新华社:战韩国完败之后

TXCvc-news 发布时间: 2020-07-14 03:48:11

“北京pk五码计划网”Whilstthesegiganticarmiesweredrawingtowardseachother,intheearlypartofAugust,forwhatwasafterwardscalled"thegrandbattleofthepeoples,"theweatherseemedasthoughitwouldrenewitsRussianmiseriesontheFrench.Theyhadtomarchinconstantlydelugingrains,uptothekneesinmud,andtorisktheirlivesbycrossingfloodedrivers.Amidthesebuffetingsoftheelementstheconflictbegan,onthe21stofAugust,betweenWalmodenandDavoust,atVellahn.Afewdaysafterwards,inaskirmishwithWalmoden'soutpostsatGadebusch,Korner,theyouthfulTyrt?usofGermany,fell.

[Seelargerversion]

Haveaturnipthanhisfather.

Inthecourseof1810theFrenchwereexpelledcompletelyfromtheEastandWestIndies,andtheIndianOcean.Guadeloupe,thelastoftheirWestIndiaIslands,wascapturedinFebruary,byanexpeditionconductedbyGeneralBeckfordandAdmiralSirA.Cochrane.InJulyanarmament,sentoutbyLordMintofromIndia,andheadedbyLieutenant-ColonelKeating,reducedtheIsleofBourbon;and,beingreinforcedbyabodyoftroopsfromtheCapeofGoodHope,underMajor-GeneralJohnAbercrombyandAdmiralBertie,theIsleofFrance,muchthemoreimportant,andgenerallycalledMauritius,surrenderedonthe3rdofDecember.Besides[608]avastquantityofstoresandmerchandise,fivefrigatesandaboutthirtymerchantmenweretaken;andMauritiusbecameapermanentBritishcolony.FromthisplaceasquadronproceededtodestroytheFrenchfactoriesonthecoastofMadagascar,andfinishedbycompletelyexpellingthemfromthoseseas.Onthe22ndofAprilMr.O'Connellbroughtforwardaverycomprehensivemotion.ItwasforaselectcommitteetoinquireandreportonthemeansbywhichthedestructionoftheIrishParliamenthadbeeneffected;ontheresultsoftheunionuponIreland,anduponthelabourersinhusbandryandoperativesinmanufacturesinEngland;andontheprobableconsequencesof[371]continuingtheLegislativeunionbetweenGreatBritainandIreland.ThismotionoriginatedadebateontheRepealquestionwhichlastedfourdays.O'Connellhimselfspokeforsixhours.ThedebatewaschieflymemorableforaspeechofMr.Spring-Rice,indefenceoftheunion,whichalsooccupiedsixhoursinthedelivery.HeconcludedbyproposinganamendmenttotheeffectthatanAddressshouldbepresentedtothekingbybothHousesofParliament,expressingtheirdeterminationtomaintaintheLegislativeunioninviolate.InaveryfullHousetheamendmentwascarriedbyanoverwhelmingmajority,thenumbersbeingfor,523;against,38.Mr.Spring-Rice'sspeechservedtheGovernmentmaterially,whilebytheConservativesitwasregardedas"adamper"totheirownhopes.

