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“彩票极速飞艇在哪里买”WhilePlatoidentifiedtheindividualwiththecommunitybyslurringoverthepossibledivergenceoftheirinterests,hestillfurthercontributedtotheirlogicalconfusionbyresolvingtheegointoamultitudeofconflictingfacultiesandimpulsessupposedtorepresentthedifferentclassesofwhichaStateismadeup.Hisopponentsheldthatjusticeandlawemanatefromtherulingpowerinthebodypolitic;andtheywerebroughttoadmitthatsupremepowerisproperlyvestedinthewisestandbestcitizens.Transferringtheseprinciplestotheinnerforum,hemaintainedthatapsychologicalaristocracycouldonlybeestablishedbygivingreasonasimilarcontrolovertheanimalpassions.141Atfirstsight,thisseemedtoimplynomorethanareturntothestandpointofSocrates,orofPlatohimselfintheProtagoras.Themanwhoindulgeshisdesireswithinthelimitsprescribedbyaregardfortheirsafesatisfactionthroughhiswholelife,maybecalledtemperateandreasonable,butheisnotnecessarilyjust.If,how233ever,weidentifytheparamountauthoritywithinwiththeparamountauthoritywithout,weshallhavetoadmitthatthereisafacultyofjusticeintheindividualsoulcorrespondingtotheobjectivejusticeofpoliticallaw;andsincethesupremevirtueisagreedonallhandstobereason,wemustgoastepfurtherandadmitthatjusticeisreason,orthatitisreasonabletobejust;andthatbyconsequencetheheightofinjusticeistheheightoffolly.Moreover,thisfallacioussubstitutionofjusticefortemperancewasfacilitatedbythecircumstancethatalthoughtheformervirtueisnotinvolvedinthelatter,thelatteristoaverygreatextentinvolvedintheformer.Self-controlbynomeanscarrieswithitarespectfortherightsofothers;butwheresuchrespectexistsitnecessitatesaconsiderableamountofself-control.

