尼玛仓曲:让朗玛堆谐走向更大舞台

OLP83-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 06:49:04

“彩票排列3推荐”Ifthesoulservedtoconnecttheeternalrealitieswiththefleetingappearancesbywhichtheywereatoncedarkened,relieved,andshadowedforth,itwasalsoabondofunionbetweenthespeculativeandthepracticalphilosophyofPlato;andindiscussinghispsychologywehavealreadypassedfromtheonetotheother.Thetransitionwillbecomestilleasierifwerememberthatthequestion,‘Whatisknowledge?’was,accordingtoourview,originallysuggestedbyatheoryreducingethicalsciencetoahedonisticcalculus,andthatalongwithitwouldariseanotherquestion,‘Whatispleasure?’Thislatterenquiry,thoughincidentallytouchedonelsewhere,isnotfullydealtwithinanyDialogueexceptthePhilêbus,whichweagreewithProf.JowettinreferringtoaverylateperiodofPlatonicauthorship.Butthelineofargumentwhichitpursueshadprobablybeenlongfamiliartoourphilosopher.Atanyrate,thePhaedo,theRepublic,andperhapstheGorgias,assume,asalreadyproved,thatpleasureisnotthehighestgood.Thequestionisoneonwhichthinkersarestilldivided.Itseems,indeed,tolieoutsidetherangeofreason,andthedisputantsareaccordinglyobligedtoinvoketheauthorityeitherofindividualconsciousnessorofcommonconsentonbehalfoftheirrespectiveopinions.Wehave,however,gotsofarbeyondtheancientsthatthedoctrineofegoistichedonismhasbeenabandonedbyalmosteverybody.Thesubstitutionofanother’spleasureforourownastheobjectofpursuitwasnotaconceptionwhichpresenteditselftoanyGreekmoralist,226althoughtheprincipleofself-sacrificewasmaintainedbysomeofthem,andespeciallybyPlato,toitsfullestextent.Pleasure-seekingbeinginseparablyassociatedwithselfishness,thelatterwasbestattackedthroughtheformer,andifPlato’slogicdoesnotcommenditselftoourunderstanding,wemustadmitthatitwasemployedindefenceofanoblecause.

Ourphilosopherappearstomoreadvantageasacriticthanasareligiousdogmatist.HemeetstheStoicbeliefinProvidencebypointingouttheundeniableprevalenceofevilswhichomnipotentbenevolencecouldnotbesupposedtotolerate;theStoicoptimism,withitsdoctrine,stillapopularone,thatallthingswerecreatedforthegoodofman,byareferencetotheglaringdefectswhich,onthathypothesis,wouldvitiatethearrangementsofNature;theStoicappealtoomensandpropheciesbyshowingthepurelyaccidentalcharacteroftheirfulfilment.160Buthetrustsmostofalltoaradicallydifferentexplanationoftheworld,anexplanation82whicheverywheresubstitutesmechanicalcausationfordesign.Onlyoneamongtheoldersystems—theatomismofDemocritus—hadconsistentlycarriedoutsuchaconceptionofNature,andthis,accordingly,Epicurusadoptsinitsmainoutlines.

Wehavehere,indeed,somethingcomparablenotonlytothescepticismoftheNewAcademy,butalsototheAristoteliancriticismofPlato’smetaphysics;and,atfirstsight,itmightseemasifthePeripateticphilosophywasdestinedoncemoretoregainthepositiontakenfromitbytheresuscitationofitsancientfoe.ButLockewasnotinclinedtosubstituteoneformofscholasticismforanother.ByapplyingtheanalyticalmethodofAtomismtoknowledgeitself,hecreatedaweaponequallyfataltothetwocompetingsystems.Underhisdissection,theconcreteindividualsubstanceoftheonevanishednolesscompletelythantheuniversalideasoftheother.Nothingremainedbutabundleofqualitiesheldtogetherbyasubjectivebond.Thattheabsolutedisjunctionofthoughtfrommatterinvolvedtheimpossibilityoftheirinteraction,wasaconsequencenotdrawnbyDescarteshimself,butbyhisimmediatefollowers.Herealso,Greekphilosophyplayeditspartinhasteningthedevelopmentofmodernideas.ThefallofAristotlehadincidentallytheeffectofrevivingnotonlythesystemswhichpreceded,butalsothosewhichfollowedhis.ChiefamongthesewereStoicismandEpicureanism.Differingwidelyinmostotherrespects,theyagreedinteachingthatbodyisactedonbybodyalone.TheCartesiansacceptedthisprincipletothefullestextentsofarashumanperceptionsandvolitionswereconcerned;andtoagreatextentindealingwiththeproblemsofphysicalscience.Butinsteadofarguingfromthelawsofmechanicalcausationtothematerialityofmind,theyarguedfromitsimmaterialitytothetotalabsenceofcommunicationbetweenconsciousnessandmotion.Therewas,however,onethinkerofthatagewhowentalllengthswiththelaterGreekmaterialists.ThiswasThomasHobbes,thefounderofmodernethics,thefirstEnglishmantograspanddevelopestillfurtherGalileo’smethodofmathematicaldeductionandmechanicalanalysis.

