街道上下迅速行动,全面推进抓好落实

t15Tz-news 发布时间: 2020-07-07 06:17:16

“【Ng1】北京赛车一死多伤”AdequatelytoexhibittherelationofGreekphilosophytomodernthoughtwouldrequireavolume.Theobjectofthepresentdiscussionismerelytoshowinwhatwaysthatrelationhasbeenmostclearlymanifested,andwhatassistanceitmayaffordusinsolvingsomeimportantproblemsconnectedwiththedevelopmentofmetaphysicalandmoralspeculation.Zeller,whiletakingamuchwiderviewthanHegel,stillassumesthatPlato’sreforms,sofarastheyweresuggestedbyexperience,weresimplyanadaptationofDorianpractices.148Hecertainlysucceedsinshowingthatprivateproperty,marriage,education,individualliberty,andpersonalmoralityweresubjected,atleastinSparta,tomanyrestrictionsresemblingthoseimposedinthePlatonicstate.AndPlatohimself,bytreatingtheSpartansystemasthefirstformofdegenerationfromhisownideal,seemstoindicatethatthisofallexistingpolitiesmadethenearestapproachtoit.ThedeclarationsoftheTimaeus149are,however,muchmoredistinct;andaccordingtothemitwasinthecaste-divisionsofEgyptthathefoundthenearestparalleltohisownschemeofsocialreorganisation.There,too,thepriests,orwisemencamefirst,andafterthemthewarriors,whilethedifferentbranchesofindustrywereseparatedfromoneanotherbyrigiddemarcations.Hemayalsohavebeenstruckbythatfreeadmissionofwomentoemploymentselsewherefilledexclusivelybymen,whichsosurprisedHerodotus,fromhisinabilitytodiscernitsrealcause—themoreadvanceddifferentiationofEgyptianascomparedwithGreeksociety.150

TheCyrenaicschoolended,curiouslyenough,inpessimism.Thedoctrinethatpleasureistheonlygood,andthedoctrinethatlifeyieldsapreponderanceofpainfuloverpleasurablefeelings,areseverallycompatiblewithapreferenceofexistencetonon-existence;whenunited,astheywerebyHêgêsias,aCyrenaicprofessor,theylogicallyleadtosuicide;andwearetoldthatthepublicauthoritiesofAlexandriawereobligedtoorderthediscontinuanceofhislectures,sogreatwastheireffectinpromotingself-destruction.124

Eventheveryimperfectmeansofinformationsuppliedbytheliteratureoftheempirewerenotutilisedtothefullestextent.Itwasnaturallythewritersofmostbrilliantgeniuswhoreceivedmostattention,andthese,asithappened,werethemostprejudicedagainsttheircontemporaries.Theirobservations,too,wereputonrecordundertheformofsweepinggeneralisations;whilethefactsfromwhichadifferentconclusionmightbegatheredlayscatteredthroughthepagesofmoreobscureauthorities,needingtobecarefullysiftedoutandbroughttogetherbythosewhowishedtoarriveatamoreimpartialviewoftheagetowhichtheyrelate.

223

Asmightbeexpectedfromtheimmenseexuberanceoftheirintellectuallife,wefindeverykindofscepticismrepresentedamongtheGreeks;and,aswiththeirotherphilosophicaltendencies,thereisevidenceofitsexistencepreviousto126orindependentofscientificspeculation.Theirveryreligion,thoughburdenedwithanenormousmassoffictitiouslegends,showsacertainunwillingnesstotransgressthemoreobviouslawsofnature,notnoticeableinthetraditionsofkindredorneighbouringraces.Itstendencyisrathertoimaginesupernaturalcausesfornaturalevents,ortoreadadivinemeaningintoaccidentaloccurrences,thantointroduceimpossibilitiesintotheordinarycourseofhistory.Andsomeofitsmostmarvellousstoriesaretoldinsuchamannerthattheincreduloussatirewithwhichtheywereoriginallyreceivedis,byabeautifulplayofirony,workedintotheverytextureofthenarrativeitself.Forexample,theGreekswereespeciallydisinclinedtobelievethatoneoftheloweranimalscouldspeakwithahumanvoice,orthatadeadmancouldbebroughtbacktolife—contradictedasbothsuppositionswerebythefactsofuniversalexperience.SowhenthehorseXanthusrepliestohismaster’sreproaches,HomeraddsthathisvoicewasarrestedbytheErinyes—thatistosay,bythelawsofnature;andwemaysuspectthatnothingmoreisintendedbyhisspeechthantheinterpretationwhichAchilleswouldspontaneouslyputonthemuteandpatheticgazeofthefaithfulsteed.Andwhen,toillustratethewondrousmedicalskillofAsclêpius,itisrelatedthatatlasthesucceededinrestoringadeadmantolife,thestoryaddsthatforthisimpiousdeedboththehealerandhispatientwereimmediatelytransfixedbyathunderboltfromheaven.215Anotherimpossibilityistopredictwithanycertaintythefuturefateofindividuals,andherealso—ashasbeenalreadyobservedinadifferentconnexion216—theGreeksshowedtheirextremescepticismwithregardtoanyallegedcontraventionofanaturallaw,underthetransparentdisguiseofstoriesaboutpersonswhomambiguouspredictionshadluredtotheirfall.