ThequalitieswhichenabledEpicurustocompetesuccessfullywithmuchgreaterthinkersthanhimselfasthefounderofalastingsect,werepracticalratherthantheoretical.Othersbeforehimhadtaughtthathappinesswastheendoflife;none,likehim,hadcultivatedtheartofhappiness,andpointedoutthefittestmethodsforattainingit.Theideaofsuchanartwasarealandimportantadditiontotheresourcesofcivilisation.Nomistakeisgreaterthantosupposethatpleasureislostbybeingmadeanobjectofpursuit.Tosingleoutthemostagreeablecourseamongmanyalternatives,and,whenoncefound,steadilytopursueit,isanaptitudelikeanyother,andiscapableofbeingbroughttoahighdegreeofperfectionbyassiduousattentionandself-discipline.211Nodoubtthecapacityforenjoyment117isimpairedbyexcessiveself-consciousness,butthesameistrueofeveryotheraccomplishmentduringtheearlierstagesofitsacquisition.Itisonlythebeginnerwhoistroubledbytakingtoomuchthoughtabouthisownproficiency;whenpracticehasbecomeasecondnature,theprofessorofhedonismreapshisharvestofdelightwithoutwastingathoughtonhisownefforts,orallowingthephantomofpleasureintheabstracttoallurehimawayfromitsparticularandpresentrealisation.And,grantingthathappinessassuchcanbemadeanobjectofcultivation,Epicuruswasperfectlyrightinteachingthattheremovalofpainisitsmostessentialcondition,faultyaswas(fromaspeculativepointofview)hisconfusionoftheconditionwiththethingitself.Iftheprofessedpleasure-seekersofmodernsocietyoftenfailinthebusinessoftheirlives,itisfromneglectingthissalutaryprinciple,especiallywhereittakestheformofattentiontotherequirementsofhealth.Inassigningahighimportancetofriendship,hewasequallywellinspired.Congenialsocietyisnotonlythemostsatisfyingofenjoymentsinitself,butalsothatwhichcanbemosteasilycombinedwitheveryotherenjoyment.Itisalsotrue,althoughatruthfeltratherthanperceivedbyourphilosopher,thatspeculativeagreement,especiallywhenspeculationtakestheformofdissentfromreceivedopinions,greatlyincreasestheaffectionoffriendsforoneanother.Andastheologyisthesubjectonwhichunforcedagreementseemsmostdifficult,toeliminateitsinfluencealtogetherwasavaluablethoughpurelynegativecontributiontounanimityofthoughtandfeelinginthehedonisticsect.AristotlenexttakestheIdeaofSubstanceandsubjectsittoafreshanalysis.243Ofallthingsnoneseemtopossesssoevidentanexistenceasthebodiesaboutus—plantsandanimals,thefourelements,andthestars.Buteachofthese344hasalreadybeenshowntoconsistofFormandMatter.Astatue,forinstance,isalumpofbronzeshapedintothefigureofaman.Ofthesetwoconstituents,Matterseemsatfirstsighttopossessthegreaterreality.ThesamelineofthoughtwhichledAristotletoplacesubstancebeforetheothercategoriesnowthreatenstodrivehimbackintomaterialism.Thishedreaded,notonsentimentalorreligiousgrounds,butbecauseheconceivedittobethenegationofknowledge.HefirstshowsthatMattercannotbetherealsubstancetowhichindividualsowetheirdeterminateexistence,sinceitismerelytheunknownresiduumleftbehindwheneverypredicate,commontothemwithothers,hasbeenstrippedoff.Substance,then,mustbeeitherFormaloneorFormcombinedwithMatter.Form,initscompletestsense,isequivalenttotheessentialdefinitionofathing—thecollectionofattributestogetherconstitutingitsessenceorconception.Toknowthedefinitionistoknowthethingdefined.Thewaytodefineistobeginwiththemostgeneralnotion,andproceedbyaddingonespecificdifferenceafteranother,untilwereachthemostparticularandconcreteexpression.TheunionofthislastwithacertainportionofMattergivesustheindividualSocratesorCallias.Therearenorealentities(asthePlatonistspretend)correspondingtothesuccessivestagesofgeneralisation,biped,animal,andsoforth,anymorethanthereareself-existingquantities,qualities,andrelations.Thustheproblemhasbeendrivenintonarrowerandnarrowerlimits,untilatlastweareleftwiththeinfim?speciesandtheindividualscontainedunderthem.Itremainstodiscoverinwhatrelationthesestandtooneanother.Theanswerisunsatisfactory.Wearetoldthatthereisnodefinitionofindividuals,andalsothatthedefinitionisidenticalwiththeindividual.244Such,indeed,istheconclusionnecessarilyresultingfromAristotle’srepeateddeclarationsthatallknowledgeisof345definitions,thatallknowledgeisofsomethingreallyexisting,andthatnothingreallyexistsbutindividualthings.Nevertheless,againstthesewehavetosetequallystrongdeclarationstotheeffectthatknowledgeisofsomethinggeneral,notoftheperishingindividualswhichmaypassoutofexistenceatanymoment.Thetruthis,thatwearehere,asZellerhasshown,245inpresenceofaninsolublecontradiction,andwemusttrytoexplain,nothowAristotlereconcileditwithitself,forthatwasimpossible,buthowhereconciledhimselftoit.

VI.