Accordingly,petitionsweresentinfromseveraloftheprincipalmen-of-warlyingatPortsmouth,toLordHowe,thecommanderoftheChannelfleet,prayinghimtointercedewiththeAdmiraltyforthesameliberalitytowardstheseamenoftheroyalnavyandtheirfamiliesashadbeenshowntothearmyandmilitia,inincreaseofpayandbetterprovisions.LordHowe,insteadofcomplyingwiththisreasonabledesire,sentthepetitionstotheport-admiral,SirPeterParker,andtoLordBridport,whocommandedtheChannelfleetunderHowe.Theytreatedthepetitionsastheworkofsomeill-disposedperson,andthereforeofnoconsequence;butParkerwasverysooncompelledtoinformLordSpencer,theheadoftheAdmiralty,thathehaddiscoveredthattherewasageneralconspiracytotakethecommandoftheshipsfromtheofficersonthe16thofApril.Totestthis,orderswereimmediatelyissuedtoputouttosea;andthemomentthatLordBridportsignalledthisordertothefleet,theeffectwasseen.Thesailorsallranupintotheriggingandgaveseveraltremendouscheers.Theyinstantlyfollowedupthisbytakingthecommandfromtheofficers,andsendingtwodelegatesfromeachshiptomeetonboardtheQueenCharlotte,LordHowe'sflagship.Theythenceissuedordersforalltheseamentoswearfidelitytothecause,andthenextdaytheyallswore.Theykeptpartoftheofficersonboardashostages,andputothers,whomtheyaccusedofoppression,onshore.Theynextpassedresolutionstomaintainorder,andtreattheconfinedofficerswithallduerespect.TheythendrewupapetitiontotheAdmiraltystatingtheirgrievances,andrespectfullyprayingforredress.ThisbroughtdowntoPortsmouthLordSpencer,andotherlordsoftheAdmiralty,wheretheymetincouncilwithBridportandotheradmirals.Hadtheseadmiralsshownaproperattentiontothehealthandclaimsofthesemen,theirgrievancesmustlongagohaveceased;butthoughtheywereperfectlywellawareofthem,theynowproposed,alongwiththeAdmiralty,torecommendthegrantingofpartoftheirdemands.Thedeputiesrepliedthattheysoughtnothingbutwhatwasreasonable,andwouldnever[456]liftananchortillthosetermsweregranted.ThisAdmiraltycommitteethenofferedsomeoftheterms,butleftouttheproposalthatthepensionsoftheGreenwichveteransshouldberaisedfromsevenpoundstotenpounds,andthecrewsofmen-of-warshouldhavevegetableswheninport.Thesailors,indignantatthismiserableparsimony,returnedonboardandhoistedtheredflagateverymast-head.Thiswasasignthatnoconcessionwouldbemade.Yet,onthe22nd,thedelegatesaddressedletterstotheAdmiralty,andtoLordBridport,firm,butrespectful.Governmentthentrieditsusualresource,theproclamationofapardon,butwithouttakingnoticeofthenecessaryconcessions.Withthisproclamation,LordBridportwentthenextdayonboardtheRoyalGeorge,andassuredtheseamenthathehadbroughtaroyalpardon,andalsotheredressofalltheirgrievances.Onthisassurance,thecrewhauleddowntheredflag,andalltheothershipsdidthesame.

[429]

AmongstthemostdistinguishedofthisseriesofarchitectsisJamesGibbs,who,afterstudyinginItaly,returnedtoEnglandintimetosecuretheerectionofsomeofthefiftychurchesorderedtobebuiltinthemetropolisanditsvicinityinthetenthyearofQueenAnne.Thefirstwhichhebuiltishisfinest—St.Martin's,atthenorth-eastcornerofTrafalgarSquare.[160]BesidesSt.Martin's,GibbswasthearchitectofSt.Mary's,intheStrand;ofMaryleboneChapel;ofthebodyofAllSaints',Derby—anincongruousadditiontoafineoldGothictower;oftheRadcliffeLibrary,atOxford;ofthewestsideofthequadrangleofKing'sCollege,andoftheSenateHouse,Cambridge,leftincomplete.IntheselatterworksSirJamesBurrows,thedesignerofthebeautifulchapelofClareHall,inthesameuniversity,wasalsoconcerned.Gibbswas,moreover,thearchitectofSt.Bartholomew'sHospital.

