《暗黑者3》上线 郭京飞能不能补回自己掉的粉

g4wDd-news 发布时间: 2020-07-07 03:25:55

“北京pk开奖统计”

Agreeinginthesound,notinthesense.

Or,again,wemaysaythattwoprinciples,—theNominalisticaswellastheRealistic,—arehereatwork.Byvirtueoftheone,SpinozamakesBeingsomethingbeyondandabovethefactsofexperience.Byvirtueoftheotherhereinvestsitwithconcretereality,butarealityaltogethertranscendingourpowersofimagination.Verymuch,also,thatPlotinussaysabouthisOnemightbeappliedtoSpinoza’sSubstance,butwithanewandpositivemeaning.TheFirstCauseisaboveexistence,butonlyexistenceasrestrictedwithintheverynarrowlimitsofourexperience,andonlyasinfiniterealitytranscendsthepartswhichitincludes.

Ofnaturethatcannotdie,III.

TheGreekloveofbalancedantithesisandcircumscribingformtriumphedovertheinfiniteinbothfields.Whilethetwogreatmastersofidealismimprisonedtheformlessandturbulentterrestrialelementswithinauniformandeternalsphereofcrystal,theyimposedasimilarrestraintonthedesiresandemotions,confiningthemwithinabarrierofreasonwhich,whenonceerected,couldneverbebrokenthrough.Andalthoughthegroundwoninphysicswaslostagainforatimethrougharevivalofoldtheories,thiswasbecausetrueHellenismfounditsonlycongenialspherein399ethics,andtherethephilosophyofthefinitecontinuedtoreignsupreme.IfthesuccessorsofAristotlefellbackoncosmologiesofamplerscopethanhis,theyretainedhislimitingmethodintheirspeculationsonman.

XenophonhasrecordedanotherdialogueinwhichayoungmannamedEuthydêmus,whowasalsointrainingforastatesman,andwho,ashesupposed,hadlearnedagreatdealmoreoutofbooksthanSocratescouldteachhim,isbroughttoseehowlittleheknowsaboutethicalscience.Heisasked,Canamanbeagoodcitizenwithoutbeingjust?No,hecannot.—CanEuthydêmustellwhatactsarejust?Yes,certainly,andalsowhatareunjust.—Underwhichheaddoesheputsuchactionsaslying,deceiving,harming,enslaving?—Undertheheadofinjustice.—Butsupposeahostilepeoplearetreatedinthevariousmannersspecified,isthatunjust?—No,butitwasunderstoodthatonlyone’sfriendsweremeant.—Well,ifageneralencourageshisownarmybyfalsestatements,orafatherdeceiveshischildintotakingmedicine,oryourfriendseemslikelytocommitsuicide,andyoupurloinadeadlyweaponfromhim,isthatunjust?—No,wemustadd‘forthepurposeofharming’toourdefinition.Socrates,however,doesnotstophere,butgoesoncross-examininguntiltheunhappystudentisreducedtoastateofhopelessbewildermentandshame.Heisthenbroughttoperceivethenecessityofself-knowledge,whichisexplainedtomeanknowledgeofone’sownpowers.AsafurtherexerciseEuthydêmusisputthroughhisfacingsonthesubjectofgoodandevil.Health,wealth,strength,wisdomandbeautyarementionedasunquestionablegoods.Socratesshows,inthestylelongafterwardsimitatedbyJuvenal,that141theyareonlymeanstowardsanend,andmaybeproductiveofharmnolessthangood.—Happinessatanyrateisanunquestionablegood.—Yes,unlesswemakeitconsistofquestionablegoodslikethosejustenumerated.91I.