‘HonourandwisdomarebutemptynamesNowthathewasteshisnativelandwithwar,

AnattempthasrecentlybeenmadebyM.GuyautotracetheinfluenceofEpicurusonmodernphilosophy.Wecannotbutthinkthemethodofthisableandlucidwriterathoroughly118mistakenone.Assumingtherecognitionofself-interestasthesoleorparamountinstinctinhumannature,tobetheessenceofwhatEpicurustaught,M.Guyau,withoutmoreado,setsdowneverymodernthinkerwhoagreeswithhimonthisonepointashisdisciple,andthenaddstothenumberallwhoholdthatpleasureistheendofaction;thusmakingoutaprettylonglistoffamousnamesamongthemorerecentcontinuatorsofhistradition.AmoreextendedstudyofancientphilosophywouldhaveshowntheFrenchcriticthatmoralistswho,inotherrespects,weremostopposedtoEpicurus,agreedwithhiminholdingthateverymannaturallyandnecessarilymakeshisowninterestthesupremetestofrightconduct;andthatonlywiththedefinitionofwelfaredidtheirdivergencebegin.Ontheotherhand,theselfishsystemsofmoderntimesdifferentirelyfromEpicureanismintheirconceptionofhappiness.WithHobbes,forinstance,whomM.GuyauclassesasanEpicurean,theidealisnotpainlessnessbutpower;thedesiresare,accordingtohisview,naturallyinfinite,andareheldincheck,notbyphilosophicalpreceptsbutbymutualrestraint;while,indeducingthespecialvirtues,hisstandardisnotthegoodofeachindividual,butthegoodofthewhole—inotherwords,heis,tothatextent,aStoicratherthananEpicurean.LaRochefoucauld,whoisofferedasanotherexampleofthesametendency,wasnotamoralistatall;andasapsychologisthediffersessentiallyfromEpicurusinregardingvanityasalwaysandeverywherethegreatmotivetovirtue.HadtheAtheniansagebelievedthishewouldhavedespairedofmakingmenhappy;fordisregardofpublicopinion,withinthelimitsofpersonalsafety,was,withhim,oneofthefirstconditionsofatranquilexistence.NorwouldhehavebeenlessaversefromthesystemofHelvétius,anotherofhissupposeddisciples.TheprincipaloriginalityofHelvétiuswastoinsistthatthepassions,insteadofbeingdiscouraged—asallpreviousmoralists,Epicurusamongthenumber,hadadvised—shouldbe119deliberatelystimulatedbythepromiseofunlimitedindulgencetothosewhodistinguishedthemselvesbyimportantpublicservices.OfSpinozaweneedsaynothing,forM.GuyauadmitsthathewasquiteasmuchinspiredbyStoicasbyEpicureanideas.Atthesametime,thecombinationofthesetwoethicalsystemswouldhavebeenmuchbetterillustratedbymodernEnglishutilitarianism,whichM.GuyauregardsasadevelopmentofEpicureanismalone.Thegreatesthappinessofthegreatestnumberisnotanindividualorself-interested,butauniversalend,having,asMillhasshown,foritsultimatesanctiontheloveofhumanityasawhole,whichisanessentiallyStoicsentiment.Itmaybeaddedthatutilitarianismhasnosympathywiththeparticulartheoryofpleasure,whethersensualornegative,adoptedbyEpicurus.Ingivingahigh,oreventhehighestplacetointellectualenjoyments,itagreeswiththeestimateofPlatoandAristotle,towhichhewassosteadilyopposed.Andindulyappreciatingthepositivesideofallenjoyments,itreturnstotheearlierhedonismfromwhichhestoodsofarapart.

Thetimearrivedwhenthislastlibertywastobetakenaway.Intheyear529,JustinianissuedhisfamousdecreeprohibitingthepublicteachingofphilosophyinAthens,andconfiscatingtheendowmentsdevotedtothemaintenanceofitsprofessors.Itisprobablethatthismeasureformedpartofacomprehensiveschemeforcompletingtheextirpationofpaganismthroughouttheempire.Forsometwocenturiespast,thetriumphofChristianityhadbeensecuredbyanunsparingexerciseoftheimperialauthority,asthetriumphofCatholicismoverheresywasnexttobesecuredwiththeaidoftheFrankishsword.Afewyearsafterwards,theprincipalrepresentativesoftheNeo-Platonicschool,includingtheDamasciusofwhomwehavealreadyspoken,andSimplicius,361thefamousAristoteliancommentator,repairedtothecourtofKhosruNuschirvan,theKingofPersia,withtheintentionofsettlinginhiscountryfortherestoftheirlives.Theyweresoonheartilysickoftheiradoptedhome.Khosruwasunquestionablyanenlightenedmonarch,greatlyinterestedinHellenicculture,andsincerelydesirousofdiffusingitamonghispeople.ItisalsocertainthatAgathias,ouronlyauthorityonthissubject,wasviolentlyprejudicedagainsthim.Butitmayverywellbe,asstatedbythathistorian530thatKhosrubynomeanscameuptotheexaggeratedexpectationsformedofhimbytheexiledprofessors.HehadbeendescribedtothemastheidealofaPlatonicruler,and,likeinexperiencedbookmen,theyacceptedthereportingoodfaith.Theyfoundthathecaredagreatdealmoreforscientificquestionsaboutthecauseofthetidesandthemodificationssuperinducedonplantsandanimalsbytransferencetoanewenvironment,thanaboutthemetaphysicsoftheOne.531Moreover,theimmoralityofOrientalsocietyandthecorruptionofOrientalgovernmentweresomethingforwhichtheyweretotallyunprepared.Better,theythought,todieatonce,sothatitwerebutonRomansoil,thantoliveonanyconditionsinsuchacountryasPersia.Khosruwasmostunwillingtolosehisguests,butonfindingthattheyweredeterminedtoleavehim,hepermittedthemtodepart,andevenmadeitamatterofexpressstipulationwiththeimperialgovernmentthattheyshouldbeallowedtoliveintheiroldhomeswithoutsufferinganymolestationonaccountoftheirreligiousopinions.532

