抗击疫情 辽宁在行动

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“什么app能买彩票”TheEpicureancosmologyneednotdelayuslong.Itiscompletelyindependentoftheatomictheory,whichhadonlybeenintroducedtoexplaintheindestructibilityofmatter,and,lateron,themechanismofsensation.Indescribinghowtheworldwasfirstformed,EpicurusfallsbackontheoldIonianmeteorology.Heassumestheexistenceofmatterindifferentstatesofdiffusion,andsegregatesfluidfromsolid,lightfromheavy,hotfromcold,bythefamiliardeviceofarapidvorticalmovement.168Fortherest,aswehavealreadynoticed,Epicurusgivesanimpartialwelcometothemostconflictingtheoriesofhispredecessors,providedonlythattheydispensewiththeaidofsupernaturalintervention;aswill87beseenbythefollowingsummary,whichwequotefromZeller:—

SuchargumentsmanifestlytellnotonlyagainstPlatonism,butagainsteverykindoftranscendentalrealism,fromthenaturaltheologyofPaleytothedogmaticagnosticismofMr.HerbertSpencer.AmodernAristotlemightsaythatthehypothesisofacreativefirstcause,personalorotherwise,logicallyinvolvestheassumptionofasmanyoriginalspecificenergiesastherearequalitiestobeaccountedfor,andthusgivesustheunnecessarytroubleofcountingeverythingtwiceover;thateverydifficultyandcontradictionfromwhichthetranscendentalassumptionisintendedtofreeus,must,onanalysis,reappearintheassumptionitself—forexample,theGodwhoistodeliverusfromevilmustbehimselfconceivedasthecreatorofevil;thattheinfiniteandabsolutecanneithercause,norbeapprehendedby,thefiniteandrelative;thattoseparatefromNaturealltheforcesrequiredforitsperpetuation,andrelegatethemtoasphereapart,isafalseantithesisandasterileabstraction;lastly,thatcausation,whetherefficientorfinal,oncebegun,cannotstop;thatifthisworldisnotself-existing,nothingis;thatthemutualadaptationofthoughtsinadesigningintelligencerequirestobeaccountedforjustlikeanyotheradaptation;thatiftherelativeinvolvestheabsolute,soalsodoestherelationbetweenthetwoinvolveanotherabsolute,andsoontoinfinity.

Oncecreditedwithacontinuedexistence,thedepartedspiritwouldnotremainintheHadesortheElysiumprovidedforitbythejusticeorthepiety,ofthesurvivor,butpersistedinreturningtothisworldandmanifestingamostuncomfortableinterestinitsaffairs;or,evenifwillingtoremainatrest,itwasliabletobedraggedbackbyincantations,andcompelledtorevealthesecretsoffuturityatthebiddingofanunprincipledmagician.Whatscienceandgoodfeelingcombinedhaveprovedunabletokeepdownamongourselves,naturallyragedwithunmitigatedvirulenceatatimewhentheprimitivebarbarismandsuperstitionwereonlycoveredoverbyacrustofculturewhichatmanypointswasgrowingthinnereveryday.AmongLatinwriters,theyoungerPliny,Suetonius,andApuleius,amongGreekwriters,Plutarch,Pausanias,MaximusTyrius,Philostratus,andDionCassius,affordunequivocalevidenceoftheirbeliefandthebeliefoftheircontemporariesinghostlyapparitions;andLucian,whilerejectingghost-storiesonhisownaccount,speaksasiftheywereimplicitlyacceptedeveninphilosophicalcircles.372Stillmoreabundantistheevidenceprovingthefrequencyofattemptsmadetoevokespiritsbymeansofmagicalincantations.Horace’sCanidiaboaststhatshecanraisethedeadevenaftertheirbodieshavebeenburned.373Lucandescribestheprocessofconjuringupaghostatlength;anditisthoughtthatheinsertedthewholesceneinhispoemasasatireontheemperorNero,whoisknowntohavebeenaddictedtosuchpractices,aswerealsohissuccessors,DidiusJulianus,Caracalla,andElagabalus.AndthatthesameartwascultivatedbyprivatepersonsisclearfromtheallusionsmadetoitbyQuintilian,Apuleius,Tertullian,andHeliod?rus.374

