以文铸魂 承自文翁 百年乡村阅读的上下求索

nn8Xk-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 07:27:58

“福彩3d今天金码是啥【注册大礼】”Thus,whereZellersaysthattheGreekphilosophersconfoundedtheobjectivewiththesubjectivebecausetheywerestillimperfectlyseparatedfromNature,weseemtohavecomeonalessambitiousbutmoreintelligibleexplanationofthefacts,andonecapableofbeingstatedwithasmuchgeneralityashis.NotonlyamongtheGreeksbuteverywhere,cultureismoreorlessantagonistictooriginality,andthediffusiontotheenlargementofknowledge.Thoughtislikewater;whenspreadoverawidersurfaceitisapttobecomestagnantandshallow.Whenideascouldonlyliveontheconditionofxivbeingcommunicatedtoalargecircleoflisteners,theywerenecessarilyadaptedtothetasteandloweredtothecomprehensionofrelativelyvulgarminds.Andnotonlyso,butthehabitoftakingtheiropinionsandprejudicesasthestarting-pointofeveryenquiryfrequentlyledtotheinvestmentofthoseopinionsandprejudiceswiththeformalsanctionofaphilosophicaldemonstration.Itwasheldthateducationconsistedlessintheacquisitionofnewtruththanintheelevationtoclearerconsciousnessoftruthswhichhadallalongbeendimlyperceived.AccordingtoSirA.Grant,itisbythemysticalandpoeticalsideofhisnaturethatPlatodiffersfromAristotle.Theone‘aspiredtoatruthabovethetruthofscientificknowledge’;theotherto‘methodisedexperienceandthedefinite.’182Now,settingasidethequestionwhetherthereisanytruthabovethetruthofscientificknowledge,wedoubtverymuchwhetherPlatobelievedinitsexistence.Heheldthatthemostvaluabletruthwasthatwhichcouldbeimpartedtoothersbyaprocessevenmorerigorousthanmathematicalreasoning;andtherewasnoreality,howevertranscendent,thathedidnothopetobringwithinthegraspofadialecticwithoutwhicheventhemeanestcouldnotbeunderstood.Hedid,indeed,believethat,sofar,thebestandwisestofmankindhadowedmuchmoretoadivinelyimplantedinstinctthantoanyconsciouschainofreflection;buthedistinctly293assertedtheinferiorityofsuchguidancetothelightofscientificknowledge,ifthiscouldbeobtained,ashehopedthatitcould.Ontheotherhand,AristotlewasprobablysuperiortoPlatoasapoet;andinspeakingaboutthehighestrealitiesheuseslanguagewhich,thoughlessrichandornatethanhismaster’s,isnotinferiortoitinforceandfervour;whilehismetaphysicaltheoriescontainalargeelementofwhatwouldnowbeconsideredmysticism,thatis,heoftenseesevidenceofpurposeandanimationwheretheydonotreallyexist.Hisadvantageindefinitenessis,ofcourse,indisputable,butthiswas,perhaps,becausehecameafterPlatoandprofitedbyhislessons.

But,towardsthecloseofthesixteenthcentury,thetimeforamassingobservationswaspast,nofurtherprogressbeingpossibleuntiltheobservationsalreadyrecordedwereinterpretedaright.Thejustinstinctofscienceperceivedthis;andfornearlyacenturyafterCesalpinonoadditionofanymagnitudewasmadetowhatBaconcalled‘History,’whilemen’sconceptionsofnaturallawwereundergoingaradicaltransformation.544TochoosesuchatimefordevelopingtheAristotelianphilosophywaspeculiarlyunfortunate;forthatphilosophyhadbecome,bothonitsgoodandonitsbadside,anobstacletoprogress,byencouragingstudieswhichwerenotwanted,andbyfosteringaspiritofoppositiontotheCopernicanastronomy.