BesidestherevivalofPlatonism,threecauseshadconspiredtooverthrowthesupremacyofAristotle.TheliteraryRenaissancewithitsadorationforbeautyofformwasalienatedbythebarbarousdialectofScholasticism;themysticaltheologyofLuthersawinitanallybothofecclesiasticalauthorityandofhumanreason;andthenewspiritofpassionaterevoltagainstalltraditionattackedtheacceptedphilosophyincommonwitheveryotherbranchoftheofficialuniversitycurriculum.Beforelong,however,areactionsetin.Theinnovatorsdiscreditedthemselvesbyanextravagance,anignorance,acredulity,andanintoleranceworsethananythingintheteachingwhichtheydecried.NosoonerwastheReformationorganisedasapositivedoctrinethanitfellbackforsupportontheonlymodelofsystematicthinkingatthattimetobefound.TheHumanistswereconciliatedbyhavingtheoriginaltextofAristotleplacedbeforethem;andtheyreadilybelieved,whatwasnottrue,thatitcontainedawisdomwhichhadeludedmediaevalresearch.Butthegreatscientificmovementofthesixteenthcenturycontributed,morethananyotherimpulse,tobringaboutanAristotelianreaction.Afterwinningimmortaltriumphsineverybranchofartandliterature,theItalianintellectthrewitselfwithequalvigourintotheinvestigationofphysicalphenomena.HerePlatocouldgivelittlehelp,whereasAristotlesuppliedamethodiseddescriptionofthewholefieldtobeexplored,andcontributionsofextraordinaryvaluetowardstheunder372standingofsome,atleast,amongitsinfinitedetails.AndwemaymeasuretherenewedpopularityofhissystemnotonlybythefactthatCesalpino,thegreatestnaturalistoftheage,professedhimselfitsadherent,butalsobythebitternessofthecriticismsdirectedagainstit,andtheinvoluntaryhomageofferedbyrivalsystemswhichwerelittlemorethanmeagreexcerptsfromthePeripateticontologyandlogic.

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  • 雨花郡主NiEvV

     

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  • 如萱紫儿N9lXS

    Doctrineslikethese,ifconsistentlycarriedout,wouldhaveutterlydestroyedsomuchofmoralityasdependsonthesocialsanction;while,byinculcatingtheabsoluteindifferenceof44externalactions,theymightultimatelyhaveparalysedtheindividualconscienceitself.ButtheStoicswerenotconsistent.Unlikesomemodernmoralists,whoarereadytoforgiveeveryinjurysolongastheyarenotthemselvesthevictims,ourphilosopherswereunsparingintheirdenunciationsofwrong-doing;anditisverylargelytotheirindignantproteststhatweareindebtedforourknowledgeofthecorruptionprevalentinRomansocietyundertheEmpire.Itmayevenbecontendedthat,inthisrespect,ourjudgmenthasbeenunfairlybiassed.ThepicturedrawnbytheStoics,orbywriterstrainedundertheirinfluence,seemstohavebeentooheavilychargedwithshadow;andbutforthearchaeologicalevidenceweshouldnothaveknownhowmuchgenuinehumanaffectionlayconcealedinthoselowersocialstratawhoserecordscanonlybestudiedontheirtombs.99ItwasamongtheseclassesthatChristianityfoundthereadiestacceptance,simplybecauseitgaveasupernaturalsanctiontohabitsandsentimentsalreadymadefamiliarbythespontaneoustendenciesofanunwarlikerégime.

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  • 扒皮成TU8z9

    WehavesaidthatProtagoraswasapartisanofNomos,orconvention,againstNature.Thatwastheconservativesideofhischaracter.Still,NomoswasnotwithhimwhatithadbeenwiththeolderGreeks,animmutabletraditionindistinguishablefromphysicallaw.Itwasahumancreation,andrepresentedtheoutcomeofinheritedexperience,admittingalwaysofchangeforthebetter.Hencethevastimportancewhichheattributedtoeducation.This,nodoubt,wasmagnifyinghisownoffice,forthetrainingofyouthwashisprofession.But,unquestionably,thefeelingsofhismoreliberalcontemporarieswentwithhim.Agenerationbefore,Pindarhadspokenscornfullyofintellectualcultureasavainattempttomakeupfortheabsenceofgeniuswhichthegodsalonecouldgive.YetPindarhimselfwasalwayscarefultodwellontheservicesrenderedbyprofessionaltrainerstothe93victoriousathleteswhosepraiseshesang,andtherewasreallynoreasonwhygeniusandcultureshouldbepermanentlydissociated.AThemistoclesmightdecideoffhandonthequestionsbroughtbeforehim;aPericles,dealingwithmuchmorecomplexinterests,alreadyneededamorecarefulpreparation.

