“脱虚向实”,是权宜之计还是一种趋势

j0rNV-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 05:10:55

“3d福彩开奖结果”

V.AdocumentpurportingtobeAristotle’swillhasbeenpreservedbyDiogenesLaertius,andalthoughsomeobjectionstoitsauthenticityhavebeenraisedbySirA.Grant,theyhave,inouropinion,beensuccessfullyrebuttedbyZeller.180Thephilosopher’stestamentarydispositionsgiveonemoreproofofhisthoughtfulconsiderationforthewelfareofthoseabouthim,andhisdevotiontothememoryofdepartedfriends.Carefulprovisionismadefortheguardianshipofhisyouthfulchildren,andforthecomfortofhissecondwife,Herpyllis,who,hesays,had‘beengoodto’him.Certainslaves,specifiedbyname,aretobeemancipated,andtoreceivelegacies.Noneoftheyoungslaveswhowaitedonhimaretobesold,andongrowinguptheyaretobesetfree‘iftheydeserveit.’Thebonesofhisfirstwife,Pythias,are,assheherselfdesired,tobelaidbyhis.Monumentsaretobeerectedinmemoryofhismother,andofcertainfriends,particularlyProxenus,whohadbeenAristotle’sguardian,andhisfamily.

HathJusticeturnedapprovingeyesonhim;

Thelastalternativeseemsthemostprobable.NaturewiththeStoicswasafixedobjectiveorderwherebyallthingsworktogetherasco-operantpartsofasinglesystem.Eachhasacertainofficetoperform,andtheperfectperformanceofitisthecreature’svirtue,orreason,orhighestgood:thesethreeexpressionsbeingalwaysusedasstrictlysynonymousterms.Herewehavetheteleology,thedialectics,andtheutilitarianismofSocrates,soworkedoutandassimilatedthattheydifferonlyasvariousaspectsofasingletruth.ThethreelinesofSocraticteachinghadalsobeendrawntoasinglepointbyPlato;buthisidealismhadnecessitatedthecreationofanewworldfortheirdevelopmentandconcentration.TheideaofNatureasithadgrownupunderthehandsofHeracleitus,theSophists,andAntisthenes,suppliedZenowithaready-mademouldintowhichhisreformingaspirationscouldberun.ThetrueRepublicwasnotapatternlaidupinheaven,norwasitrestrictedtothenarrowdimensionsofasingleHellenicstate.Itwasthewholerealuniverse,ineverypartofwhichexceptintheworksofwickedmenadivinelawwasrecognisedandobeyed.46Nay,accordingtoCleanthes,God’slawisobeyedevenbythewicked,andtheessenceofmoralityconsistsonlyinitsvoluntaryfulfilment.Asothers20veryvividlyputit,wearelikeadogtiedunderacart;ifwedonotchoosetorunweshallbedraggedalong.47

If,however,wepasstothesecondpointofview,andjudgeNeo-Platonismaccordingtotherequirements,notoftruthorofusefulness,butofbeauty,ourfirstverdictofuttercondemnationwillbesucceededbyamuchmorefavourableopinion.Plotinushasusedthematerialsinheritedfromhispredecessorswithunquestionableboldnessandskill;andtheconstructivepowerexhibitedinthegeneralplanofhisvastsystemisfullyequalledbytheclosereasoningwithwhicheverydetailiselaboratedandfittedintoitsproperplace.Nothingcanbeimaginedmoreimposingthanthiswondrousprocessionofformsdefilingfromtheunknowntotheunknown—fromtheself-developingconsciousnessofReasonasitbreaksandflamesandmultipliesintoawholeuniverseofbeingandlifeandthought,everreturning,bytheverylawoftheirproduction,tothesourcewhencetheyhavesprung—onwardandoutwardonthewingsofthecosmicSoul,throughthisvisibleworld,wheretheyreappearasimagesofintellectualbeautyintheeternalrevolutionsofthestarryspheresabove,intheeverlastingreproductionoforganicspeciesbelow,intheloveliestthoughtsandactionsoftheloveliesthumansouls—till339theutmostlimitsoftheirpropagationanddispersionhavebeenreached,tillthelastfaintraysofexistencedieoutinthedarkandvoidregionthatextendstoinfinitybeyond.NothingintherealmofabstractionscanbemoremovingthanthisOdysseyofthehumansoul,wakenedbyvisionsofearthlylovelinesstoaconsciousnessofhertruedestiny,aremembranceofherlostandforgottenhome;thenabandoningtheseforthepossessionofamorespiritualbeauty,ascendingbythestepsofdialectictoacontemplationofthearchetypalIdeasthatliefoldedandmutuallyinterpenetratedinthebosomoftheeternalReasonwherethoughtandbeingarebutthedoubleaspectofasingleabsolutereality;seekingfartherandhigher,beyondthelimitsofexistenceitself,forastillpurerunity,andfindingintheawfulsolitudeofthatsupremeelevationthatthecentralsourceofallthingsdoesnotliewithoutbutwithin,thatonlyinreturningtoself-identitydoesshereturntotheOne;or,again,descendingtothelastconfinesoflightandlifethatshemayprolongtheirradiationintotheformlessdepthsofmatter,projectingonitsdarknessanimageoftheglorywhoseremembrancestillattendsherinherfall.