ThecharactersinHomeraremarkedbythisincredulousdispositionindirectproportiontotheirgeneralwisdom.WhenAgamemnonrelateshisdreamtotheassembledchiefs,Nestordrylyobservesthatifanyoneoflessauthorityhadtoldthemsuchastorytheywouldhaveimmediatelyrejecteditasuntrue.Hector’soutspokencontemptforauguryiswellknown;andhisindifferencetothedyingwordsofPatroclusisequallycharacteristic.IntheOdyssey,Alcinouspointedlydistinguisheshisguestfromthecommonrunoftravellers,whosewordsdeservenocredit.ThatTelemachusshouldtellwhoishisfather,withtheuncomplimentaryreservationthathehasonlyhismother’swordforit,is128evidentlymeantasaproofoftheyoungman’sprecociousshrewdness;anditiswiththeutmostdifficultythatPenelopeherselfispersuadedofherhusband’sidentity.SointheAgamemnonofAeschylus,nothinglessthanthereportofaneye-witnesswillconvincetheChorusofoldmenthatTroyhasreallyfallen.218Finally,tocompletethelistofexamplesaffordedindependentlyofphilosophicalreflection,Herodotusrepeatedlyexpressesdisbeliefinthestoriestoldhim,or,whatismoreremarkable,holdshisjudgmentinsuspensewithregardtotheirveracity.

VIII.

WemayconsideritafortunatecircumstancethatthephilosophyofForm,—thatistosay,ofdescription,definition,classification,andsensuousperception,asdistinguishedfrommathematicalanalysisanddeductivereasoning,—wasassociatedwithademonstrablyfalsecosmology,asitthusbecamemuchmorethoroughlydiscreditedthanwouldotherwisehavebeenpossible.Atthisjuncture,thefirsttoperceiveandpointouthowprofoundlyanacceptanceoftheCopernicantheorymustaffectmen’sbeliefsaboutNatureandthewholeuniverse,wasGiordanoBruno;andthisalonewouldentitlehimtoagreatplaceinthehistoryofphilosophy.The383conceptionofasinglefiniteworldsurroundedbyaseriesofeternalandunchangeablecrystalspheresmust,hesaid,beexchangedfortheconceptionofinfiniteworldsdispersedthroughillimitablespace.Oncegrantthattheearthhasadoublemovementrounditsownaxisandroundthesun,andAristotle’swholesystemoffiniteexistencecollapsesatonce,leavingthegroundclearforanentirelydifferentorderofideas.545But,inthisrespect,whateverwasestablishedbythenewsciencehadalreadybeendivinedbyastillolderphilosophythanAristotle’s,asBrunohimselfgladlyacknowledged,546andtheimmediateeffectofhisreasoningwastorevivetheAtomictheory.Theassumptionofinfinitespace,formerlyconsideredaninsuperableobjectiontothattheory,nowbecameoneofitschiefrecommendations;theargumentsofLucretiusregainedtheirfullforce,whilehisfallacieswereletdrop;Atomismseemednotonlypossiblebutnecessary;andthematerialismonceassociatedwithitwasequallyrevived.ButAristotelianism,aswehaveseen,wasnotaloneinthefield,andonthefirstsymptomsofasuccessfulrevolt,itsoldrivalstoodinreadinesstoseizethevacantthrone.Thequestionwashowfaritsclaimwouldbesupported,andhowfardisputedbythenewinvaders.ItmightbesupposedthattheolderformsofGreekphilosophy,thusrestoredtolightafteraneclipseofmorethanathousandyears,wouldbenolesshostiletothepoeticPlatonismthantothescientificAristotelianismoftheRenaissance.Such,however,wasnotthecase;andwehavetoshowhowanalliancewasestablishedbetweentheseapparentlyoppositelinesofthought,eventuallygivingbirthtothehighestspeculationofthefollowingcentury.

文章推荐:

全国党媒报两会:女代表谈妇女节——新时代 新女性 新风采

华能上海石洞口二厂:绿色发展探路者 美丽电厂树标杆

辽宁省公安机关五措并举助力企业复工复产

【微视频】延边氢能源汽车亮相东北亚博览会,9月即将在延吉下线!