NexttoTemperancecomesFortitude;andwithitthedifficultiesofreconcilingEpicureanismwiththeordinarymoralityareconsiderablyincreased.Theoldconceptionofthisvirtuewaswillingnesstofacepainanddeathonbehalfofanoblecause,138whichwouldbegenerallyunderstoodtomeanthesalvationoffamily,friends,andfatherland;andtheultimatesanctionofsuchself-devotionwasfoundinthepressureofpublicopinion.Idealisticphilosophy,takingstillhigherground,not69onlyrefusedtobalancethefearofpainanddeathagainstthefearofinfamyorthehopeofapplause,butaddedpublicopiniontotheconsiderationswhichagoodmaninthedischargeofhisdutywould,ifnecessary,despise.Epicurusalsoinculcateddisregardforreputation,exceptwhenitmightleadtoinconveniencesofatangibledescription;139buthehadnothingbeyondthecalculationsofself-interesttoputinitsplace.Amodernutilitarianisboundtoundergolossandsufferinginhisownpersonforthepreventionofgreaterlossandsufferingelsewhere;anegoistichedonistcannotconsistentlybebrave,exceptforthesakeofhisownfuturesecurity.ThemethodbywhichEpicurusreconciledinterestwithcouragewastominimisetheimportanceofwhateverinjuriescouldbeinflictedbyexternalcircumstances;justasinhistheoryofTemperancehehadminimisedtheimportanceofbodilypleasures.Howhedisposedofdeathwillbestbeseeninconnexionwithhisphysicalphilosophy.Painheencounteredbyemphasising,orratherimmenselyexaggerating,themind’spowerofannullingexternalsensationbyconcentratingitswholeattentiononrememberedoranticipatedpleasures,orelseonthecertaintythatpresentsufferingmustcometoanend,andtoamorespeedyendinproportiontoitsgreaterseverity.Wearetoholdafireinourhand,partlybythinkingofthefrostyCaucasus,partlybythecomfortingreflectionthatthepainofaburn,beingintense,willnotbeoflongduration;while,atworst,liketheStoics,wehavetheresourceofsuicideasalastrefugefromintolerablesuffering.140

OnAlexander’sdeparturefortheEast,AristotlereturnedtoAthens,wherehenowplacedhimselfattheheadofanewphilosophicalschool.Theensuingperiodofthirteenyears288wasfullyoccupiedbythedeliveryofpubliclectures,andbythecompositionofthoseencyclopaedicwritingswhichwillpreservehismemoryforever,along,perhaps,withmanyotherswhichhavenotsurvived.LikeAnaxagoras,hewasnotallowedtoendhisdaysinthecityofhisadoption.HisyouthfulattacksonIsocrateshadprobablymadehimmanyenemiesamongthatrhetor’spupils.ItissupposedbyGrote,butwarmlydisputedbyZeller,thathistrenchantcriticismsonPlatohadexcitedasimilaranimosityamongthesectariesoftheAcademy.178Anyhow,circumstanceshadunavoidablyassociatedhimwiththedetestedMacedonianparty,althoughhisposition,asametic,orresidentalien,debarredhimfromtakinganyactivepartinpolitics.WithAlexander’sdeaththestormbrokeloose.AchargewastrumpedupagainstAristotle,onthestrengthofhisunluckypoeminhonourofHermeias,whichwasdescribedasaninsulttoreligion.ThatsuchanaccusationshouldbechosenischaracteristicofAthenianbigotry,evenshouldtherebenotruthinthestorythatcertainphilosophicalopinionsofhiswerelikewisesingledoutforprosecution.Beforethecasecameonfortrial,Aristotleavailedhimselfoftheusualprivilegeallowedonsuchoccasions,andwithdrewtoChalcis,inorder,ashesaid,thattheAtheniansneednotsinasecondtimeagainstphilosophy.Buthisconstitution,naturallyafeebleone,wasnearlywornout.Ayearafterwardshesuccumbedtoastomachcomplaint,aggravated,ifnotproduced,byincessantmentalapplication.Hiscontemporary,Demosthenes,perishedaboutthesametime,andatthesameage,sixty-two.Withinlittlemorethanatwelvemonththeworldhadlostitsthreegreatestmen;andafterthreecenturiesofuninterruptedglory,Hellaswasleftunrepresentedbyasingleindividualofcommandinggenius.