ThethirdtopicdiscussedattheseconferenceswasthenatureoftherelationsthensubsistingbetweenFranceandSpain,andtheprojectsoftheformerpowerinreferencetothelatter.ThesewereexplainedbytheMinisterwithoutanyreserve,andwithnosymptomsofapprehensionthattheywouldbedisagreeabletoBritain,orofanxietyastotheresult,whethertheyweresoornot.Hefranklyavowedthat,undercoverofthesanitarycordon,100,000Frenchtroopswereassembled;thatitwasproposedtothrowthemintwocolumnsintoSpain;thatonecolumn,of40,000men,wastopassintoCatalonia,whiletheother,of60,000,wastomarchbythegreatroadthroughIrunuponMadrid.Hestatedthatthesoleobjectofthisinvasionwastoinsurethepersonalsafetyoftheking,toaffordhimtheopportunitytocollectanativeforcestrongenoughtoenablehimtoprotecthimselfagainsttheschemesoftheRevolutionists—thatis,toputdowntheConstitution.Ofcourse,Francesaidsheentertainednoviewsofconquestoraggrandisement,orevenofprolongedoccupation.ShewouldwithdrawhertroopswhenevertheKingofSpainsaidhecoulddowithoutthem,andyieldupeveryinchofterritory.InreferencetothismattertheDukeofWellingtonwrotehomeforinstructions,andinreplyCanningsaid:—"IftherebeadeterminedprojecttointerferebyforceorbymenaceinthepresentstruggleinSpain,soconvincedarehisMajesty'sGovernmentoftheuselessnessanddangerofanysuchinterference—soobjectionabledoesitappeartotheminprinciple,aswellasutterlyimpracticableinexecution—thatwhenthenecessityarises—or,Iwouldrathersay,whentheopportunityoffers—Iamtoinstructyourgraceatoncefranklyandperemptorilytodeclarethattoanysuchinterference,comewhatmay,hisMajestywillnotbeaparty."TosaythatEnglandperemptorilydeclined"tobeaparty"totheinvasionofanindependentstate,inordertoforceuponthepeopleagovernmentcontrarytotheirwill,wasnotsayingverymuch,norputtingtheobjectionverystrongly.Weareassured,however,thattheDukesteadilysethisfaceagainsttheproject,pointingoutthatthestepwouldbenotonlyunjust,butimpolitic;thatitwouldprecipitatethecatastrophewhichtheFrenchGovernmentfeared;thattheRevolutionistswouldprobablyremoveFerdinandfromMadridassoonastheyheardofthepassingofthefrontierbytheFrenchtroops,andthat,evenifthesetroopsshouldreachthecapital,theSpaniardswouldnotthereforesubmit,norwouldthekingbesetatliberty.HearguedthatawarbetweenFranceandSpainforsuchapurposewouldbepronouncedawartoputdownfreeinstitutions,andthatifFrancesoughtthesupportofherallies,theonlyoneamongstthemthathadfreeinstitutionswouldfeelitherdutytomeetsucharequestwitharefusal.Europewouldberangedintotwohostilecamps,thatofabsolutismontheonesideandofrevolutionontheother;amidwhichnotthronesonly,butsettledgovernmentsineveryform,mightbeoverthrown.Inreplytothesearguments,boththekingandhisMinisterstatedthatwhateverFrancemightdointhemattershewoulddosingle-handed,andthatshewouldnotonlynotapplyforassistancefromwithout,butthat,ifsuchassistancewereoffered,shewouldrefuseit.TheDukecouldnot,however,prevailupontheFrenchGovernmenttorefrainfrombringingthequestionbetweenFrance[234]andSpainbeforetheCongress.ThekingandhisMinisterbothcontendedthatvastmoralgoodwouldaccruefromajointremonstranceonthepartoftheAlliesagainstthetreatmenttowhichtheKingofSpainwassubjected,andajointthreatthatifanyviolencewereofferedtohispersonorfamilyallwouldunitetoavengetheoutrage.

Buttheseproceedingshadnotbeeneffectedwithoutcontinualtumults.OnthedaythatWilkeswasarrestedbyorderoftheKing'sBench(the27thofApril),and,beingrefusedbail,wassenttotheKing'sBenchprison,themobstoppedthehackneycoachasitproceededoverWestminsterBridge,tookoutthehorses,and,withshoutsof"WilkesandLiberty!"drewhim,nottotheprison,butintotheCity,andtookhimintoataverninCornhill,wheretheykepthimtillmidnight,declaringthatheshouldenjoyhisfreedominspiteofthelaw.ButWilkesknewhispositionbetterthanhischampions,and,stealingaway,hewentvoluntarilytotheKing'sBench,andsurrenderedhimself.Thenextmorning,whenthemobknewthathewasinprison,theyassembledinfuriousthrongs,anddemanded,underthemostterriblemenaces,hisliberation.TheywereatlengthdispersedbyadetachmentofHorseGuards,butnotuntilthemobhadabusedandpeltedthesoldiers.Theseriotswerekeptupindifferentplacesfromdaytoday;andonthe10thofMay,twentypeoplewerekilledorwounded.Whenthesoldierswhohadfiredontherioterswerebroughttotrial,theywerenotonlyacquitted,butthenewParliamentvotedloyaladdressesontheoccasion;andtheGovernment,throughLordBarrington,theSecretaryatWar,andintheking'sname,thankedpubliclytheofficersandmenfortheirsignalserviceinprotectingthepublicpeace.Thisonlyaddedfreshfueltothepopularflame.Toprotectthepublicpeacebyshootingthepeople,andtoassuretheperpetratorsofthisoutrage,asLordBarringtondid,thattheyshouldhaveeveryassistancefromGovernmentindefendingthemfromalllegalconsequences,wasrightlydeemedmostun-Englishconduct.Theriotsspreadonallsides.