Thepassionsthemselves,andthemeansbywhichtheycanbeeitherexcitedorcontrolled,aredescribedinAristotle’sRhetoricwithwonderfulknowledgeofhumannatureintheabstract,butwithalmostnoreferencetotheartforwhosepurposestheinformationisostensiblysystematised;whileintheEthicstheyarestudied,sotospeak,statically,intheirconditionofpermanentequilibrationordisequilibration;thevirtuesandvicesbeingrepresentedassomanydifferent396aspectsofthoseconditions.Itisobviousthatsuchanextremelyartificialparallelismcouldnotbecarriedoutwithoutaconsiderablestrainanddistortionofthefactsinvolved.Theonlyvirtuethatcan,withtruth,bedescribedasaformofmoderationistemperance;andevenintemperancethisisaccidentalratherthanessential.ElsewhereAristotlededucestheextremesfromthemeanratherthanthemeanfromtheextremes;andsometimesoneoftheextremesisinventedfortheoccasion.Tofitjustice,confessedlythemostimportantvirtue,intosuchascheme,wasobviouslyimpracticablewithoutreinterpretingtheideaofmoderation.Insteadofanequilibriumbetweenopposingimpulsesinthesameperson,wehaveequalityinthetreatmentofdifferentpersons;whichagainresolvesitselfintogivingthemtheirown,withoutanydefinitedeterminationofwhattheirownmaybe.289ItcannotevenbesaidthatAristotlerepresentedeitherthebestethicalthoughtofhisownage,oranindispensablestageintheevolutionofallthought.Theextremeinsufficiencyofhisethicaltheoryisduetothefanciednecessityofsquaringitwiththerequirementsofhiscosmologicalsystem.Fornosoonerdoesheplacehimselfatthepopularpointofviewthanhededucestheparticularvirtuesfromregardtothewelfareofothers,andtreatsthemallassomanydifferentformsofjustice.290

IthasalreadybeenobservedthatthethoughtsofSocrateswerethrownintoshapeforandbycommunication,thattheyonlybecamedefinitewhenbroughtintovivifyingcontactwithanotherintelligence.Suchwasespeciallythecasewithhismethodofethicaldialectic.Insteadoftenderinghisadviceintheformofalecture,asothermoralistshaveatalltimesbeensofondofdoing,hesoughtoutsomepre-existingsentimentoropinioninconsistentwiththeconductofwhichhedisapproved,andthengraduallyworkedroundfrompointtopoint,untiltheoryandpracticewereexhibitedinimmediatecontrast.Here,hisreasoning,whichissometimesspokenofasexclusivelyinductive,wasstrictlysyllogistic,beingtheapplicationofagenerallawtoaparticularinstance.Withthegrowingemancipationofreason,wemayobserveareturntotheSocraticmethodofmoralisation.Insteadofrewardsandpunishments,whichencourageselfishcalculation,orexamples,whichstimulateamischievousjealousywhentheydonotcreateaspiritofservileimitation,thejudicioustrainerwillfindhismotivepowerinthepupil’sincipienttendencytoformmoraljudgments,which,whenreflectedonthe155individual’sownactions,becomewhatwecallaconscience.IthasbeenmentionedintheprecedingchapterthatthecelebratedgoldenruleofjusticewasalreadyenunciatedbyGreekmoralistsinthefourthcenturyB.C.PossiblyitmayhavebeenfirstformulatedbySocrates.Inallcasesitoccursinthewritingsofhisdisciples,andhappilyexpressesthedriftofhisentirephilosophy.Thisgeneralisingtendencywas,indeed,sonaturaltoanobleGreek,thatinstancesofitoccurlongbeforephilosophybegan.WefinditinthefamousquestionofAchilles:‘Didnotthiswholewarbeginonaccountofawoman?AretheAtreidaetheonlymenwholovetheirwives?’99andinthenownotlessfamousapostrophetoLycaon,remindinghimthatanearlydeathisthelotoffarworthiermenthanhe100—utteranceswhichcomeonuswiththeawfuleffectoflightningflashes,thatilluminatethewholehorizonofexistencewhiletheyparalyseordestroyanindividualvictim.