Thelast-namedthinkerwould,nodoubt,repudiatethetitleofpantheist;anditiscertainthat,underhistreatment,pantheismhasreverted,byacurioussortofatavism,tosomethingmuchmorenearlyresemblingtheoriginaldoctrineoftheNeo-Platonicschool.Mr.SpencertellsusthattheworldisthemanifestationofanunknowablePower.Plotinussaidnearlythesame,althoughnotinsuchabsolutelyself-contradictoryterms.524Mr.Spencerconstantlyassumes,byspeakingof354itinthesingularnumber,thatthecreativePowerofwhichweknownothingisone;having,apparently,convincedhimselfofitsunitybytwomethodsofreasoning.First,heidentifiesthetranscendentcauseofphenomenawiththeabsolute,whichisinvolvedinourconsciousnessofrelation;leavingittobeinferredthatasrelativityimpliesplurality,absolutenessmustimplyunity.And,secondly,fromthemutualconvertibilityofthephysicalforces,heinferstheunityofthatwhichunderliesforce.Plotinusalsoarrivesatthesameresultbytwolinesofargument,oneàposteriori,andderivedfromtheunitypervadingallNature;theotheràpriori,andderivedfromthefancieddependenceoftheManyontheOne.EveninhisuseofthepredicateUnknowablewithoutasubject,Mr.SpencerhasbeenanticipatedbyDamascius,oneofthelastNeo-Platonists,whospeaksofthesupremeprincipleasτ??γνωστον.525AndthesamephilosopheranticipatesthelateFatherDalgairnsinsuggestingtheverypertinentquestion,how,ifweknownothingabouttheUnknowable,weknowthatitisunknowable.

‘GuidefromtheseatofReverencethybrightcar,

Butwhataffordedthemostvaluableeducationinthissensewastheirsystemoffreegovernment,involving,asitdid,thesupremacyofanimpersonallaw,thesubdivisionofpublicauthorityamonganumberofmagistrates,andtheassignmenttoeachofcertaincarefullydefinedfunctionswhichhewasforbiddentoexceed;togetherwiththelivinginterestfeltbyeachcitizeninthewelfareofthewholestate,andthatconceptionofitasawholecomposedofvariousparts,whichisimpossiblewhereallthepublicpowersarecollectedinasinglehand.

Platoknewperfectlywellthatalthoughrhetoriciansandmenoftheworldmightbesilenced,theycouldnotbeconvertednorevenconvincedbysuchargumentsasthese.Sofarfromthinkingitpossibletoreasonmenintovirtue,hehasobservedofthosewhoareslavestotheirsensesthatyoumustimprovethembeforeyoucanteachthemthetruth.LAndhe234feltthatifthecompleteassimilationoftheindividualandthecommunitywastobecomemorethanamerelogicalformula,itmustbeeffectedbyaradicalreforminthetrainingoftheoneandintheinstitutionsoftheother.Accordingly,hesethimselftoelaborateaschemeforthepurpose,ourknowledgeofwhichischieflyderivedfromhisgreatestwork,theRepublic.WehavealreadymadelargeuseofthenegativecriticismscatteredthroughthatDialogue;wehavenowtoexaminethepositiveteachingbywhichitwassupplemented.