Platodoes,nodoubt,makeitachargeagainsttheSophiststhattheirdoctrinesarenotonlyfalseandimmoral,butthattheyareputtogetherwithoutanyregardforlogicalcoherence.Itwouldseem,however,thatthisstyleofattackbelongsrathertothelaterandconstructivethantotheearlierandreceptiveperiodofhisintellectualdevelopment.Theoriginalcauseofhisantagonismtotheprofessionalteachersseemstohavebeentheirgeneralpretensionstoknowledge,which,fromthestandpointofuniversalscepticism,were,ofcourse,utterlyillusive;togetherwithafeelingofaristocraticcontemptforacallinginwhichconsiderationsof187pecuniaryinterestwereinvolved,heightenedinthisinstancebyaconvictionthatthebuyerreceivednothingbetterthanashamarticleinexchangeforhismoney.Here,again,aparallelsuggestsitselfwiththefirstpreachingoftheGospel.TheattitudeofChristtowardsthescribesandPharisees,asalsothatofSt.PaultowardsSimonMagus,willhelpustounderstandhowPlato,inanotherorderofspiritualteaching,musthaveregardedthehypocrisyofwisdom,theintrusionoffraudulenttradersintothetempleofDelphicinspiration,andthesaleofapricelessblessingwhoseunlimiteddiffusionshouldhavebeenitsownandonlyreward.

Again,whateverharmonyevolutionmayintroduceintoourconceptions,whateverhopesitmayencouragewithregardtothefutureofourrace,onedoesnotseepreciselywhatsanctionitgivestomoralityatpresent—thatistosay,howitmakesself-sacrificeeasierthanbefore.Becausecertainforceshavebeenunconsciouslyworkingtowardsacertainendthroughagespast,whyshouldIconsciouslyworktowardsthesameend?Iftheperfectionofhumanityispredetermined,myconductcannotpreventitsconsummation;ifitinanywaydependsonme,thequestionreturns,whyshouldmyparticularinterestsbesacrificedtoit?Themanwhodoesnotalreadylovehiscontemporarieswhomhehasseenisunlikelytolovethemthemoreforthesakeofaremoteposteritywhomhewillneverseeatall.Finally,itmustberememberedthatevolutionisonlyhalfthecosmicprocess;itispartiallyconditionedateverystagebydissolution,towhichinthelongrunitmustentirelygiveway;andif,asMr.Spencerobserves,evolutionisthemoreinterestingofthetwo,105thispreferenceisitselfduetothelifewardtendencyofourthoughts;inotherwords,tothosemoralsentimentswhichitissoughttobaseonwhat,abstractedlyconsidered,hasallalongbeenacreationoftheirown.

Wehaveseenhow,fortheantithesisbetweenFormandMatter,wassubstitutedthewiderantithesisbetweenActualityandPossibility.Eveninthislattertheoppositionismoreapparentthanreal.Apermanentpossibilityisonlyintelligiblethroughtheideaofitsrealisation,andsoonerorlateriscertaintoberealised.Aristotlestillfurtherbridgesovertheintervalbetweenthembyanewconception—thatofmotion.Motion,hetellsus,istheprocessofrealisation,thetransformationofpowerintoact.NearlythewholeofhisPhysicsisoccupiedwithanenquiryintoitsnatureandorigin.Asfirstconceived,itisequivalenttowhatwecallchangeratherthan348tomechanicalmovement.Thetableofcategoriessuppliesanexhaustiveenumerationofitsvarieties.Theseare,aswehavealreadymentioned,alterationofqualityortransformation,increaseordecreaseofquantity,equivalenttogrowthanddecay,andtransportfromplacetoplace.Sometimesafourthvarietyisadded,derivedfromthefirstcategory,substance.Hecallsitgenerationanddestruction,thecomingintoexistenceorpassingoutofitagain.Acarefulanalysisshowsthatmotioninspaceistheprimordialchangeonwhichallothersdependfortheiraccomplishment.Toaccountforitisthemostvitallyimportantprobleminphilosophy.Ifweinterpretthisdoctrine,aftertheexampleofsomeoftheancients,tomeanthatanywrong-doingwouldbeinnocentandgood,supposingitescapeddetection,weshallprobablybemisconstruingEpicurus.Whatheseemstoalludetoisratherthecaseofstrictlylegalenactments,where,previouslytolaw,theactionneednothavebeenparticularlymoralorimmoral;where,infact,thecommonagreementhasestablishedarulewhichisnotcompletelyinharmonywiththe‘justiceofnature.’Inshort,Epicurusisprotestingagainsttheconceptionofinjustice,whichmakesitconsistindisobediencetopoliticalandsocialrules,imposedandenforcedbypublicandauthoritativesanctions.Heisprotesting,inotherwords,againsttheclaimsoftheStateuponthecitizensfortheircompleteobedience;71againsttheoldideasofthedivinesanctityandmajestyoflawaslaw;againsttheorieslikethatmaintainedbycontemporariesofSocrates,thattherecouldbenosuchthingasanunjustlaw.143