Noristhisall.Aftersharplydistinguishingwhatisfromwhatisnot,andrefusingtoadmitanyintermediarybetweenthem,AristotleproceedstodiscoversuchanintermediaryintheshapeofwhathecallsAccidentalPredication.236Anaccidentisanattributenotnecessarilyorusuallyinheringinitssubject—inotherwords,aco-existencenotdependentoncausation.Aristotlecouldneverdistinguishbetweenthetwonotionsofcauseandkind,noryetbetweeninterferenceswiththeactionofsomeparticularcauseandexceptionstothelawofcausationingeneral;andsohecouldnotframeanintelligibletheoryofchance.Somepropositions,hetellsus,arenecessarilytrue,othersareonlygenerallytrue;anditistheexceptionstothelatterwhichconstituteaccident;as,forinstance,whenacolddayhappenstocomeinthemiddle341ofsummer.Soalsoamanisnecessarilyananimal,butonlyexceptionallywhite.Suchdistinctionsarenotuninteresting,fortheyprovewithwhatdifficultiestheideaofinvariablesequencehadtocontendbeforeeventhehighestintellectscouldgraspit.Therewasaconstantliabilitytoconfoundtheorderofsuccessionwiththeorderofco-existence,theorderofoursensationswiththeorderofobjectiveexistence,andthesubjectionofhumanactionstoanyfixedorder,withtheimpossibilityofdeliberationandchoice.TheearlierGreekthinkershadproclaimedthatallthingsexistedbynecessity;butwiththeirpurelygeometricalorhistoricalpointofview,theyentirelyignoredthemorecomplexquestionsraisedbytheoriesaboutclassification,logicalattribution,andmoralresponsibility.AndthemodificationsintroducedbyEpicurus,intotheoldphysics,showushowunanswerableAristotle’sreasoningsseemedtosomeofhisablestsuccessors.

Tomakemattersworse,theoriginalofthisunflatteringportraitwasrapidlybecomingthemostpowerfulmanintheState.Increasingspecialisationhadcompletelyseparatedthemilitaryandpoliticalfunctionswhichhadformerlybeendischargedbyasingleeminentindividual,andthebusinessoflegislationwasalsobecomingadistinctprofession.Nooratorcouldobtainahearingintheassemblywhohadnotatechnicalacquaintancewiththesubjectofdeliberation,ifitadmittedoftechnicaltreatment,whichwasmuchmorefrequentlythecasenowthanintheprecedinggeneration.Asaconsequenceofthisrevolution,theultimatepowerofsupervisionandcontrolwaspassingintothehandsofthelawcourts,wheregeneralquestionscouldbediscussedinamorepopularstyle,andoftenfromawideroramoresentimentalpointofview.Theywere,infact,beginningtowieldanauthoritylikethatexerciseduntilquitelatelybythepressinmodernEurope,onlythatitsactionwasmuchmoredirectandformidable.AvoteoftheEcclêsiacouldonlydepriveastatesmanofoffice:avoteoftheDicasterymightdeprivehimofcivilrights,home,freedom,property,orevenlifeitself.Moreover,withthelossofempireandthedeclineofpublicspirit,privateinterestshadcometoattractaproportionatelylargershareofattention;andunobtrusiveciti201zenswhohadformerlyescapedfromthestormsofpartypassion,nowfoundthemselvesmarkedoutasapreybyeveryfluentanddexterouspleaderwhocouldfindanexcusefordraggingthembeforethecourts.Rhetoricwashailedasthesupremeart,enablingitspossessortodispensewitheveryotherstudy,andpromisingyoungmenwereencouragedtolookonitasthemostpayinglinetheycouldtakeup.Eventhosewhosecivilstatusornaturaltimidityprecludedthemfromspeakinginpubliccouldgainaneminentandenviedpositionbycomposingspeechesforotherstodeliver.Behindthese,again,stoodtheprofessedmastersofrhetoric,claimingtodirecttheeducationandthewholepublicopinionoftheagebytheirlecturesandpamphlets.Philosophywasnotexcludedfromtheirsystemoftraining,butitoccupiedastrictlysubordinateplace.Studiedinmoderation,theylookedonitasabracingmentalexerciseandarepertoryofsoundingcommonplaces,ifnotasasolventforold-fashionednotionsofhonesty;butacloseadherencetothelawsoflogicortotheprinciplesofmoralityseemedpuerilepedantrytotheelegantstylistswhomadethemselvestheadvocatesofeverycrownedfilibusterabroad,whilepreachingapolicyofpeaceatanypriceathome.