Again,HobbesdifferswhollyfromBaconinthedeductivecharacterofhismethod.Hislogicistheoldsyllogisticsystemreorganisedonthemodelofmathematicalanalysis.Likeallthegreatthinkersofhistime,hewasageometricianandamechanicalphysicist,reasoningfromgeneraltoparticularpropositionsanddescendingfromcausestoeffects.554397Hisfamoustheoryofasocialcontractisarationalconstruction,notahistoricalnarrative.Butthoughamathematician,heshowsnotracesofPlatonicinfluence.Heis,therefore,allthemoregovernedbyAtomistandStoicmodesofthought.Hetreatshumannature,singleandassociated,asGalileoandDescarteshadtreatedmotionandspace.Likethem,too,hefindshimselfinconstantantagonismtoAristotle.Thedescriptionofmanasasocialanimalisdisdainfullyrejected,andthepoliticalunionresolvedintoanequilibriumofmanyopposingwillsmaintainedbyviolentpressurefromwithout.Inethics,nolessthaninphysics,wefindattractiveforcesreplacedbymechanicalimpacts.ButEpicuruscouldonlyborrowtheleadingprincipleofhisopponentsattheexpenseofanenormousinconsistency.ItwaslongagopointedoutbytheAcademicians—andtheobjectionhasneverbeenanswered—thatpleasureandmerepainlessnesscannotbothbethehighestgood,althoughtheonemaybeanindispensableconditionoftheother.Toconfoundthemeanswiththeendwas,indeed,acommonfaultofGreekphilosophy;andtheStoicsalsowereguiltyofitwhentheydefinedself-preservationtobethenaturalobjectofeverycreature,andyetattachedahighervaluetotheinstrumentsthantotheaimsofthatactivity.InEpicureanism,however,thechangeoffrontwasmoreopen,andwasattemptedundertheeyesofacuteandvigilantenemies.Ifthetotalabsenceofpaininvolvesapleasurablestateofconsciousness,wehavearighttoaskforadefinitionordescriptionofit,andthis,sofarascanbemadeout,ourphilosopherneverpretendedtosupply.Ofcourse,amodernpsychologistcanpointoutthatthefunctionsofrespiration,circulation,secretion,andabsorptionareconstantlygoingon,andthat,intheirnormalactivity,theygiverisetoavastsumofpleasurableconsciousness,whichfarmorethanmakesupinvolumeforwhatitwantsinacuteness.But,whateverhisrecentinterpretersmaysay,133Epicurusnowherealludestothisdiffusedfeelingofvitality;hadherecognisedit,hisenumerationofthepositivesensations,apartfromwhichthegoodisinconceivable,wouldhaveseemedasincompletetohimasitdoestous.If,ontheotherhand,thecompleteremovalofpainintroducesustoastateofconsciousness,which,withoutbeingpositivelypleasurable,hasapositivevalueofsomekind,weoughttobetoldwhereinitdiffersfromtheidealsofthespiritualistschool;66while,ifithasnopositivevalueatall,weoughtequallytobetoldwhereinitdiffersfromtheunconsciousnessofsleeporofdeath.

IX.

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  • 雨花郡主ZUYyl

     ThuswecanquiteagreewithZellerwhenheobserves435293thatNeo-PlatonismonlycarriedoutatendencytowardsspiritualismwhichhadbeenalreadymanifestingitselfamongthelaterStoics,andhadbeenstillfurtherdevelopedbytheNeo-Pythagoreans.Butwhatdoesthisprove?NotwhatZellercontendsfor,whichisthatNeo-Platonismstandsonthesamegroundwiththeotherpost-Aristoteliansystems,butsimplythatarecurrenceofthesameintellectualconditionswasbeingfollowedbyarecurrenceofthesameresults.Now,asbefore,materialismwasprovingitsinadequacytoaccountforthefactsofmentalexperience.Now,asbefore,morality,afterbeingcutofffromphysicallaws,wasseekingabasisinreligiousormetaphysicalideas.Now,asbefore,thestudyofthoughtswassucceedingtothestudyofwords,andthemethodsofpopularpersuasionweregivingplacetothemethodsofdialecticaldemonstration.Ofcourse,theageofPlotinuswasfarinferiortotheageofPlatoinvitality,ingenius,andingeneralenlightenment,notwithstandingtheenormousextensionwhichRomanconquesthadgiventothesuperficialareaofcivilisation,asthedifferencebetweentheEnneadsandtheDialogueswouldalonesufficetoprove.Butthisdoesnotalterthefactthatthegeneraldirectionoftheirmovementproceedsinparallellines.