Butwhilsthispoliticaleffortsdidtheirworkinhislifetime,hisliterarylaboursarethebasisofhispresentfame.Thesewerealmostallproducedafterhissixtiethyear;"RobinsonCrusoe,"byfarthemostpopularofallhiswritingsandoneofthemostpopularinalltheworld'sliterature,"TheDumbPhilosopher,""CaptainSingleton,""DuncanCampbell,""MollFlanders,""ColonelJacque,""TheJournalofthePlague,""TheMemoirsofaCavalier,""TheFortunateMistress;or,Roxana,""TheNewVoyageroundtheWorld,"and"CaptainCarleton."Thelifeandfidelitytohumannaturewithwhichthesearewrittenhavecontinuallyledreaderstobelievethemaltogetherrealnarratives.The"JournalofthePlague"wasquotedasarelationoffactsbyDr.Mead;Chathamusedtorecommend"TheMemoirsofaCavalier"asthebestaccountoftheCivilWar;Dr.Johnsonreadthelifeof"CaptainCarleton"asgenuine,andwecontinuallyseethestoryof"Mrs.Veal'sGhost,"writtenbyDefoetopuffDrelincourt'sheavy"EssayonDeath,"includedincollectionsasamatter-of-factaccountofanapparition.Thisqualityofverisimilitudeisoneofthegreatestcharmsofhisinimitable"Crusoe,"whichisthedelightoftheyoungfromagetoage.

Amongthehistoriansofthetimetherearethreeorfournamesthatdeservetobespeciallymentioned.ThefirstisthatofSirJamesMackintosh,who,notwithstandingthepressureofParliamentarydutiesandtheattractionsofLondonsociety,sofarconqueredhisconstitutionalindolence,increasedbyhisresidenceinIndia,astoproducesomeliteraryworkssovaluablethatithasbeenasourceofregretthathecouldnotfindtimetogivetotheworldsomethingmorethanfragments.Hisdissertationon"TheProgressofEthicalPhilosophy"showswhathecouldhaveaccomplishedinthatfield;whilehisthreevolumesof"TheHistoryofEngland"causedageneralfeelingofdisappointmentthathewasnotsparedtocompletethework.HewasengagedonahistoryoftheRevolutionof1688whenhedied,rathersuddenly,inMay,1832.

THEBASTILLE.

Soult,ontheretreatofSirJohnMoore,hadtakenpossessionofFerrol,Bilbao,andtheotherprincipaltownsinthenorthofSpain.HehadthenenteredPortugal,andhadmarchedtoOporto,whichhetookafteraresistanceofonlytwodays;andSirJ.CradockhadretiredtoLisbon.SoultwaspreventedfromadvancingfartherbytherisingoftheSpaniardsbehindhiminGalicia,whoretookVigoandotherplaces;whilstSilviera,thePortuguesegeneral,interposedbetweenhimandGalicia,andformedajunctionwiththeSpaniards.WellesleydeterminedtoexpelSoultfromOporto,anddidnothesitatetosaythattheFrenchgeneralcouldnotlongremaininPortugal.LeavingadivisioninLisbontoguardtheeasternfrontiersofPortugalagainsttheforcesofVictor,wholayinSpanishEstremadura,SirArthuradvancedtowardsOportowithaceleritythatastonishedtheFrench.HequittedLisbononthe28thofApril,reachedCoimbra,drivingtheFrenchbeforehim,andonthe9thofMayhewasadvancingfromthatcityonOporto.Bythe11thhewasoccupyingthesouthernbankoftheDouro,oppositetothatcity.Soulthadbrokendownthebridgesandsentawaytheboats,sothathemightbeabletoretireatleisureintoGalicia;butSirArthurmanagedtosendacrossGeneralMurraywithabrigade,afewmilesaboveOporto,andabrigadeofGuardsalsopassedatthesuburbofVillanova,andhediscoveredsufficientboatstocarryoverhismainarmyjustabovethetown.TheFrenchcommencedafierceattackontheBritishforcesastheylanded;butthefirstbattalion,theBuffs,gotpossessionofalargebuildingcalledtheSeminario,andheldittilltheothertroopsarrived.Major-GeneralHillsoonbroughtupthe48thand66thregiments;GeneralSherbrooke,whocrossedtheriverbelowthetownwiththebrigadeofGuardsandthe29thregiment,enteredthetownamidtheacclamationsofthepeople,andchargedtheFrenchintherear;andGeneralMurray,aboutthesametime,showedhimselfontheFrenchleft,abovethetown.Soultfled,leavingbehindhimhissickandwounded,andmanyprisoners,besidesmuchartilleryandammunition.ThistakingofOporto,inthefaceofaFrenchforceoftenthousandmen,coupledwithhishavingtocrossthebroadDouro,andthatwithverydefectivemeansoftransit,wasamostbrilliantaffair;andthemostastonishingthingwas,thatWellesleylostonlytwenty-threekilledandninety-eightwounded,whilstSoult'stroopssufferedseverely.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主lsvqA