Nosoonerdidthetwoimperialsystemslosetheirascendencythanthegermswhichtheyhadtemporarilyovershadowedsprangupintovigorousvitality,andformorethan4fivecenturiesdominatedthewholecoursenotonlyofGreekbutofEuropeanthought.Ofthesebyfarthemostimportantwasthenaturalisticidea,thebeliefthatphysicalsciencemightbesubstitutedforreligioussuperstitionsandlocalconventionsasanimpregnablebasisofconduct.Inaformerchapter1weendeavouredtoshowthat,whiletherearetracesofthisideainthephilosophyofHeracleitus,andwhileitsrootsstretchfarbackintotheliteratureandpopularfaithofGreece,itwasformulatedforthefirsttimebythetwogreatSophists,ProdicusandHippias,who,inthemomentousdivisionbetweenNatureandLaw,placedthemselves—Hippiasmoreparticularly—onthesideofNature.Twocausesledtothetemporarydiscreditoftheirteaching.Onewastheperversionbywhichnaturalrightbecamethewatchwordofthosewho,likePlato’sCallicles,heldthatnothingshouldstandbetweenthestrongmanandthegratificationofhisdesireforpleasureorforpower.TheotherwasthekeencriticismoftheHumanists,thefriendsofsocialconvention,whoheldwithProtagorasthatNaturewasunknowable,orwithGorgiasthatshedidnotexist,orwithSocratesthatherlawswerethesecretofthegods.ItwasinparticulartheoverwhelmingpersonalinfluenceofSocrateswhichtriumphed.HedrewawayfromtheSophiststheirstrongestdisciple,Antisthenes,andconvincedhimthatphilosophywasvaluableonlyinsofarasitbecamealife-renovatingpower,andthat,viewedinthislight,ithadnorelationtoanythingoutsideourselves.ButjustasSocrateshaddiscardedthephysicalspeculationsofformerteachers,soalsodidAntisthenesdiscardthedialecticwhichSocrateshadsubstitutedforthem,eventotheextentofdenyingthatdefinitionwaspossible.2Yetheseemstohavekeptafirmholdonthetwogreatideasthatwerethenetresultofallpreviousphilosophy,theideaofacosmos,thecommoncitizenshipofwhichmadeallmen5potentiallyequal,3andtheideaofreasonastheessentialprerogativeofman.4

AccordingtoBacon,theobjectofscienceistoanalysethecomplexofFormsmakingupanindividualaggregateintoitsseparateconstituents;theobjectofart,tosuperinduceoneormoresuchFormsonagivenmaterial.HencehismannerofregardingthemdiffersinoneimportantrespectfromAristotle’s.TheGreeknaturalistwas,beforeallthings,abiologist.Hisinterestlaywiththedistinguishingcharacteristicsofanimalspecies.Theseareeasilydiscoveredbytheunassistedeye;butwhiletheyarecomparativelysuperficial,theyarealsocomparativelyunalterable.TheEnglishexperimenter,beingprimarilyconcernedwithinorganicbodies,whosepropertieshedesiredtoutiliseforindustrialpurposes,wasledtoconsidertheattributesofanobjectasatoncepenetratingitsinmosttexture,andyetcapableofbeingseparatedfromit,likeheatandcolourforinstance.But,likeeveryotherthinkeroftheage,ifheescapesfromthecontrolofAristotleitisonlytofallunderthedominionofanotherGreekmaster—inthisinstance,Democritus.BaconhadagreatadmirationfortheAtomists,andalthoughhisinveteratePeripateticproclivitiespreventedhimfromembracingtheirtheoryasawhole,hewentalongwithitsofarastoadmitthedependenceofthesecondaryontheprimaryqualitiesofmatter;andonthestrengthofthisheconcludedthatthewaytoalterthepropertiesofanobjectwastoalterthearrangementofitscomponentparticles.