  • 雪灵芝b57dn

  • 如萱紫儿NSJOo

    Whilenotabsolutelycondemningsuicide,PlotinusrestrictstherightofleavingthisworldwithinmuchnarrowerlimitsthanwereassignedtoitbytheStoics.Inviolentlyseparatingherselffromthebody,thesoul,hetellsus,isactingundertheinfluenceofsomeevilpassion,andheintimatesthatthemischievouseffectsofthispassionwillprolongthemselvesintothenewlifeonwhichsheisdestinedtoenter.497Translatedintomoreabstractlanguage,hismeaningprobablyisthatthefeelingswhichordinarilyprompttosuicide,aresuchaswouldnotexistinawell-regulatedmind.Itis333remarkablethatSchopenhauer,whoseviewsoflifewere,onotherpoints,theveryreverseofthoseheldbyPlotinus,shouldhaveusedverymuchthesameargumentagainstself-destruction.Accordingtohistheory,thewilltolife,whichitshouldbeourprincipalbusinesstoconquer,assertsitselfstronglyinthewishtoescapefromsuffering,andonlydelaysthefinalmomentofpeacefulextinctionbyrushingfromonephaseofexistencetoanother.Andinordertoprovethepossibilityofsucharevival,Schopenhauerwasobligedtograftonhisphilosophyatheoryofmetempsychosis,which,butforthisnecessity,wouldcertainlyneverhavefoundaplaceinitatall.Inthis,asinmanyotherinstances,anethicaldoctrineisapparentlydeducedfromametaphysicaldoctrinewhichhas,inreality,beenmanufacturedforitssupport.Allsystemsdobutpresentunderdifferentformulasacommonfundofsocialsentiment.Aconstantlygrowingbodyofpublicopinionteachesusthatwedonotbelongtoourselves,buttothoseaboutus,andthat,inordinarycircumstances,itisnolessweakandselfishtorunawayfromlifethantorunawayfromdeath.

  • 但法国tdxGQ

    Tobefreeandtoruleoverfreemenwere,withSocrates,aswitheveryAthenian,thegoalsofambition,onlyhisfreedommeantabsoluteimmunityfromthecontrolofpassionorhabit;governmentmeantsuperiorknowledge,andgovernmentoffreemenmeantthepowerofproducingintellectualconviction.Inhiseyes,thepossessorofanyartwas,sofar,aruler,andtheonlytrueruler,beingobeyedunderseverepenaltiesbyallwhostoodinneedofhisskill.Buttheroyalartwhichhehimselfexercised,withoutexpresslylayingclaimtoit,wasthatwhichassignsitsproperspheretoeveryotherart,andprovideseachindividualwiththeemploymentwhichhispeculiarfacultiesdemand.ThisisAthenianlibertyandAthenianimperialismcarriedintoeducation,butsoidealisedandpurifiedthattheycanhardlyberecognisedatfirstsight.

     OneneedonlycomparethecatalogueofparticularhistoriessubjoinedtotheParasceve,538withatableofAristotle’sworks,tounderstandhowcloselyBaconfollowsinthefootstepsofhispredecessor.Wedo,indeed,findsundrysubjectsenumeratedonwhichtheelderstudenthadnottouched;buttheyareonlysuchaswouldnaturallysuggestthemselvestoamanofcomprehensiveintelligence,comingnearlytwothousandyearsafterhisoriginal;whiletheyaremostlyofnophilosophicalvaluewhatever.Bacon’smeritwastobringthedistinctionbetweenthedescriptivesciencesandthetheoreticalsciencesintoclearerconsciousness,andtogiveaviewoftheformercorrespondingincompletenesstothatalreadyobtainedofthelatter.

  • 大笨蛋vtvBF

    v

  • 扒皮成1cefV

    InGermany,Neo-Aristotelianismhasalreadylivedouttheappointedtermofallsuchmovements;having,webelieve,beenbroughtintofashionbyTrendelenburgaboutfortyyearsago.Sincethen,theAristoteliansysteminallitsbrancheshasbeenstudiedwithsuchprofoundscholarshipthatanyillusionsrespectingitsvalueforourpresentneedsmust,bythistime,havebeencompletelydissipated;whiletheHegeliandialectic,whichitwasoriginallyintendedtocombat,nolongerrequiresacounterbalance,havingbeenentirelydrivenfromGermanuniversityteaching.Moreover,Lange’sfamousHistoryofMaterialismhasdealtastaggeringblowtothereputationofAristotle,notmerelyinitself,butrelativelytotheservicesofearlyGreekthought;although280LangegoestoofarintotheoppositeextremewhenexaltingDemocritusathisexpense.170Wehavetocomplain,however,thatZellerandotherhistoriansofGreekphilosophystartwithaninvariableprejudiceinfavourofthelaterspeculatorsasagainsttheearlier,andespeciallyinfavourofAristotleasagainstallhispredecessors,evenPlatoincluded,whichleadsthemtosluroverhisweakpoints,andtobringouthisexcellenciesintodisproportionaterelief.171

     