Oncemore,lookingatthewholecurrentofGreekphilosophy,andespeciallythephilosophyofmind,areweentitledtosaythatitencouraged,ifitdidnotcreate,thoseotherformsofindividualismalreadydefinedasmutinouscriticismonthepartofthepeople,andselfishambitiononthepartofitschiefs?Somehistorianshavemaintainedthattherewassuchaconnexion,operating,ifnotdirectly,atleastthroughachainofintermediatecauses.Freethoughtdestroyedreligion,withreligionfellmorality,andwithmoralitywhateverrestraintshadhithertokeptanarchictendenciesofeverydescriptionwithinbounds.Theseareinterestingreflections;buttheydonotconcernushere,fortheissueraisedbyHegelisentirelydifferent.ItmattersnothingtohimthatSocrateswasastaunch252defenderofsupernaturalismandofthereceivedmorality.TheessentialantithesisisbetweentheSocraticintrospectionandtheSocraticdialecticsontheoneside,andtheunquestionedauthorityofancientinstitutionsontheother.IfthisbewhatHegelmeans,wemustoncemorerecordourdissent.Wecannotadmitthatthephilosophyofsubjectivity,sointerpreted,wasadecomposingferment;northatthespiritofPlato’srepublicwas,inanycase,aprotestagainstit.TheDelphicprecept,‘Knowthyself,’meantinthemouthofSocrates:Leteverymanfindoutwhatworkheisbestfittedfor,andsticktothat,withoutmeddlinginmattersforwhichheisnotqualified.TheSocraticdialecticmeant:Letthewholefieldofknowledgebesimilarlystudied;letourideasonallsubjectsbesosystematisedthatweshallbeabletodiscoveratamoment’snoticethebearingofanyoneofthemonanyoftheothers,oronanynewquestionbroughtupfordecision.Surelynothingcouldwellbelessindividualistic,inabadsense,lessanti-social,lessanarchicthanthis.NordoesPlatooppose,hegeneraliseshismaster’sprinciples;heworksoutthepsychologyanddialecticofthewholestate;andifthemembersofhisgoverningclassarenotpermittedtohaveanyseparateinterestsintheirindividualcapacity,eachindividualsoulisexaltedtothehighestdignitybyhavingthecommunityreorganisedonthemodelofitsowninternaleconomy.Therearenoviolentperipeteiasinthisgreatdramaofthought,buteverywhereharmony,continuity,andgradualdevelopment.

WereasonthatbecausethewarbetweenThebesandPhociswasawarbetweenneighboursandanevil,thereforethewarbetweenAthensandThebes,beingalsoawarbetweenneighbours,willinallprobabilitybealsoanevil.Thus,outoftheoneparallelcase—thewarbetweenThebesandPhocis—weformthegeneralproposition,Allwarsbetweenneighboursareevils;tothisweaddtheminor,thewarbetweenAthensandThebesisawarbetweenneighbours—andthencearriveattheconclusionthatthewarbetweenAthensandThebeswillbelikewiseanevil.283

