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"好吃好玩好热闹!夜长沙加速“回血”"2019中国新媒体大会:汇聚优质内容 创造融合精品

时间:2020-07-03 05:34:42 作者:百度新闻 浏览量:9222

“幸运飞艇自动追号平台”SirJamesMackintosh,whosucceededRomillyaslawreformer,in1820introducedwithsuccesssixpenalreformbillsintotheHouseofCommons;buttheLordsassentedtononeofthemthatwereofanypracticalimportancetothecountry.Theyagreed,indeed,thatitshouldnolongerbeacapitaloffenceforanEgyptiantoresideoneyearinthecountry,orforamantobefounddisguisedintheMint,ortoinjureWestminsterBridge;buttheydidnotagreetoremovethecapitalpenaltyforsuchoffencesaswoundingcattle,destroyingtrees,breakingdownthebanksofrivers,orsendingthreateningletters.Itwasfearedthatifthepunishmentweremitigated,thewholeofLincolnshiremightbesubmerged,wholeforestscutdown,andwholeherdsdestroyed.AstotheShopliftingBill,theywouldnotletdeathbeabolishedforstealinginshopsaltogether,butonlywherethevalueofthetheftwasunder10l.Thatseemedthelimitofsafeconcession.

Toexamineanddistinguishallthedifferentsorts[120]ofcrimesandthemannerofpunishingthemwouldnowbeournaturaltask,wereitnotthattheirnature,whichvarieswiththedifferentcircumstancesoftimesandplaces,wouldcompelustoenterupontoovastandwearisomeamassofdetail.Butitwillsufficetoindicatethemostgeneralprinciplesandthemostperniciousandcommonerrors,inordertoundeceivenolessthosewho,fromamistakenloveofliberty,wouldintroduceanarchy,thanthosewhowouldbegladtoreducetheirfellow-mentotheuniformregularityofaconvent.

Thereareafewobviousremediesbywhichtheinducementstocrimemightbeeasilydiminished.In1808SirSamuelRomillybroughtinabill,toprovidepersonstriedandacquittedoffelonywithcompensation,atthediscretionofthejudge,forthelosstheyincurredbytheirdetentionandtrial.Thiswasobjectedto,onthegroundthatthepaymentofsuchcompensationoutofthecountyrateswoulddiscourageprosecutions;andtheonlyjusticedonetomenfalselyaccusedfromthatdaytothisistheauthorisationgiventogoal-governorsin1878toprovideprisoners,whohavebeenbroughtfromanothercountyfortrialattheassizesandhavebeenacquitted,withmeansofreturningtotheirownhomes.Somethingmorethanthisisrequiredtosaveamansosituatedfromfallingintorealcrime.

Arethesamepenaltiesequallyusefulinalltimes?

1.Whentheproofsofafactaredependentoneonanother—thatistosay,wheneachsingleproofrestson[135]theweightofsomeother—thenthemorenumeroustheproofsare,thesmalleristheprobabilityofthefactinquestion,becausethechancesoferrorinthepreliminaryproofswouldincreasetheprobabilityoferrorinthesucceedingones.

Forifpunishmentisweaktopreventcrime,itisstrongtoproduceit,anditisscarcelyopentodoubtthatitsproductiveforceisfargreaterthanitspreventive.Ourtermsofimprisonmentcompelmorepersonstoenteracareerofcrimethantheypreventfrompursuingone,thatbeingoftentheonlyresourceleftforthosewhodependonacriminal’slabour.Whetherinprisonortheworkhouse,suchdependentsbecomeachargetosociety;nordoesitseemreasonable,thatifonemanundersoretemptationstealsaloaf,ahundredothermenwhodonosuchthingmustcontributetokeep,notonlytheprisonerhimself,buthisfamilytoo,intheirdailybreadforsolongatimeasitpleasesthelawtodetainhimfromearninghisandtheirnecessarysubsistence.

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