Comefire,comesword,yokehorsestothecar,

WhentheAcademicianspassfromtheformtothematterofdogmaticphilosophy,theircriticismsacquiregreaterinterestandgreaterweight.Onthisground,theirassaultsareprincipallydirectedagainstthetheologyoftheirStoicandEpicureanrivals.Itishereinparticularthat151CarneadesrevealshimselftousastheHumeofantiquity.Neverhasthecaseforagnosticismbeenmorepowerfullymadeoutthanbyhimorbythediscipleswhomheinspired.Totheargumentfortheexistenceofsupernaturalbeingsderivedfromuniversalconsent,hereplies,first,thattheopinionofthevulgarisworthless,andsecondly,thatmen’sbeliefsaboutthegodsarehopelesslyatvariancewithoneanother,eventhesamedivinitybeingmadethesubjectofnumberlessdiscordantlegends.238Hereducesthepolytheisticdeificationofnaturalobjectstoanabsurditybyforcingitbackthroughaseriesofinsensiblegradationsintoabsolutefetichism.239Thepersonificationofmentalqualitiesissimilarlytreated,untilanhypothesisisprovidedforeverypassingmood.240Then,turningtothemorephilosophicaldeismoftheStoics,heassailstheirtheoryofthedivinebenevolencewithinstanceafterinstanceoftheapparentmalevolenceandiniquitytobefoundinNature;vividlyremindingoneofthefactsadducedbyMr.HerbertSpencerinconfutationofthesimilarviewsheldbymodernEnglishtheologians.241Asagainstthewholetheoryoffinalcauses,Carneadesarguesafteramethodwhich,thoughlogicallysound,couldnotthenpresentitselfwiththeauthoritywhichadvancingsciencehasmorerecentlyshownittopossess.‘WhatyouStoics,’hesays,152‘explainastheresultofconsciouspurpose,otherphilosophers,likeStratoforinstance,explainwithequalplausibilityastheresultofnaturalcausation.AndsuchisourignoranceoftheforcesatworkinNaturethatevenwherenomechanicalcausecanbeassigned,itwouldbepresumptuoustomaintainthatnonecanexist.242Thereignoflawdoesnotnecessarilyprovethepresenceofintelligence;itismerelytheevidenceofauniformmovementquiteconsistentwithallthatweknowabouttheworkingofunconsciousforces.243Tocontend,withSocrates,thatthehumanmindmustbederivedfromaUniversalMindpervadingallNaturewouldlogicallyinvolvethetransferofeveryhumanattributetoitsoriginalsource.244AndtosaythattheSupremeBeing,becauseitsurpassesman,mustpossessanintelligencelikehis,isnomorerationalthantomakethesameassumptionwithregardtoagreatcitybecauseitissuperiortoanant.’245