ThatPhilo’sinterpretationofPlatonismultimatelyreactedonGreekthoughtseemscertain,butatwhatdatehisinfluencebegantotell,andhowfaritreached,mustremainundecided.PlutarchspeaksofGod’spurityandofhistranscendentelevationabovetheuniverseinlanguagecloselyresemblingthatoftheAlexandrianJew,withwhoseopinionshemayhavebeenindirectlyacquainted.400Wehavealreadyseenhowthedaemonswereemployedtofilluptheintervalthuscreated,andwhatseriousconcessionstopopularsuperstitionthebeliefintheiractivityinvolved.StillPlutarch259doesnotgosofarastosaythattheworldwasnotcreatedbyGod.ThisstepwastakenbyNumenius,aphilosopherwhoflourishedaboutthemiddleofthesecondcentury,andwhorepresentsthecompleteidentificationofPlatonismwithPythagoreanism,alreadymentionedascharacteristicoftheperiodfollowingthatdate.NumeniusisacquaintedwithPhilo’sspeculations,andacceptshisderivationofPlatonismfromthePentateuch.‘What,’heasks,‘isPlatobutaMoseswritingintheAtticdialect?’401Healsoacceptsthetheorythattheworldwascreatedbyasingleintermediateagent,whom,however,hecreditswithamuchmoredistinctandindependentpersonalitythanPhilocouldseehiswaytoadmitting.Andheregardsthehumansoulasafallenspiritwhoselifeonearthistheconsequenceofitsownsinfuldesires.Fromsuchfanciestherewasbutasinglesteptothemorethorough-goingdualismwhichlooksonthematerialworldasentirelyevil,andasthecreationofablindormalevolentpower.ThisstephadalreadybeentakenbyGnosticism.Thesystemsocalledsummedupinitself,morecompletely,perhaps,thananyother,alltheconvergentorconflictingideasoftheage.GreekmythologyandGreekphilosophy,Zoroastrianism,Judaism,andChristianityeachcontributedanelementtothefantasticandcomplicatedschemepropoundedbyitslastgreatrepresentative,Valentinus.ThisteacherpitcheshisconceptionofthesupremeGodevenhigherthanPhilo,andplaceshim,likePlato’sabsoluteGood,outsidethesphereofbeing.Fromhim—orit—asfromabottomlessgulfproceedavastseriesofemanationsendingintheDemiurgusorcreatorofthevisibleworld,whoseactionisdescribed,inlanguagevividlyrecallingthespeculationsofcertainmodernmetaphysicians,asanenormousblunder.For,accordingtoGnosticism,theworldisnotmerelyinfectedwithevilbyparticipationinamaterialprinciple,itisevilaltogether,andaspecialinterventionof260thehigherpowersisneededinordertoundotheworkofitsdeliriousauthor.402HerewehaveaparticularsideofPlato’sphilosophyexaggeratedanddistortedbycontactwithZoroastriandualism.IntheStatesmanthereisamythicaldescriptionoftwoalternatecycles,inoneofwhichtheworldisgovernedbyawiseprovidence,whileintheotherthingsareabandonedtothemselves,andmoveinadirectionthereverseofthatoriginallyimposedonthem.ItisinthelattercyclethatPlatosupposesustobemovingatpresent.403Again,afterhavingbeenlongcontenttoexplaintheoriginofevilbytheresistanceofinertmattertotheinformingpowerofidealgoodness,Platogoesastepfurtherinhislatestwork,theLaws,andhazardsthehypothesisofanevilsoulactivelycounterworkingthebeneficentdesignsofGod.404AndwefindthesameideasubsequentlytakenupbyPlutarch,whoseesinitthemostefficientmeansforexoneratingGodfromallshareintheresponsibilityforphysicaldisorderandmoralwrong.405Butbothmasteranddisciplerestrictedtheinfluenceoftheirsupposedevilsoulwithinverynarrowlimits,andtheywouldhaverepudiatedwithhorrorsuchanotionasthatthewholevisibleworldisaproductoffollyorofsin.

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  • 雨花郡主JrIGf

     