Oncecreditedwithacontinuedexistence,thedepartedspiritwouldnotremainintheHadesortheElysiumprovidedforitbythejusticeorthepiety,ofthesurvivor,butpersistedinreturningtothisworldandmanifestingamostuncomfortableinterestinitsaffairs;or,evenifwillingtoremainatrest,itwasliabletobedraggedbackbyincantations,andcompelledtorevealthesecretsoffuturityatthebiddingofanunprincipledmagician.Whatscienceandgoodfeelingcombinedhaveprovedunabletokeepdownamongourselves,naturallyragedwithunmitigatedvirulenceatatimewhentheprimitivebarbarismandsuperstitionwereonlycoveredoverbyacrustofculturewhichatmanypointswasgrowingthinnereveryday.AmongLatinwriters,theyoungerPliny,Suetonius,andApuleius,amongGreekwriters,Plutarch,Pausanias,MaximusTyrius,Philostratus,andDionCassius,affordunequivocalevidenceoftheirbeliefandthebeliefoftheircontemporariesinghostlyapparitions;andLucian,whilerejectingghost-storiesonhisownaccount,speaksasiftheywereimplicitlyacceptedeveninphilosophicalcircles.372Stillmoreabundantistheevidenceprovingthefrequencyofattemptsmadetoevokespiritsbymeansofmagicalincantations.Horace’sCanidiaboaststhatshecanraisethedeadevenaftertheirbodieshavebeenburned.373Lucandescribestheprocessofconjuringupaghostatlength;anditisthoughtthatheinsertedthewholesceneinhispoemasasatireontheemperorNero,whoisknowntohavebeenaddictedtosuchpractices,aswerealsohissuccessors,DidiusJulianus,Caracalla,andElagabalus.AndthatthesameartwascultivatedbyprivatepersonsisclearfromtheallusionsmadetoitbyQuintilian,Apuleius,Tertullian,andHeliod?rus.374

WehavethisgreatadvantageindealingwithPlato—thathisphilosophicalwritingshavecomedowntousentire,whilethethinkerswhoprecededhimareknownonlythroughfragmentsandsecond-handreports.Noristhedifferencemerelyaccidental.Platowasthecreatorofspeculativeliterature,properlysocalled:hewasthefirstandalsothegreatestartistthateverclothedabstractthoughtinlanguageofappropriatemajestyandsplendour;anditisprobablytotheirbeautyofformthatweowethepreservationofhiswritings.Ratherunfortunately,however,alongwiththegenuineworksofthemaster,acertainnumberofpieceshavebeenhandeddowntousunderhisname,ofwhichsomearealmostuniversallyadmittedtobespurious,whiletheauthenticityofothersisaquestiononwhichthebestscholarsarestilldivided.Intheabsenceofanyverycogentexternalevidence,animmenseamountofindustryandlearninghasbeenexpendedonthissubject,andtheargumentsemployedonbothsidessometimesmakeusdoubtwhetherthereasoningpowersofphilologistsarebetterdevelopedthan,accordingtoPlato,werethoseofmathematiciansinhistime.The176twoextremepositionsareoccupiedbyGrote,whoacceptsthewholeAlexandriancanon,andKrohn,whoadmitsnothingbuttheRepublic;115whilemuchmoreseriouscritics,suchasSchaarschmidt,rejectalongwithamassofworthlesscompositionsseveralDialoguesalmostequalininterestandimportancetothosewhoseauthenticityhasneverbeendoubted.ThegreathistorianofGreeceseemstohavebeenratherundiscriminatingbothinhisscepticismandinhisbelief;andtheexclusiveimportancewhichheattributedtocontemporarytestimony,ortowhatpassedforsuchwithhim,mayhaveundulybiassedhisjudgmentinbothdirections.Asithappens,theauthorityofthecanonismuchweakerthanGroteimagined;butevengrantinghisextremecontention,ourviewofPlato’sphilosophywouldnotbeseriouslyaffectedbyit,forthepieceswhicharerejectedbyallothercriticshavenospeculativeimportancewhatever.ThecasewouldbefardifferentwerewetoagreewiththosewhoimpugnthegenuinenessoftheParmenides,theSophist,theStatesman,thePhilêbus,andtheLaws;forthesecompositionsmarkanewdepartureinPlatonismamountingtoacompletetransformationofitsfundamentalprinciples,whichindeedisoneofthereasonswhytheirauthenticityhasbeendenied.Apart,however,fromthenumerousevidencesofPlatonicauthorshipfurnishedbytheDialoguesthemselves,aswellasbytheindirectreferencestotheminAristotle’swritings,itseemsutterlyincrediblethatathinkerscarcely,ifatall,inferiortothemasterhimself—asthesupposedimitatormustassuredlyhavebeen—shouldhaveconsentedtolethisreasoningspasscurrentunderafalsename,andthat,too,thenameofonewhoseteachingheinsomerespectscontroverted;whilethereisafurtherdifficultyinassumingthathisexistencecouldpassunnoticedataperiodmarkedbyintenseliteraryandphilosophicalactivity.Readerswho177wishforfullerinformationonthesubjectwillfindinZeller’spagesacarefulandluciddigestofthewholecontroversyleadingtoamoderatelyconservativeconclusion.OtherswilldoubtlessbecontenttoacceptProf.Jowett’sverdict,that‘onthewholenotasixteenthpartofthewritingswhichpassunderthenameofPlato,ifweexcludetheworksrejectedbytheancientsthemselves,canbefairlydoubtedbythosewhoarewillingtoallowthataconsiderablechangeandgrowthmayhavetakenplaceinhisphilosophy.’116TowhichwemayaddthatthePlatonicdialogues,whethertheworkofoneormorehands,andhoweverwidelydifferingamongthemselves,togetherrepresentasinglephaseofthought,andareappropriatelystudiedasaconnectedseries.