HerdespairisbuttheinvertedimageofPlato’shope,thereturntoapurerstateofbeingwhereknowledgewillnolongerbeobscuredbypassingthroughtheperturbingmediumofsightandtouch.Again,modernapologistsfortheinjusticeandmiseryofthepresentsystem144arguethatitsinequalitieswillberedressedinafuturestate.Platoconverselyregardedthesufferingsofgoodmenasaretributionforformersin,orastheresultofaforgottenchoice.TheauthorityofPindarandofancienttraditiongenerallymayhaveinfluencedhisbelief,butithadadeepergroundinthelogicofaspiritualisticphilosophy.Thedualismofsoulandbodyisonlyoneformofhisfundamentalantithesisbetweenthechangelessessenceandthetransitorymanifestationsofexistence.ApantheismlikeSpinoza’swasthenaturaloutcomeofsuchasystem;buthispracticalgeniusorhisardentimaginationkeptPlatofromcarryingitsofar.Norintheinterestsofprogresswastheresulttoberegretted;fortheologyhadtopassthroughonemorephasebeforethetermofitsbeneficentactivitycouldbereached.Ethicalconceptionsgainedanew241significanceintheblendedlightofmythologyandmetaphysics;thosewhomadeittheirtradetopervertjusticeatitsfountain-headmightstilltremblebeforetheterrorsofasupernaturaltribunal;orifPlatocouldnotregeneratethelifeofhisownpeoplehecouldforetellwhatwastobethecommonfaithofEuropeinanotherthousandyears;andmemory,ifnothope,isthericherforthosemagnificentvisionswherehehasprojectedtheeternalconflictbetweengoodandevilintothesilenceanddarknessbywhichourlivesareshutinoneveryside.

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  • 雨花郡主JMpkF

     

  • 雪灵芝3XIFp

    ThecausewhichfirstarrestedandfinallydestroyedthefreemovementofGreekthoughtwasnotanyintrinsiclimitationorcorruptionoftheGreekgenius,buttheever-increasingpreponderanceoftwointerests,bothtending,althoughindifferentwaysanddifferentdegrees,tostrengthentheprincipleofauthorityandtoenfeebletheprincipleofreason.Onewasthetheologicalinterest,theotherwasthescholasticinterest.Theformerwasthemoreconspicuousandthemoremischievousofthetwo.FromthepersecutionofAnaxagorastotheprohibitionofphilosophicalteachingbyJustinian,wemaytracetheriseandspreadofareactiontowardssuperstition,sometimesadvancingandsometimesreceding,but,onthewhole,gaininggroundfromagetoage,untilfromthenoontidesplendourofPericleswepasstothatlongnightwhichstretchesinalmostimpenetrabledarknessdowntotheredandstormydaybreakoftheCrusades.Anditwasareactionwhichextendedthroughallclasses,includingthephilosophersthemselves.ItseemstomethatwheretheAthenianschool,fromSocrateson,fallshortoftheirpredecessors,asinsomepointstheyunquestionablydo,theirinferiorityislargelyduetothiscause.Itsinfluenceisveryperceptibleinweakeningthespeculativeenergiesofthosexiiwhostandatthegreatestdistancefromthepopularbeliefs.ItwasbecausedislikefortheologyoccupiedsolargeaplaceinthethoughtsofEpicurusandhisdisciples,thattheyvaluedscienceonlyasarefutationofitsteaching,insteadofregardingitsimplyasanobstacletoberemovedfromthepathofenquiry.Morethanthis;theybecameinfectedwiththespiritofthatagainstwhichtheyfought,andtheirabsoluteindifferencetotruthwastheshadowwhichitcastontheirminds.

  • 如萱紫儿8FWYZ

    ThedistinctivefeaturesofEpicureanismhave,intruth,neverbeencopied,noraretheyeverlikelytobecopied,byanymodernsystem.Itarose,aswehaveseen,fromacombinationofcircumstanceswhichwillhardlyberepeatedinthefuturehistoryofthought.Astheheatandpressureofmoltengraniteturnsandstoneintoslate,soalsothemightysystemsofPlatoandAristotle,comingintocontactwiththeirreligious,sensual,empirical,andscepticalsideofAtticthought,forcedittoassumethatsortoflaminatedtexturewhichcharacterisesthetheoreticalphilosophyofEpicurus.And,attheverysamemoment,thedisappearanceofallpatriotismandpublicspiritfromAthenianlifeallowedtheolderelementsofAtheniancharacter,itsamiableegoism,itsloveoffrugalgratifications,itsaversionfrompurelyspeculativeinterests,tocreateanewandlooserbondofsocialunionamongthosewhowereindifferenttothevulgarobjectsofambition,butwhomtheaustererdoctrinesofStoicismhadfailedtoattract.