Bycuttingupsomeofthelongeressaysintoparts,Porphyrysucceeded,muchtohisdelight,inbringingthewholenumberuptofifty-four,whichisaproductofthetwoperfectnumberssixandnine.Hethendividedthemintosixvolumes,eachcontainingninebooks—thefamousEnneadsofPlotinus.Hisprincipleofarrangementwastobringtogetherthebooksinwhichsimilarsubjectswerediscussed,placingtheeasierdisquisitionsfirst.Thisdispositionhasbeenadheredtobysubsequenteditors,withthesingleexceptionofKirchhoff,whohasprintedtheworksofPlotinusaccordingtotheorderinwhichtheywerewritten.418Porphyry’sscrupulousinformationhassavedmodernscholarsanincalculableamountoftrouble,buthasnot,apparently,earnedallthegratitudeitdeserved,tojudgebyZeller’sintimationthatthechronologicalorderoftheseparatepiecescannotevennowbepreciselydetermined.419Unfortunately,whatcouldhavebeenofpricelessvalueinthecaseofPlatoandAristotle,isofcomparativelysmallvalueinthecaseofPlotinus.His280systemmusthavebeenfullyformedwhenhebegantowrite,andthedatesinourpossessiongivenocluetothemannerinwhichitsleadingprincipleswereevolved.420X.

TheinfluenceofAristotlehas,indeed,continuedtomakeitselffeltnotonlythroughtheteachingofhismodernimitators,butmoredirectlyasalivingtraditioninliterature,orthroughtherenewedstudyofhiswritingsatfirsthand.Eveninthepuresciences,itsurviveduntilacomparativelyrecentperiod,and,sofarastheFrenchintellectgoes,itisnotyetentirelyextinct.FromAbélardon,PariswastheheadquartersofthatsobererscholasticismwhichtookitscuefromthePeripateticlogic;andtheresultingdirectionofthought,deeplyimpressedasitbecameontheFrenchcharacterandtheFrenchlanguage,wasinterruptedratherthanpermanentlyalteredbytheCartesianrevolution,and,withthefallofCartesianism,graduallyrecovereditsoldpredominance.TheAristotelianphilosophyisremarkableaboveallothersforcleardefinitions,fulldescriptions,comprehensiveclassifications,lucidreasoning,encyclopaedicscience,anddisinterestedloveofknowledge;alongwithacertainincapacityforethicalspeculation,576strongconservativeleanings,andageneraltendencytowardstherigiddemarcationratherthanthefruitfulcomminglingofideas.Anditwillprobablybeadmitted429thatthesearealsotraitscharacteristicofFrenchthinkingasopposedtoEnglishorGermanthinking.Forinstance,widelydifferentasistheMécaniqueCélestefromtheastronomyofAristotle’streatiseOntheHeavens,bothagreeinbeingattemptstoprovetheeternalstabilityofthecelestialsystem.577ThedestructivedelugesbywhichAristotlesupposescivilisationtobeperiodicallyinterrupted,reappearonalargerscaleinthetheoryofcatastrophesstillheldbyFrenchgeologists.AnotherAristoteliandogma,thefixityoforganicspecies,thoughvigorouslyassailedbyeminentFrenchnaturalists,has,onthewhole,triumphedovertheoppositedoctrineoftransformisminFrance,andnowimpedestheacceptanceofDarwin’steachingevenincircleswheretheologicalprepossessionsareextinct.TheacceptedclassificationsinbotanyandzoologyaretheworkofFrenchmenfollowinginthefootstepsofAristotle,whosegeniusformethodicalarrangementwassignallyexemplifiedinatleastoneofthesedepartments;thedivisionofanimalsintovertebrateandinvertebratebeingoriginallyduetohim.Bichat’sdistinctionbetweentheanimalandthevegetablefunctionsrecallsAristotle’sdistinctionbetweenthesensitiveandnutritivesouls;whilehismethodofstudyingthetissuesbeforetheorgansisprefiguredinthetreatiseonthePartsofAnimals.Foralongtime,therulingofAristotle’sPoeticswasundisputedinFrenchcriticism;andifanythingcoulddisentitleMontesquieu’sEspritdesLoistotheproudmotto,Prolemsinematrecreatam,itwouldbeitscloserelationshiptothePoliticsofthesameuniversalmaster.Finally,ifitbegrantedthattheenthusiasmforknowledge,irrespectiveofitsutilitarianapplications,existstoagreaterdegreeamongtheeducatedclassesofFrancethaninanyothermodernsociety,wemayplausiblyattributethishonourablecharacteristictothefosteringinfluenceofonewhohas430proclaimedmoreeloquentlythananyotherphilosopherthattheoreticalactivityisthehighestgoodofhumanlife,theidealofallNature,andthesolebeatitudeofGod.