  • 雪灵芝Z4TV7

    Disjunctionis,intruth,theprimordialformofallreasoning,outofwhichtheotherformsaresuccessivelyevolved;and,assuch,itiscommontomanwiththeloweranimals.Youaretakingawalkinthecountrywithyourdog.Youcometoastreamandjumpoverit.Onmeasuringthedistancewithhiseye,theanimalisafraidtofollowyou.Afterwaitingalittle,hefirstrunsupstreaminsearchofacrossing,and,findingnone,returnstolookforoneintheoppositedirection.Failingtherealso,hecomesbackoncemore,andeitherventuresontheleapormakeshiswayhomebysomeotherroute.Now,onconsideringthematteralittlemore382closely,weshallfindthathypotheticalreasoningtakesitsrisefromtheexaminationofeachseparatealternativepresentedbyadisjunctivepremise.Apluralityofcoursesbeingopentous,weconsiderwhatwillensueontheacceptanceorrejectionofeach.Thedoginourillustrationthinks(afteracaninefashion)thatifhejumpshemayfallin;ifhedoesnot,hewillbeleftbehind.Hectorwillnottakerefugewithinthewalls,because,ifhedoes,Polydamaswilltriumphoverhim;norwillheoffertermsofpeace,because,ifhedoes,Achilleswillrefusethem.Oncemore,categoricalreasoningisdevelopedoutofhypotheticalreasoningbythenecessityofdeducingconsequencesfromageneralrule.HectormusthavearguedfromtheknowncharactersofPolydamasandAchilles,thatincertaincircumstancestheywouldactafteracertainmanner.Wemayadd,thatthisprogressofconsciousreasoningisareproductionoftheunconsciouslogicaccordingtowhichlifeitselfisevolved.Allsortsofcombinationsarespontaneouslyproduced,which,inconsequenceofthestruggleforexistence,cannotallsurvive.Thoseadaptedtotheconditionsoflifeareselected,ontrial,attheexpenseoftherest;andtheiradaptationornon-adaptationisdeterminedinaccordancewithcategoricallaws.Furthermore,theframingofadisjunctivepropositionnecessitatesthesystematicdistributionofpossibilitiesundermutuallyexclusiveheads,thusinvolvingthelogicalprocessesofdefinition,division,andclassification.Dialectic,asPlatounderstoodit,consistedalmostentirelyinthejointperformanceoftheseoperations;—aprocesswhichAristotleregardsastheimmediatebutveryimperfectprecursorofhisownsyllogisticmethod.276Youcannot,hesays,proveanythingbydividing,forinstance,alllivingthingsintothetwoclasses,mortalandimmortal;unless,indeed,youassumetheverypointunderdiscussion—towhichclassaparticularspeciesbelongs.Yetthisishowheconstantlyreasonshimself;andevendemonstrativereason383ing,asheinterpretsit,impliesthepossessionofaready-madeclassification.For,accordingtohim,itconsistsexclusivelyofpropositionswhichpredicatesomeessentialattributeofathing—inotherwords,someattributealreadyincludedinthedefinitionofthesubject;andacontinuousseriesofsuchdefinitionscanonlybegivenbyafixedclassificationofthings.

  • 如萱紫儿eHIJW

    OnesymptomofthisreactionwasthefashionablearchaismoftheAugustanage,thetendencytodespisewhateverwasnewinliterature,andtoexaltwhateverwasold.ItiswellknownhowfeelinglyHoracecomplainsofamovementwhichwasusedtodamagehisownreputationasapoet;309butwhatseemstohaveescapedobservationis,thatthisprotestagainsttheliteraryarchaismofhiscontemporariesisonlyonesymptomofamuchprofounderdivisionbetweenhisphilosophyandtheirs.Hewasjustasgoodapatriotastheywere,buthissympathieswerewiththeHellenisingaristocracytowhichLucretiusandCicerohadbelonged,notwiththenarrow-mindedconservatismofthemiddleclassesandthecountrypeople.Hewasamanofprogressandfree-thought,whoacceptedtheempireforwhatitmightbeworth,aRomanProsperMeriméeorSainte-Beuve,whosepreferenceofordertoanarchydidnotinvolveanyrespectforsuperstitiousbeliefssimplybecausetheyweresupportedbyauthority.Andthishealthycommonsenseissomuchapartofhischaracter,thathesometimesgiveshismistressesthebenefitofit,warningLeuconoeagainsttheBabyloniansoothsayers,andtelling202Phidylethatthegodsshouldbeapproachednotonlywithsacrificesbutwithcleanhands.310Yetsostrongwasthespiritoftheage,thatthescepticalpoetoccasionallyfeelshimselfobligedtosecondortoapplaudtheworkofrestorationundertakenbyAugustus,andtoaugurfromit,withmoreorlesssincerity,areformationinprivatelife.311AndeventhefrivolousOvidmaybesupposedtohavehadthesameobjectinviewwhencomposinghisFasti.