  • 草莓果hbi48

     Thesame,inself-sameplace,andbyitself

  • 绿卡纸vMFxD

    Itwasatthisjuncturethatthevoluntarywithdrawalofanolderfellow-pupilplacedArcesilausattheheadoftheAcademy.Thedateofhisaccessionisnotgiven,butwearetoldthathedied241or240B.C.intheseventy-fifthyearofhisage.Hemust,therefore,haveflourishedagenerationlaterthanZenoandEpicurus.Accomplished,witty,andgenerous,hislifeisdescribedbysomeasconsiderablylessausterethanthatoftheexcellentnonentitieswhomhesucceeded.Yetitsgeneralgoodnesswastestifiedtobynolessanauthoritythanhiscontemporary,thenobleStoic,Cleanthes.‘DonotblameArcesilaus,’exclaimedthelatter146toanunfriendlycritic;‘ifhedeniesdutyinhiswords,heaffirmsitinhisdeeds.’ ‘Youdon’tflatterme,‘observedArcesilaus.‘Itisflatteringyou,’rejoinedCleanthes,‘tosaythatyouractionsbelieyourwords.’230Itmightbeinferredfromthisanecdotethatthescepticismofthenewteacher,likethatofCarneadesafterhim,wasoccasionallyexercisedonmoraldistinctions,which,asthendefinedanddeduced,wereassuredlyopentoveryseriouscriticism.Evenso,infollowingtheconventionalstandardoftheage,hewouldhavebeenactinginperfectconsistencywiththeprinciplesofhisschool.But,asamatteroffact,hisattacksseemtohavebeenexclusivelyaimedattheStoiccriterionofcertainty.Wehavetouchedonthisdifficultsubjectinaformerchapter,butthepresentseemsamorefavourableopportunityforsettingitforthinproperdetail.

     Wemust,however,observethat,underlyingallthesepoeticalimaginations,thereisadeeperandwiderlawofhumannaturetowhichtheyunconsciouslybearwitness—theintimateconnexionofreligiousmysticismwiththepassionoflove.Bythiswedonotmeantheconstantinterferenceoftheonewiththeother,whetherforthepurposeofstimulation,aswiththenaturalisticreligions,orforthepurposeofrestraint,aswiththeethicalreligions;butwemeanthattheyseemtodividebetweenthemacommonfundofnervousenergy,sothatsometimestheirmanifestationsareinextricablyconfounded,asincertaindebasedformsofmodernChristianity;sometimestheyutterlyexcludeoneanother;andsometimes,whichisthemostfrequentcaseofany,theoneistransformedintotheother,theirsubstantialidentityandcontinuitybeingindicatedveryfranklybytheiruseofthesamelanguage,thesameritual,andthesameaestheticdecoration.Andthiswillshowhowthedecayofreligiousbeliefmaybeaccompaniedbyanoutbreakofmorallicence,withoutourbeingobligedtodrawtheinferencethatpassioncanonlybeheldincheckbyirrationalbeliefs,orbyorganisationswhosesupremacyisfataltoindustrial,political,andintellectualprogress.For,ifourviewofthecasebecorrect,thepassionwasnotreallyrestrained,butonlyturnedinadifferentdirection,andfrequentlynourishedintohystericalexcess;sothat,withtheinevitabledecayoftheology,itreturnstoitsoldhaunts,bringingwithitsevendevilsworsethanthefirst.Afterthe220CrusadescametheCourtsofLove;aftertheDominicanandFranciscanmovements,theRenaissance;afterPuritanism,theRestoration;afterJesuitism,theRegency.Noristhisall.Thepassionofwhichwearespeaking,whenabnormallydevelopedandunbalancedbysevereintellectualexercise,ishabituallyaccompaniedbydeliriousjealousy,bycruelty,andbydeceit.Ontakingtheformofreligion,theinfluenceofitsevilassociatesimmediatelybecomesmanifestinthesuppressionofaliencreeds,inthetorturesinflictedontheiradherents,andinthemaximthatnofaithneedbekeptwithaheretic.Persecutionhasbeenexcusedonthegroundthatanymeanswerejustifiableforthepurposeofsavingsoulsfrometernaltorment.Buthowcameittobebelievedthatsuchaconsequencewasinvolvedinamereerrorofjudgment?Thefaithdidnotcreatetheintolerance,buttheintolerancecreatedthefaith,andsogaveanidealisedexpressiontothejealousfuryaccompanyingapassionwhichnospiritualalchemycanpurifyfromitsoriginalaffinities.Itisnotbyturningthismostterribleinstincttowardsasupernaturalobjectthatweshouldcombatit,butbydevelopingtheactiveandmasculineinpreferencetotheemotionalandfemininesideofournervousorganisation.136

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