Tosearchoutthesecretofthings,

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  • 雨花郡主MQ5Ov

    370

     HerePlotinusavowedlyfollowstheteachingofPlato,who,intheTimaeus,describesBeingorSubstanceascomposedbyminglingtheindivisibleandunchangingwiththedivisibleandcorporealprinciple.448And,althoughthereisnoexpressreference,weknowthatinplacingsoulbetweenthetwo,he303wasequallyfollowingPlato.Itisotherwiseinthenextessay,whichundertakestogiveamoreexplicitanalysisofpsychicalphenomena.449Thesoul,wearetold,consists,likeexternalobjects,oftwoelementsrelatedtooneanotherasFormandMatter.Thesearereasonandsense.Theofficeoftheformeris,primarily,toenlightenandcontrolthelatter.Platohadalreadypointedtosuchadistinction;butAristotlewasthefirsttoworkitoutclearly,andtomakeitthehingeofhiswholesystem.Itis,accordingly,undertheguidanceofAristotlethatPlotinusproceedsinwhathehasnexttosay.Justasthereisasouloftheworldcorrespondingtooursoul,soalso,heargues,theremustbeauniversalobjectiveReasonoutsideandabovetheworld.InspeakingofthisReason,weshall,forclearness’sake,ingeneralcallitbyitsGreekname,Nous.Nous,accordingtoAristotle,isthefacultybywhichweapprehendabstractideas;itisself-thinkingthought;and,assuch,itistheprimemoverofNature.Plotinusadoptsthefirsttwopositionsunreservedly,andthethirdtoacertainextent;whilehebringsallthreeintocombinationwiththePlatonictheoryofideas.IthadalwaysbeenaninsuperabledifficultyinthewayofPlato’steachingthatitnecessitated,orseemedtonecessitate,theunintelligiblenotionofideasexistingwithoutanymindtothinkthem.ForadiscipleofAristotle,thedifficultyceasestoexistifthearchetypalessencesassumedbyPlatoareconceivedasresidinginaneternalNous.But,ontheotherhand,howarewetoreconcilesuchanaccommodationwithAristotle’sprinciple,thattheSupremeIntelligencecanthinknothingbutitself?Simplybygeneralisingfromthesamemaster’sdoctrinethatthehumanNousisidenticalwiththeideaswhichitcontemplates.Thoughtanditsobjectareeverywhereone.Thus,accordingtoPlotinus,theabsoluteNousembracesthetotalityofarchetypesorformswhichweseereflectedandembodiedinthematerialuniverse.Inthinkingthem,itthinksitself,304notpassingfromonetotheotherasindiscursivereasoning,norbringingthemintoexistencebytheactofthought,butapprehendingthemassimultaneouslypresentrealities.

  • 雪灵芝NwDG5

    TheambiguitiesanduncertaintieswhichPlotinusexhibitsintheorisingontheoriginofMatter,areduenotonlytotheconflictinginfluencesofPlatoandAristotle,butalsotoanotherinfluencequitedistinctfromtheirs.ThisistheStoiccosmology.WhileutterlyrepudiatingthematerialismoftheStoics,Plotinusevidentlyfeltattractedbytheirseveremonism,andbytheconsistentmannerinwhichtheyderivedeveryformofexistencefromthedivinesubstance.TheytoorecognisedadistinctionbetweenFormandMatter,theactiveandthepassiveprincipleinNature,buttheysupposedthattheone,besidesbeingpenetratedandmouldedbytheother,hadalsobeenoriginallyproducedbyit.SuchatheorywaswellsuitedtotheenergeticandpracticalcharacterofStoicmorality,withitsaversionfrommerecontemplation,itsimmediatebearingontheconcreteinterestsoflife.Manwasconceivedasanintelligentforce,havingforhisproperfunctiontobringorderoutofchaos,‘tomakereasonandthewillofGodprevail,’andthisidealappearedtobereflectedinthedynamicconstitutionofNature.WithPlotinus,ontheotherhand,aswithAristotle,theoryandnotpracticewastheendoflife,orrather,ashehimselfexpressedit,practicewasaninferiorkindoftheorising,anendeavourtosetbeforeoneselfinoutwardformwhatshouldproperlybesoughtinthenoeticworldwheresubjectandobjectareone.490Accordingly,whileacceptingtheStoicmonism,hestrovetobringitintocloseagreementwithAristotle’scosmology,bysubstitutingcontemplationforwillasthecreativeprincipleinallexistence,nolessthanastheidealofhappinessforman.