  • 但法国NvZdo

    TheEpicureanphilosophyoflifeandmindiscompletedbyasketchofhumanprogressfromitsearliestbeginningstothecompleteestablishmentofcivilisation.HereourprincipalauthorityisLucretius;andnopartofhisgreatpoemhasattractedsomuchattentionandadmirationinrecenttimesasthatinwhichhesovividlyplacesbeforeustheconditionofprimitivemenwithallitsmiseries,andtheslowstepswherebyfamilylife,civilsociety,religion,industry,andsciencearoseoutoftheoriginalchaosandwarofallagainsteach.Butitseemslikelythathere,aselsewhere,Lucretiusdidnomorethancopyandcolourtheoutlinesalreadytracedbyhismaster’shand.189HowfarEpicurushimselfistobecreditedwiththisbrilliantforecastofmodernresearchesintothehistoryofcivilisation,isamoredifficultquestion.Whenwe99considerthatthemostimportantpartsofhisphilosophywerecompiledfromoldersystems,andthattheadditionsmadebyhimselfdonotindicateanygreatcapacityfororiginalresearch,weareforcedtoconcludethat,herealso,heisindebtedtosomeauthoritywhosenamehasnotbeenpreserved.Thedevelopmentofcivilisationoutofbarbarismseems,indeed,tohavebeenastandingdoctrineofGreekHumanism,justastheoppositedoctrineofdegeneracywascharacteristicofthenaturalisticschool.ItisimpliedinthediscourseofProtagorasreportedbyPlato,andalso,althoughlessfully,intheintroductiontotheHistoryofThucydides.PlatoandAristotletracebacktheintellectualandsocialprogressofmankindtoveryrudebeginnings;whilebothwritersassumethatitwaseffectedwithoutanysupernaturalaid—apointmarkedtotheexclusivecreditofEpicurusbyM.Guyau.190Theoldnotionofagoldenage,acceptedasitwasbysopowerfulaschoolasStoicism,musthavebeenthechiefobstacletoabeliefinprogress;butthePrometheusofAeschylus,withitsvividpictureofthemiseriessufferedbyprimitivementhroughtheirignoranceoftheusefularts,showsthatatruerconceptionhadalreadygainedgroundquiteindependentlyofphilosophictheories.Thattheprimitivestatewasoneoflawlessviolencewasdeclaredbyanotherdramaticpoet,Critias,whohasalsomuchtosayaboutthecivilisingfunctionofreligion;191andshortlybeforethetimeofEpicurusthesameviewwasputforwardbyEuphorion,inapassageofwhich,asitwillprobablybenewtomanyofourreaders,wesubjoinatranslation:—

     IfthereareanywhovalueAristotleasachampionofspiritualism,theymusttakehimwithhisencumbrances.Ifhisphilosophyprovesthatonepartofthesoulisimmaterial,itprovesequallythatthesoul,takingitaltogether,isperishable.NotonlydoesherejectPlato’smetempsychosisasinconsistentwithphysiology,buthedeclaresthataffection,memory,andreasoningarefunctionsnotoftheeternalNous,butofthewholeman,andcometoanendwithhisdissolution.AstotheactiveNous,hetellsusthatitcannotthinkwithouttheassistanceofthepassiveNous,whichismortal.Andtherearevariouspassagesinthe‘NicomacheanEthics’showingthathehadfacedthisnegationofafuturelife,andwasperfectlyresignedtoitsconsequences.272Atoneperiodofhislife,probablywhenundertheimmediateinfluenceofPlato,hehadindulged375indreamsofimmortality;butaprofounderacquaintancewithnaturalsciencesufficedtodissipatethem.Perhapsalingeringvenerationforhisteachermadehimpurposelyuseambiguouslanguageinreferencetotheeternityofthatcreativereasonwhichhehadsocloselyassociatedwithself-consciousness.ItmayremindusofSpinoza’scelebratedproposition,Sentimusexperimurquenosaeternosesse,wordsabsolutelydisconnectedwiththehopeofacontinuedexistenceoftheindividualafterdeath,butapparentlyintendedtoenlistsomeofthesentimentassociatedwiththatbeliefonthesideofthewriter’sownphilosophy.