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  • 雨花郡主yC1nf

     IV.

  • 雪灵芝C6YoM

    Aristotleismoresuccessfulwhenheproceedstodiscusstheimagination.Heexplainsittobeacontinuanceofthemovementoriginallycommunicatedbythefeltobjecttotheorganofsense,keptupintheabsenceoftheobjectitself;—asnearanapproachtothetruthascouldbemadeinhistime.Andheisalsorightinsayingthattheoperationsofreasonareonlymadepossiblebythehelpofwhathecallsphantasms—thatis,faintreproductionsofsensations.Inadditiontothis,hepointsouttheconnexionbetweenmemoryandimagination,andenumeratesthelawsofassociationbriefly,butwithgreataccuracy.Heis,however,altogetherunawareoftheirscope.Sofarfromusingthemtoexplainallthementalprocesses,hedoesnotevenseethattheyaccountforinvoluntaryreminiscence,andlimitsthemtothevoluntaryoperationbywhichwerecallamissingnameorotherimagetoconsciousness.

  • 如萱紫儿xmLT9

    TopaintSocratesathishighestandhisbest,itwasnecessarytobreakthroughthenarrowlimitsofhishistoricindividuality,andtoshowhow,hadtheybeenpresentedtohim,hewouldhavedealtwithproblemsoutsidetheexperienceofahome-stayingAtheniancitizen.Thefounderofidealism—thatistosay,therealisationofreason,thesystematicapplicationofthoughttolife—hadsucceededinhistaskbecausehehadembodiedthenoblestelementsoftheAthenianDêmos,orderliness,patriotism,self-control,andpublicityofdebate,togetherwithareceptiveintelligenceforimprovementseffectedinotherstates.But,justastheimpulsewhichenabledthosequalitiestotelldecisivelyonGreekhistoryatamomentofinestimableimportancecamefromtheAthenianaristocracy,withitsDoriansympathies,itsadventurousambition,anditskeenattentiontoforeignaffairs,soalsodidPlato,carryingthesamespiritintophilosophy,bringthedialecticmethodintocontactwitholderandbroadercurrentsofspeculation,andemployittorecognisethewholespiritualactivityofhisrace.

  • 但法国3loAr

     Besidestheattentionslavishedoneverywealthyindividual,thosewhohadnochildrenwereespeciallycourted,andthattoobyotherswhowereaswelloffasthemselveswiththeobjectofbeingrememberedintheirwills.Soadvantageousaposition,indeed,didtheseorbi,astheywerecalled,occupy,thatamongthehigherclassestherewasextremeunwillingnesstomarry;although,asanencouragementtopopulation,thefatherofthreechildrenenjoyedseveralsubstantialprivileges.Thiscircumstance,again,bypreventingtheperpetuationofwealthyfamilies,andallowingtheirpropertytopassintothehandsofdegradedfortune-hunters,renderedimpossibletheconsolidationofanewaristocracywhichmighthavereorganisedthetraditionsofliberalculture,andformedaneffectualbarrieragainstthedownwardpressureofdespotismontheonesideandtheinroadsofpopularsuperstitionontheother.