  • 如萱紫儿yVdr9

    VIII.

  • 但法国KRd7M

    II.

     Still,takingitaltogether,thelifeofAristotlegivesonetheimpressionofsomethingratherdesultoryanddependent,notproudlyself-determined,likethelivesofthethinkerswhowentbeforehim.Weareremindedofthefreshstartsandtheappealstoauthoritysofrequentinhiswritings.HeisfirstdetainedatAthenstwentyyearsbytheattractionofPlato;andnosoonerisPlatogone,thanhefallsundertheinfluenceofanentirelydifferentcharacter—Hermeias.EvenwhenhisservicesarenolongerneededhelingersneartheMacedonianCourt,untilAlexander’sdepartureleaveshimoncemorewithoutapatron.Themostdignifiedperiodof291hiswholecareeristhatduringwhichhepresidedoverthePeripateticSchool;butheowesthispositiontoforeigninfluence,andlosesitwiththetemporaryrevivalofGreekliberty.AlongerlifewouldprobablyhaveseenhimreturntoAthensinthetrainofhislastpatronAntipater,whom,asitwas,heappointedexecutortohiswill.Thiswasjustthesortofcharactertolaygreatstressontheevidentiaryvalueofsensationandpopularopinion.Itwasalsothecharacterofaconservativewhowaslikelytobelievethatthingshadalwaysbeenverymuchwhattheywereinhistime,andwouldcontinuetoremainsoeverafterwards.Aristotlewasnotthemantoimaginethatthepresentorderofnaturehadsprungoutofawidelydifferentorderintheremotepast,nortoencouragesuchspeculationswhentheywereofferedtohimbyothers.Hewouldnotreadilybelievethatphenomena,asheknewthem,restedonarealitywhichcouldneitherbeseennorfelt.Nor,finally,couldhedivinethemovementswhichwereslowlyunderminingthesocietyinwhichhelived,stilllessconstructanidealpolityforitsreorganisationonahigherandbroaderbasis.Andhereweatoncebecomeconsciousofthechiefdifferenceseparatinghimfromhismaster,Plato.

  • 大笨蛋kIVME

    v

  • 扒皮成pEK4X

     

  • 草莓果cL1AF

     Thisanalogywithsubsequentdevelopmentsisaided,sofarasitgoes,bytheadmixtureofacertainPlatonicelementwithVirgil’sStoicism,shownchieflybythereferencestoanantenatalexistenceofthesoul,introducedforthepurposeofbringingRome’sfutureheroesonthescene.This,however,isthelastexampleofanattemptonthepartofaRomanwritertocombinePlato’steachingwithStoicism.286AtatimewhentheRomansweremoreconsciousoftheirliterarydependenceonGreecethanwasthecaseaftertheAugustanagehadreacheditszenith,theywereprobablydrawnbythebeautyofitsliteraryformtostudyasystemwhichcouldotherwiseinterestthembutlittle.Thus,notonlyisCicerofullofadmirationforPlato—as,indeed,mightbeexpectedwithsohighlycultivatedadiscipleoftheAcademy—butCato,accordingtothewell-knownstory,spenthislasthoursreadingandre-readingthePhaedo;andhisnephewBrutusalsooccupiedanintermediatepositionbetweentheOldAcademyandthePorch.TheRomanloveofsimplificationandarchaisminducedsubsequentthinkerseithertoletPlatonismdropaltogether,ortostudythoseelementsinwhichitdifferedfromthepurenaturalisticdoctrineundertheirPythagoreanform.ItmayevenbedoubtedwhetherVirgil’spsychologyisnotderivedfromPythagorasratherthanfromPlato;Ovid,sofarashephilosophisesatall,isunquestionablyafolloweroftheformer;287andinthemoralteachingoftheSextii,whoflourishedunderAugustus,PythagoreanprinciplesareblendedwithStoicism.288ItisanothermanifestationofthesameefforttograspeveryGreekdoctrinebyitsroots,thatHoraceshouldproclaimhimselfthediscipleofAristippusratherthanofEpicurus.289Evenhe,however,feels183himselfdrawnwithadvancingyearstowardsthenoblerfaithwhichwasnowcarryingallbeforeit.290

  • 绿卡纸6tVei

     

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