    Soonafter,aresoluteattackwasmadeontherightoftheBritishcentrebyagreatbodyofcavalry,whichrodeimpetuouslyintothefrontofthesquaresandofthirtypiecesofartillery.Thoughcutdowninheaps,theydrovetheartillerymenfromtheirguns,buttheseonlyretreatedamongsttheinfantry,carryingwiththemtheimplementsforservingtheguns,and,themomenttheinfantryrepelledtheirassailantsalittle,themenwereattheirgunsagain,andrenewedthefiring.Thecuirassiersfoughtmostundauntedly;theyrodealongtheveryfrontofthesquares,firingtheirpistolsintothem,orcuttingatthemwiththeirswords.Againandagaintheydashedforwardtobreakthesquares,butineveryinstanceweremetwithsuchadestructivefirethattheywerecompelledtodrawoff,onlyamerefragmentofthisfinecavalrysurvivingthisheroicbutfatalattempt.FromthattimetheFrenchcontinuedthebattlechieflybyanincessantfireofartilleryalongthewholeline,whichtheBritishavoidedingreatpartbylyingontheirfaces.

     

  • 雪灵芝4HT9g

  • 如萱紫儿ZpIQ3

    [Seelargerversion]

  • 但法国Eh6Eq

    TheMinistersandtheirsupporterswerecomplimentary,asamatterofcourse,tothenewSovereign,whohadgraciouslycontinuedthemintheiroffices;andtheWhigs,whohadascribedtheirexclusionfrompowertothepersonaldislikeoftheking,wereresolvedthatthereshouldnotbeagainanyobstacleofthekind,andthattheywouldkeepuponthebestpossibletermswiththeCourt.DuringthepreviouspartoftheSessiontheyhadkeptuparapidfireofmotionsandquestionsupontheGovernment,especiallywithregardtothepublicexpenditure,thedistressoftheoperatives,andthenecessityofrigideconomyandlargeretrenchment.TheattackswereledbySirJamesGraham,who,thoughhewasalwaysleftinaminorityinthedivisionsonhismotions,didmuchtoweakentheGovernmentbyexcitingpublicfeelingagainstthemonthegroundoftheirallegedheartlessextravagance,whilemanyofthepeoplewerestarvingandthecountrywassaidtobegoingfasttodestruction.TheDukeofWellington,however,movedananswertotheRoyalMessage,declaringthattheywouldforwardthemeasurenecessarytoprovideforthetemporarysupplyrequired.Hesuggestedthataseverybodywouldbeoccupiedaboutthecomingelections,thebestmodeofproceedingwouldbetodissolveatonce.LordGrey,inthenameoftheOpposition,complainedofthisprecipitancy,anddeliveredalongspeechfullofsolemnwarningsofevil.HesupposedthatthekingmightdiebeforethenewParliamentwaschosen;theHeirApparentwas[313]achildinfact,thoughnotinlaw.Noregencyexisting,shewouldbelegallyinthepossessionofherfullregalpower,andthiswasasituationwhichhecontendedwouldbefraughtwithdanger.Along,unprofitablewrangleensued,dullrepetitionsdraggedoutthedebate,whenatlengththeDukewiselyrefusedtoaccedetothepropositionforauselessintervalofdelay,andprovedthenumericalstrengthoftheAdministration.LordGreyhavingmovedforanadjournmenttoallowtimeforprovidingaregency,themotionwaslostbyamajorityof44,thenumbersbeing56against100.