     Itwas,nodoubt,fortheseandsimilarreasonsthatallthemostvigorousintellectsofHellasrangedthemselveseitherontheStoicorontheScepticside,leavingthehalfheartedcompromiseofEpicurustothosewhocouldnotthinkoutanyonetheoryconsistently,orwho,liketheRomansatfirst,werenotacquaintedwithanysystembuthis.Henceforth,duringaperiodofsomecenturies,thewholephilosophicmovementisdeterminedbytheinteractionofthesetwofundamentalforces.ThefirsteffectoftheirconflictwastoimposeonScepticismanimportantmodification,illustratingitsessentiallyparasiticcharacter.Wehaveseenit,asageneraltendencyoftheGreekmind,clingingtotheverytextureofmythology,accompanyingtheearliestsystematiccompilationoffacts,aidingthehumanisticattacksonphysicalscience,associatedwiththefirstgreatreligiousreaction,operatingasthedialecticofdialecticitself,andfinallyassumingtheformofashadowymorality,inrivalrywithandimitationofethicalsystemsbasedonapositiveandsubstantialdoctrine.WehavenowtotraceitsmetamorphosisintoacriticalsystemextendingitsramificationsinparallelismwiththeimmensedogmaticstructureofStoicism,andsimultaneouslyendeavouringtoreachthesamepracticalresultsbyamoreelasticadaptation144totheinfirmitiesofhumanreasonandtheuncertaintiesofsensibleexperience.Assuch,weshallalsohavetostudyitsinfluenceoverthemostplasticofRomanintellects,thegreatoratorinwhosewritingsGreekphilosophywasreclothedwithsomethingofitsancientcharm,sothatmanywhoweredebarredfromadmissiontothegrovesandporticoesofAthenshavecaughtanechoofthehighdebateswhichoncestirredtheirrecesses,astheytrodtheshadyslopesofTusculumunderhisvisionaryguidance,orfollowedhissearchingeyesoverthebluewaterstoPompeii,whilehereasonedonmindanditsobject,onsenseandknowledge,ondoubtandcertainty,withLucullusandHortensius,onthesunlightBaianshore.ItisthehistoryoftheNewAcademythatweshallnowproceedtotrace.

  • 草莓果RgTW4

     

  • 绿卡纸t9Rr6

     AccordingtoSirA.Grant,itisbythemysticalandpoeticalsideofhisnaturethatPlatodiffersfromAristotle.Theone‘aspiredtoatruthabovethetruthofscientificknowledge’;theotherto‘methodisedexperienceandthedefinite.’182Now,settingasidethequestionwhetherthereisanytruthabovethetruthofscientificknowledge,wedoubtverymuchwhetherPlatobelievedinitsexistence.Heheldthatthemostvaluabletruthwasthatwhichcouldbeimpartedtoothersbyaprocessevenmorerigorousthanmathematicalreasoning;andtherewasnoreality,howevertranscendent,thathedidnothopetobringwithinthegraspofadialecticwithoutwhicheventhemeanestcouldnotbeunderstood.Hedid,indeed,believethat,sofar,thebestandwisestofmankindhadowedmuchmoretoadivinelyimplantedinstinctthantoanyconsciouschainofreflection;buthedistinctly293assertedtheinferiorityofsuchguidancetothelightofscientificknowledge,ifthiscouldbeobtained,ashehopedthatitcould.Ontheotherhand,AristotlewasprobablysuperiortoPlatoasapoet;andinspeakingaboutthehighestrealitiesheuseslanguagewhich,thoughlessrichandornatethanhismaster’s,isnotinferiortoitinforceandfervour;whilehismetaphysicaltheoriescontainalargeelementofwhatwouldnowbeconsideredmysticism,thatis,heoftenseesevidenceofpurposeandanimationwheretheydonotreallyexist.Hisadvantageindefinitenessis,ofcourse,indisputable,butthiswas,perhaps,becausehecameafterPlatoandprofitedbyhislessons.

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