  • 但法国nD7rT

    ButifAristotlehadnothismaster’senthusiasmforpracticalreforms,norhismaster’scommandofalltheforcesbywhichhumanityisraisedtoahigherlife,hehad,moreeventhanhismaster,theGreekpassionforknowledgeassuch,apartfromitsutilitarianapplications,andembracinginitsvastorbthelowliestthingswiththeloftiest,themostfragmentaryglimpsesandthelargestrevelationsoftruth.Hedemandednothingbutthematerialsforgeneralisation,andtherewasnothingfromwhichhecouldnotgeneralise.Therewasaplaceforeverythingwithinthelimitsofhisworld-widesystem.Neverinanyhumansouldidthe309theorisingpassionburnwithsoclearandbrightandpureaflame.Underitsinspirationhisstylemorethanoncebreaksintoastrainofsublime,thoughsimpleandruggedeloquence.Speakingofthateternalthoughtwhich,accordingtohim,constitutesthedivineessence,heexclaims:

     

  • 大笨蛋cBrCp

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  • 扒皮成Zb9Zz

    Itisprobable,however,thatAristotle’spartialitywasdeterminedmorebythesystematisingandanalyticalcharacterofhisowngeniusthanbythepublicopinionofhisage;orrather,thesametendencywasatworkinphilosophyandinartatthesametime,andthetheoriesoftheonewereunconsciouslypre-adaptedtotheproductionsoftheother.Inboththerewasadecayofpenetrationandoforiginality,oflifeandofinspiration;inbothagreatdevelopmentofwhatevercouldbeobtainedbytechnicalproficiency;inbothanextensionofsurfaceattheexpenseofdepth,againoffluency,andalossofforce.Butpoetrylostfarmorethanphilosophybythechange;andsotheworksoftheonehaveperishedwhiletheworksoftheotherhavesurvived.

     ButeventhemostperfectmasteryofGreekwouldnot284havemadePlotinusasuccessfulwriter.Wearetoldthatbeforetakingupthepenhehadthoroughlythoughtouthiswholesubject;butthisisnottheimpressionproducedbyaperusaloftheEnneads.Onthecontrary,heseemstobethinkingashegoesalong,andtobecontinuallybesetbydifficultieswhichhehasnotforeseen.Thefrequentanddisorderlyinterruptionsbywhichhislectureswereatonetimedisturbedseemtohavemadetheirwayintohissolitarymeditations,breakingortanglingthethreadofsystematicexpositionateveryturn.Irrelevantquestionsareconstantlyintrudingthemselves,tobemetbyequallyirrelevantanswers.Thefirstmodeofexpressinganideaisfrequentlywithdrawn,andanotherputinitsplace,whichis,inmostcases,thelessintelligibleofthetwo;while,asageneralrule,whenwewanttoknowwhatathingis,Plotinusinformsuswithindefatigableprolixitywhatitisnot.

  • 草莓果Touja

     

  • 绿卡纸FDbnh

    Theobligationsofjusticecomenext.Theyaresummedupintwopreceptsthatleavenothingtobedesired:thefirstistodonoharmexceptinself-defence;thesecond,tobearourshareinaperpetualexchangeofgoodoffices.Andthefoundationofjusticeisrightlyplacedinthefaithfulfulfilmentofcontracts—anideaperhapssuggestedbyEpicurus.63Thevirtueoffortitudeistreatedwithsimilarbreadth,andsointerpretedastocoverthewholefieldofconduct,beingidentifiednotonlywithfearlessnessinthefaceofdanger,butwiththeenergeticperformanceofeveryduty.Inaword,itisopposedquiteasmuchtoslothfulnessandirresolutionastophysicaltimidity.64Temperancepreservesitsoldmeaningofareasonablerestraintexercisedovertheanimalpassionsanddesires;andfurthermore,itreceivesaveryrichsignificanceasthequalitybywhichweareenabledtodiscernandactuptothepartassignedtousinlifebynaturalendowment,socialposition,andindividualchoice.Butthis,asoneofthemostimportantideascontributedbyStoicismtosubsequentthought,mustbereservedforseparatediscussioninthefollowingsection.

     

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