     Butwhilsthispoliticaleffortsdidtheirworkinhislifetime,hisliterarylaboursarethebasisofhispresentfame.Thesewerealmostallproducedafterhissixtiethyear;"RobinsonCrusoe,"byfarthemostpopularofallhiswritingsandoneofthemostpopularinalltheworld'sliterature,"TheDumbPhilosopher,""CaptainSingleton,""DuncanCampbell,""MollFlanders,""ColonelJacque,""TheJournalofthePlague,""TheMemoirsofaCavalier,""TheFortunateMistress;or,Roxana,""TheNewVoyageroundtheWorld,"and"CaptainCarleton."Thelifeandfidelitytohumannaturewithwhichthesearewrittenhavecontinuallyledreaderstobelievethemaltogetherrealnarratives.The"JournalofthePlague"wasquotedasarelationoffactsbyDr.Mead;Chathamusedtorecommend"TheMemoirsofaCavalier"asthebestaccountoftheCivilWar;Dr.Johnsonreadthelifeof"CaptainCarleton"asgenuine,andwecontinuallyseethestoryof"Mrs.Veal'sGhost,"writtenbyDefoetopuffDrelincourt'sheavy"EssayonDeath,"includedincollectionsasamatter-of-factaccountofanapparition.Thisqualityofverisimilitudeisoneofthegreatestcharmsofhisinimitable"Crusoe,"whichisthedelightoftheyoungfromagetoage.

  • 大笨蛋1rkmv

    v

  • 扒皮成YIiXQ

     Thiswasanattemptasconstitutionalasitwasignorantlyandhopelesslyplannedbysufferingpeople;butmorecriminalspeculationswereonfoot.AsecondreportoftheLords'secretcommittee,recommendingtherenewalofthesuspensionoftheHabeasCorpusAct,statedthatageneralinsurrectionwasplannedtotakeplaceatManchester,onthe30thofMarch—toseizethe[125]magistrates,toliberatetheprisoners,burnthesoldiersintheirbarracks,andsetfiretoanumberoffactories;andthatsuchproposalswerereallyinagitationisconfirmedbyBamfordandotheroftheRadicalleaders.Thereportsaysthatthedesignwasdiscoveredbythevigilanceofthemagistrates,afewdaysbeforeitsintendedtakingplace;butitisfarmoreprobablethatthemagistrateshadreceivedsomeintimationofwhatwasinprogressfromthosewhohadmisguidedtheignorantmultitude.Bamfordtellsusthatbothheandhisfriendshadbeenappliedtotoengageinthedesign,buttheyhadcondemneditastheworkofincendiaries,whohadavailedthemselvesoftheresentmentoftheBlanketeersattheirtreatment,toinstigatethemtoadreadfulrevenge.Thetruthwas,anumberofspiesinthepayofGovernment,withthenotoriousOliverattheirhead,weretraversingthemanufacturingdistrictsofDerbyshire,Nottinghamshire,Yorkshire,andLancashire,tostimulatethesufferingpopulationintoopeninsurrection,thattheymightbecrushedbythemilitary.Bamfordandthemoreenlightenedworkmenatoncesawthroughthesnare,andnotonlyrepulsedthetempters,butwarnedtheirfellowsagainsttheirarts.Thefailureofthefirstdesign,however,didnotputanendtothediabolicalattemptonthepartofthespies.Theyrecommendedthemostsecretmeetingsforthepurpose;thatanothernightattackshouldbepreparedforManchester,andthatMinistersshouldbeassassinated.SuchproposalswereagainmadetoBamfordandhisfriends,buttheynotonlyindignantlyrepelledthem,butsoughtsafetyfortheirownpersonsinconcealment,forcontinualseizuresofleadingReformerswerenowmade.

