then,thatSocrates,inrestrictingphilosophytohumaninterests,wasguidedbyajusttact;thatincreatingthemethodofdialecticabstraction,hecreatedaninstrumentadequatetothisinvestigation,buttothisalone;and,finally,thathumaninterests,understoodinthelargestsense,embraceanumberofsubsidiarystudieswhicheitherdidnotexistwhenhetaught,orwhichtheinevitablesuperstitionsofhisagewouldnotallowhimtopursue.

  • 绿卡纸zMoVB

    Norwasthisall.Lawsandjusticeonceestablishedwould65requiretohavetheiroriginaccountedfor,and,accordingtotheusualgenealogicalmethodoftheearlyGreeks,wouldbedescribedaschildrenofthegods,whowouldthusbeinterestedintheirwelfare,andwouldavengetheirviolation—astageofreflectionalreadyreachedintheWorksandDaysofHesiod.

     

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