  • 大笨蛋UxYbs

    v

  • 扒皮成3JSYx

    ThehistoryofthisCrateswasdistinguishedbytheonesolitaryromanceofGreekphilosophy.Ayoungladyofnoblefamily,namedHipparchia,felldesperatelyinlovewithhim,refusedseveralmosteligiblesuitors,andthreatenedtokillherselfunlessshewasgiventohiminmarriage.HerparentsindespairsentforCrates.Marriage,foraphilosopher,wasagainsttheprinciplesofhissect,andheatfirstjoinedtheminendeavouringtodissuadeher.Findinghisremonstrancesunavailing,heatlastflungatherfeetthestaffandwalletwhichconstitutedhiswholeworldlypossessions,exclaiming,8‘Hereisthebridegroom,andthatisthedower.Thinkofthismatterwell,foryoucannotbemypartnerunlessyoufollowthesamecallingwithme.’Hipparchiaconsented,andthenceforth,heedlessoftaunts,conformedherlifeineveryrespecttotheCynicpattern.13

     Norwasthisall.Beforephilosophising,theGreeksdidnotthinkonlyintheorderoftime;theylearnedataveryearlyperiodtothinkalsointheorderofspace,theirfavouriteideaofalimitbeingmadeespeciallyprominenthere.Homer’sgeographicalnotions,howevererroneous,are,forhisage,singularlywelldefined.Aeschylushasawideknowledgeoftheearth’ssurface,andexhibitsitwithperhapsunnecessaryreadiness.Pindardelightstofollowhismythologicalheroesaboutontheirtravels.Thesametendencyfoundstillfreerscopewhenproseliteraturebegan.Hecataeus,oneoftheearliestprose-writers,wasgreatbothasagenealogistandasageographer;andinthisrespectalsoHerodotuscarriedoutonagreatscaletheenquiriesmosthabituallypursuedbyhiscountrymen.Now,itwillberememberedthatwehavehadoccasiontocharacteriseearlyIonianspeculationasbeing,toagreatextent,cosmography.Theelementfromwhichitdeducedallthingswas,infact,thatwhichwassupposedtolieoutsideandembracetherest.Thegeographicallimitwasconceivedasagenealogicalancestor.Thus,thestudieswhichmenlikeHecataeuscarriedonseparately,werecombined,orratherconfused,inasingleboldgeneralisationbyAnaximenesandHeracleitus.

  • 草莓果Fdw02

    CHAPTERII.EPICURUSANDLUCRETIUS.

     Sofarourinvestigationhasbeenanalytical.WehaveseenPlotinusacquire,oneafteranother,theelementsoutofwhichhissystemhasstilltobeconstructed.Thefirststepwastoseparatespiritfrommatter.Theyarerespectivelydistinguishedasprinciplesofunionandofdivision.Thebodiesgiventousinexperienceareacombinationofthetwo,adispersionofformoveraninfinitelyextended,infinitelydivisible,infinitelychangefulsubstratum.Ourownsouls,whichatfirstseemedsoabsolutelyself-identical,present,onexamination,asimilarlycompositecharacter.AfreshanalysisresultsintheseparationofNousorReasonfromthelowerfunctionsofconsciouslife.AndweinferbyanalogythatthesoulinNaturebearsthesamerelationtoatranscendentobjectiveNous.Nousisessentiallypureself-consciousness,andfromthisself-consciousnesstheworldofIdeasisdeveloped.Properlyspeaking,Ideasarethesolereality:sensibleformsareanimageofthemimpressedonmatterthroughtheagencyoftheworld-soul.ButNous,orthetotalityofIdeas,thoughhigh,isnotthehighest.Allthathashithertooccupiedus,Nature,Soul,andReason,is316pervadedbyafundamentalunity,withoutwhichnothingcouldexist.ButSoulisnotherselfthisunity,norisReason.Self-consciousness,eveninitspurestexpression,involvesadualityofobjectandsubject.ThenotionofBeingisdistinctfromthenotionofoneness.Theprinciplerepresentedbythelatter,asthecauseofallthings,mustitselftranscendexistence.Atthesametime,itisrevealedtousbythefactofourownpersonalidentity.TobeunitedwithoneselfistobeunitedwiththeOne.