吉林:长白山火山科考——实拍天池水下温泉带

长春开展集中整治交通违法行为统一行动

阿拉善左旗实施“万名党员培优工程”分级分层提升共产党员综合素质能力

网友评论

  • 雨花郡主aW55y

     

  • 雪灵芝E9RQp

  • 如萱紫儿W2WW5

  • 但法国Sptco

    ThescepticismofProtagoraswentbeyondtheologyandextendedtoallsciencewhatever.Such,atleast,seemstohavebeentheforceofhiscelebrateddeclarationthat‘manisthemeasureofallthings,bothasregardstheirexistenceandtheirnon-existence.’67AccordingtoPlato,thisdoctrinefollowedfromtheidentificationofknowledgewithsensibleperception,whichinitsturnwasbasedonamodifiedformoftheHeracleiteantheoryofaperpetualflux.TheseriesofexternalchangeswhichconstitutesNature,actingontheseriesofinternalchangeswhichconstituteseachman’spersonality,producesparticularsensations,andthesealonearethetruereality.Theyvarywitheveryvariationinthe88factors,andthereforearenotthesameforseparateindividuals.Eachman’sperceptionsaretrueforhimself,butforhimselfalone.Platoeasilyshowsthatsuchatheoryoftruthisatvariancewithordinaryopinion,andthatifallopinionsaretrue,itmustnecessarilystandself-condemned.Wemayalsoobservethatifnothingcanbeknownbutsensation,nothingcanbeknownofitsconditions.Itwould,however,beunfairtoconvictProtagorasoftalkingnonsenseontheunsupportedauthorityoftheTheaetêtus.Platohimselfsuggeststhatabettercasemighthavebeenmadeoutfortheincriminateddoctrinecoulditsauthorhavebeenheardinself-defence.WemayconjecturethatProtagorasdidnotdistinguishveryaccuratelybetweenexistence,knowledge,andapplicabilitytopractice.Ifweassume,whatthereseemsgoodreasontobelieve,thatinthegreatcontroversyofNatureversusLaw,Protagorassidedwiththelatter,hispositionwillatoncebecomeclear.WhenthechampionsofNaturecreditedherwithastabilityandanauthoritygreaterthancouldbeclaimedformerelyhumanarrangements,itwasajudicioussteptocarrythewarintotheirterritory,andask,onwhatfoundationthendoesNatureherselfstand?Isnotshe,too,perpetuallychanging,anddowenotbecomeacquaintedwithherentirelythroughourownfeelings?Oughtnotthosefeelingstobetakenastheultimatestandardinallquestionsofrightandwrong?Individualopinionisafactwhichmustbereckonedwith,butwhichcanbechangedbypersuasion,notbyappealstosomethingthatwenoneofusknowanythingabout.Manisthemeasureofallthings,notthewillofgodswhoseveryexistenceisuncertain,noryetapurelyhypotheticalstateofNature.Humaninterestsmusttakeprecedenceofeveryotherconsideration.Hectormeantnothingelsewhenhepreferredtheobviousdictatesofpatriotismtoinferencesdrawnfromtheflightofbirds.

     

  • 大笨蛋yskaT

    v

  • 扒皮成E88Zs

    ThosemanifestationsofsympathywhichareoftensomuchmorepreciousthanmaterialassistancewerealsorepugnanttoStoicprinciples.Onthissubject,Epictêtusexpresseshimselfwithsingularharshness.‘Donot,’hesays,‘letyourselfbeputoutbythesufferingsofyourfriends.Iftheyareunhappy,itistheirownfault.Godmadethemforhappiness,notformisery.Theyaregrievedatpartingfromyou,arethey?Why,then,didtheysettheiraffectionsonthingsoutsidethemselves?Iftheysufferfortheirfollyitservesthemright.’93

     

  • 草莓果aJNbL

    Ifweenlargeourpointofviewsoastocoverthemoralinfluenceofknowledgeonsocietytakencollectively,itsrelativeimportancewillbevastlyincreased.WhenAugusteComteassignsthesupremedirectionofprogresstoadvancingscience,andwhenBuckle,followingFichte,makesthetotalityofhumanactiondependonthetotalityofhumanknowledge,theyarevirtuallyattributingtointellectualeducationanevenmoredecisivepartthanitplayedintheSocraticethics.Eventhosewhorejectthetheory,whenpushedtosuchanextreme,willadmitthatthesamequantityofself-devotionmustproduceafargreatereffectwhenitisguidedbydeeperinsightintotheconditionsofexistence.

     

  • 绿卡纸hCYHJ

    ItseemstousthatHegel,inhisanxietytocrusheveryhistoricalprocessintothenarrowsymmetryofafavouritemetaphysicalformula,hasconfoundedseveralentirelydistinctconceptionsunderthecommonnameofsubjectivity.First,thereistherightofprivatejudgment,theclaimofeachindividualtohaveavoiceintheaffairsoftheState,andtohavethefreemanagementofhisownpersonalconcerns.Butthis,sofarfrombeingmodern,isoneoftheoldestcustomsoftheAryanrace;andperhaps,couldwelookbacktotheoldesthistoryofotherracesnowdespoticallygoverned,weshouldfinditprevailingamongthemalso.Itwasnonewnorunheard-ofprivilegethatRousseauvindicatedforthepeoplesofhisowntime,buttheirancientbirthright,takenfromthembythegrowthofacentralisedmilitarysystem,justasithadbeenformerlytakenfromthecitycommunitiesoftheGraeco-Romanworld.Inthisrespect,Platogoesagainstthewhole248spiritofhiscountry,andnoperiodofitsdevelopment,noteventheageofHomer,wouldhavesatisfiedhim.

     

标签列表