  • 大笨蛋xqB7C

    v

  • 扒皮成s9zOM

    ThephysicsofStoicismwas,intruth,thescaffoldingratherthanthefoundationofitsethicalsuperstructure.Therealfoundationwasthenecessityofsocialexistence,formulatedundertheinfluenceofalogicalexclusivenessfirstintroducedbyParmenides,andinheritedfromhisteachingbyeverysystemofphilosophyinturn.YetthereisnodoubtthatStoicmoralitywasconsiderablystrengthenedandsteadiedbythesupportitfoundinconceptionsderivedfromadifferentorderofspeculations;somuchsothatatlastitgrewtoconsciousindependenceofthatsupport.

     ItwillbeseenthattheStoicscondemnedpassionnotasthecauseofimmoralactionsbutasintrinsicallyviciousinitself.Hencetheircensureextendedtotherapturousdelightandpassionategriefwhichseementirelyoutofrelationtoconductproperlysocalled.Thiswasequivalenttosayingthatthewillhascompletecontroloveremotion;adoctrinewhichourphilosophersdidnotshrinkfrommaintaining.It24mighthavebeensupposedthatapositionwhichthemostextremesupportersoffree-willwouldhardlyaccept,wouldfindstilllessfavourwithanavowedlynecessarianschool.Andtoregardtheemotionsaseitherthemselvesbeliefs,orasinevitablycausedbybeliefs,wouldseemtoremovethemevenfartherfromthesphereofmoralresponsibility.TheStoics,however,havingarrivedattheperfectlytruedoctrinethatjudgmentisaformofvolition,seemtohaveimmediatelyinvesteditassuchwiththeoldassociationsoffreechoicewhichtheywereatthesametimebusilyengagedinstrippingofffromotherexercisesofthesamefaculty.TheytookuptheSocraticparadoxthatvirtueisknowledge;buttheywouldnotagreewithSocratesthatitcouldbeinstilledbyforceofargument.Tothemvicewasnotsomuchignoranceastheobstinaterefusaltobeconvinced.54

  • 草莓果GPFkk

    enwrapt,thelightningwieldest;

     ItisonlyasareligiousphilosophythatNeo-Pythagoreanismcaninterestushere.Consideredinthislight,theprinciplesofitsadherentsmaybesummedupundertwoheads.First,theytaughttheseparateexistenceofspiritasopposedtomatter.UnliketheStoics,theydistinguishedbetweenGodandNature,althoughtheywerenotagreedastowhethertheirSupremeBeingtranscendedtheworldorwasimmanentinit.This,however,didnotinterferewiththeirfundamentalcontention,foreitheralternativeisconsistentwithhisabsoluteimmateriality.Inlikemanner,thehumansoulisabsolutelyindependentofthebodywhichitanimates;ithasexistedandwillcontinuetoexistforever.Thewholeobjectofethics,orratherofreligion,istoenforceandillustratethisindependence,topreventthesoulfrombecomingattachedtoitsprison-housebyindulgenceinsensualpleasures,toguarditshabitationagainstdefilingcontactwiththemoreoffensiveformsofmaterialimpurity.Hencetheirrecommendationofabstinencefromwine,fromanimalfood,andfrommarriage,theirprovisionsforpersonalcleanliness,theiruseoflineninsteadofwoollengarments,undertheideathatavegetableispurerthanananimaltissue.ThesecondarticleofthePythagoreancreedisthatspirit,beingsuperiortomatter,hasthepowerofinterferingwithandcontrollingitsmovements,that,beingabovespaceandtime,itcanbemademanifestwithoutanyregardtotheconditionswhichtheyordinarilyimpose.Towhatanextentthisbeliefwascarried,isshownbythestoriestoldofPythagoras,thesupposedfounderoftheschool,andApolloniusofTyana,itsstillgreaterrepresentativeinthefirstcenturyofourera.Bothwerecreditedwithanextraordinarypowerofworkingmiraclesandofpredictingfutureevents;but,contrarytotheusualcustomofmythologers,alargermeasureofthispowerwasascribedtotheonewholivedinamoreadvancedstageofcivilisation,andthecompositionofwhosebiographywasseparatedbya250comparativelyshortintervalfromtheeventswhichitprofessestorelate.389

  • 绿卡纸Rfrng

     

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