  • 绿卡纸PxAox

    AnothermethodbywhichAristotlestrovetoovercometheantithesisbetweenlifeasamechanicalarrangementandlifeasametaphysicalconception,wasthenewlycreatedstudyofcomparativeanatomy.Thevariationsinstructureandfunctionwhichaccompanyvariationsintheenvironment,thoughstaticallyandnotdynamicallyconceived,bringusveryneartothetruththatbiologicalphenomenaaresubjecttothesamegenerallawsofcausationasallotherphenomena;anditisthistruthwhich,inthescienceoflife,correspondstotheidentificationofterrestrialwithcelestialphysicsinthescienceofgeneralmechanics.Vitalityisnotanindividualisedprinciplestationedintheheartandservingonlytobalanceoppositeforcesagainstoneanother;butitisdiffusedthroughallthetissues,andbestowsonthemthatextraordinaryplasticitywhichrespondstotheactionsoftheenvironmentbyspontaneousvariationscapableofbeingsummedupinanydirection,andsocreatingentirelyneworganicformswithouttheinterventionofanysupernaturalagency.

     Beforetheideaswhichwehavepassedinreviewcouldgoforthontheirworld-conqueringmission,itwasnecessary,notonlythatSocratesshoulddie,butthathisphilosophyshoulddiealso,bybeingabsorbedintothemoresplendidgeneralisationsofPlato’ssystem.Thatsystemhas,forsometimepast,beenmadeanobjectofclosestudyinourmostfamousseatsoflearning,andacertainacquaintancewithithasalmostbecomepartofaliberaleducationinEngland.No170bettersourceofinspiration,combinedwithdiscipline,couldbefound;butweshallunderstandandappreciatePlatostillbetterbyfirstextricatingthenucleusroundwhichhisspeculationshavegatheredinsuccessivedeposits,andthiswecanonlydowiththehelpofXenophon,whoselittleworkalsowelldeservesattentionforthesakeofitsownchasteandcandidbeauty.TherelationinwhichitstandstothePlatonicwritingsmaybesymbolisedbyanexamplefamiliartotheexperienceofeverytraveller.Assometimes,invisitingaGothiccathedral,weareledthroughthewondersofthemoremodernedifice—undersoaringarches,overtesselatedpavements,andbetweenlongrowsofclusteredcolumns,pastfrescoedwalls,storiedwindows,carvenpulpits,andsepulchralmonuments,withtheirendlesswealthofmythologicimagery—downintotheoldestportionofany,thebaresterncrypt,severewiththesimplicityofearlyart,restingonpillarstakenfromanancienttemple,andenclosingthetombofsomemartyredsaint,towhoseglorifiedspiritanofficeofperpetualintercessionbeforethemercy-seatisassigned,andinwhosehonourallthatexternalmagnificencehasbeenpiledup;soalsowepassthroughthemanifoldandmarvellousconstructionsofPlato’simaginationtothatausterememorialwhereXenophonhasenshrinedwithpiouscare,underthegreatprimarydivisionsofoldHellenicvirtue,anauthenticreliquaryofonestandingforemostamongthosewho,havingworkedouttheirowndeliverancefromthepowersoferrorandevil,wouldnotbesavedalone,butpublishedthesecretofredemptionthoughdeathwerethepenaltyofitsdisclosure;andwho,bytheirtransmittedinfluence,evenmorethanbytheireternalexample,arestillcontributingtotheprogressivedevelopmentofallthatismostrational,mostconsistent,mostsocial,andthereforemosttrulyhumaninourselves.

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