  • 草莓果3zz5k

     ThecaseoftheIrishChurchwasstatedbySirRobertPeel,LordStanley,andSirJamesGraham,whoarguedthatitsrevenuesweregreatlyexaggerated,subjectedtoheavydrawbacksanddeductions.Thevestrycesshadbeenabolished.Ataxexclusivelybornebytheclergyofthreetofifteenpercent.hadbeenlaiduponalllivings,andtheChurchTemporalitiesActprovidedthatinallparishesinwhichservicehadnotbeenperformedfrom1830to1833,whenavacancyoccurred,thereshouldbenoreappointment,andtherevenuesofthatliving,afterpayingacurate,shouldbedestinedtootherparishesdifferentlysituated,butforpurposesstrictlyProtestant.Herewasaprovisionalreadymadeforthe[384]progressivediminutionorextinctionoftheEpiscopalChurchinthosedistrictswhereitwasnotcalledfor,andcouldbeofnoutility.Whence,then,theanxietytotakeawayasurplus,whichprobablywouldnotexceed£100,000ayear,fromaChurchalreadysubjectedtosuchheavyandexclusiveburdens?ItwasnotpretendedthattheobjectofthisappropriationwastoapplytheincomeseizedtothepaymentoftheNationalDebt,orthatitwasjustifiedbyStatenecessity.Theyarguedthatiftheappropriationclause,asnowshaped,oncepassedintolaw,notonlywouldtheProtestantfaithceasetobetheestablishedreligioninIreland,butthemeasurewouldbefataltotheEstablishedChurchinEnglandalso.Infact,theConservativescontendedthatthiswasonlythefirstofaseriesofmeasuresavowedlyintendedtoannihilatetheProtestantEstablishment.O'ConnellproposedtoconfiscatethepropertyoftheChurch,inordertorelievethelandfromitsappropriateburdens,andtoexemptitfromthesupportofthepoor.Theyargued,therefore,thatonnoreasonablegroundcoulditbemaintainedthatthisconcessiontoIrishagitationcouldhaveanyothereffectthanstimulatingtheagitatorstomakefreshdemands.

  • 绿卡纸B73f9

     Burgoynewasnowinaconditionwhichdemandedallthetalentsofagreatgeneral.Hisforceswereheavilyreduced,thoseoftheenemymuchincreased,andhewasamongstbogsandwildernesses,whichBarringtonandBarréhadfromthefirstdeclaredwouldbefataltoanyarmy.HehadsentexpressafterexpresstoHowetourgeamovementinco-operation,butnonewsofitarrived,andeverydayhewasbecomingmoreandmorecutofffromadvanceorretreat.Whilstthesecircumstanceswereoperatingagainsthim,Burgoynecollectedhisartilleryandprovisionsforaboutamonth,and,formingabridgeofboats,passedhisarmy,onthe13thand14thofSeptember,overtheHudson,andencampedontheheightsandplainsofSaratoga.JustatthisjunctureSchuylerhadbeensupersededbyhissuccessorGates,yethehimselfremainedtogivehisassistanceinthecampaign.ThedayafterGatesassumedthecommand,Morganhadmarchedinwithhisriflecorps,fivehundredstrong,andMajorDearbornwithtwohundredandfiftyotherpickedmen.Arnold,too,hadreturnedfrompursuitofSt.Leger,withtwothousandmen.TheAmericansnumbered,withmilitiacontinuallyflockingin,nearlyeightthousand,whilstBurgoyne'sforcedidnotexceedhalfthatnumber.ToapproachtheAmericansitwasnecessarytocrossthelowground,seamedwithwatercoursesandruggedwithscrubandstones,andtolaydownbridgesandcauseways.Thisbeingcompleted,onthe19ththeBritisharmytookpositionatBemus'sHeightsinfrontoftheAmericanleft.Gates,stimulatedbythepresenceofArnold,begantheattackbysendingoutadetachmenttoturnBurgoyne'srightflank,buttheysoonperceivedthecoveringdivisionofFraser,andretreated.GatesthenputArnoldattheheadofastillstrongerdetachmenttofalldirectlyonBurgoyne'sposition,andaseverefightcommencedaboutthreeo'clockintheafternoon,whichlasteduntilsunset.Arnoldmadethemostimpetuous[243]assaultsontheBritishlinetobreakit,buteverywhereinvain,althoughthewholeweightoftheattackfellonthreeorfourofourregiments,therestbeingpostedonsomehills,andtheGermansontheleftatagreaterdistance.Whenevertheyadvancedintotheopenfield,thefireoftheAmericanmarksmenfromtheirconcealmentdrovethembackindisorder;butwhenevertheAmericansventuredout,theBritishrushedforwardandcommittedhavocamongstthem;sothecontestcontinuedtillnight.TheBritishremainedinthefieldandclaimedthevictory;butitwasavictoryseverelywon,andfarfromdecisive.Thelossesonbothsideshadbeenfromfivehundredtosixhundredkilledandwounded.

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