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Forifpunishmentisweaktopreventcrime,itisstrongtoproduceit,anditisscarcelyopentodoubtthatitsproductiveforceisfargreaterthanitspreventive.Ourtermsofimprisonmentcompelmorepersonstoenteracareerofcrimethantheypreventfrompursuingone,thatbeingoftentheonlyresourceleftforthosewhodependonacriminal’slabour.Whetherinprisonortheworkhouse,suchdependentsbecomeachargetosociety;nordoesitseemreasonable,thatifonemanundersoretemptationstealsaloaf,ahundredothermenwhodonosuchthingmustcontributetokeep,notonlytheprisonerhimself,buthisfamilytoo,intheirdailybreadforsolongatimeasitpleasesthelawtodetainhimfromearninghisandtheirnecessarysubsistence.

Suchfatalandlegalisediniquitiesashavebeenreferredtohavebeenapprovedofbyeventhewisestmenandpractisedbyeventhefreestrepublics,owingtotheirhavingregardedsocietyratherasanaggregate[236]offamiliesthanasoneofindividuals.Supposetheretobe100,000individuals,or20,000families,offivepersonseach,includingitsrepresentativehead:iftheassociationisconstitutedbyfamilies,itwillconsistof20,000menand80,000slaves;ifitbeanassociationofindividuals,itwillconsistof100,000citizens,andnotasingleslave.Inthefirstcasetherewillbearepublic,formedof20,000littlesovereignties;inthesecondtherepublicanspiritwillbreathe,notonlyinthemarket-placesandmeetingsofthepeople,butalsowithinthedomesticwalls,whereinliessogreatapartofhumanhappinessormisery.Inthefirstcase,also,aslawsandcustomsaretheresultofthehabitualsentimentsofthemembersoftherepublic—thatis,oftheheadsoffamilies—themonarchicalspiritwillgraduallyintroduceitself,anditseffectswillonlybecheckedbytheconflictinginterestsofindividuals,notbyafeelingthatbreatheslibertyandequality.Familyspiritisaspiritofdetailandconfinedtofactsoftriflingimportance.Butthespiritwhichregulatescommunitiesismasterofgeneralprinciples,overlooksthetotalityoffacts,andcombinesthemintokindsandclasses,ofimportancetothewelfareofthegreaternumber.Inthecommunityoffamiliessonsremaininthepoweroftheheadofthefamilysolongashelives,andareobligedtolookforwardtohisdeathforanexistencedependentonthelawsalone.Accustomedtosubmissionandfearinthe[237]freshestandmostvigoroustimeoflife,whentheirfeelingsarelessmodifiedbythattimidity,arisingfromexperience,whichmencallmoderation,howshalltheywithstandthoseobstaclesinthewayofvirtuewhichviceeveropposes,inthatfeebleandfailingperiodoflifewhendespairoflivingtoseethefruitoftheirlabourshindersthemfrommakingvigorouschanges?CHAPTERI.INTRODUCTION.

Thesamemaybesaid,thoughforadifferentreason,wherethereareseveralaccomplicesofacrime,notallofthemitsimmediateperpetrators.Whenseveralmenjointogetherinanundertaking,thegreaterits[163]riskis,themorewilltheyseektomakeitequalforallofthem;themoredifficultitwillbe,therefore,tofindoneofthemwhowillbewillingtoputthedeedintoexecution,ifhetherebyincursagreaterriskthanthatincurredbyhisaccomplices.Theonlyexceptionwouldbewheretheperpetratorreceivedafixedreward,forthen,theperpetratorhavingacompensationforhisgreaterrisk,thepunishmentshouldbeequalisedbetweenhimandhisaccomplices.Suchreflectionsmayappeartoometaphysicaltowhosoeverdoesnotconsiderthatitisoftheutmostadvantageforthelawstoaffordasfewgroundsofagreementaspossiblebetweencompanionsincrime.

Inthosedaystostealfiveshillings’worthofgoodsfromashopwasacapitaloffence,andPaleyhadexplainedthephilosophyofthepunishment.ItwouldbetedioustofollowthecourseofRomilly’sbillagainstthislaw,calledtheShopliftingAct,[62]throughthedetailsofitshistory.SufficeittosaythatitpassedtheCommonsin1810,1811,1813,1816,butwasregularlythrownoutbytheLords,andonlydefinitelybecamelawmanyyearslater.Butthoughthedebatesonthesubjectnolongerpossessthevividinterestthatoncebelongedtothem,andarebestlefttotheoblivionthatenshroudsthem,itisinstructivetotakejustonesampleoftheeloquenceandarguments,thatonceledLordsandBishopscaptiveandexpressedthehighestlegalwisdomobtainableinEngland.Ifpleasureandpainarethemotorsofsensitivebeings,iftheinvisiblelawgiverofhumanityhasdecreedrewardsandpunishmentsasoneofthemotivestoimpelmentoeventheirnoblestendeavours,theinexactdistributionofthesemotiveswillgiverisetothatcontradiction,aslittlenoticedasitisofcommonoccurrence,namely,thatthelawspunishcrimeswhichareentirelyoftheirowncreation.Ifanequalpenaltyisattachedtotwocrimesofunequalinjurytosociety,thegreatercrimeofthetwo,ifitpromiseagreateradvantagethantheother,willhavenostrongermotiveinrestraintofitsperpetration.[197]Whoever,forexample,seesthesamepunishmentofdeathdecreedforthemanwhokillsapheasantandthemanwhoslayshisfelloworfalsifiesanimportantdocument,willdrawnodistinctionbetweensuchcrimes;andthusmoralsentiments,theproductonlyofmanyagesandofmuchbloodshed,theslowestandmostdifficultattainmentofthehumanmind,dependent,ithasbeenthought,ontheaidofthemostsublimemotivesandonaparadeofthegravestformalities,willbedestroyedandlost.

Ourlawsprohibitsuggestive(leading)questionsinalawsuit:those,thatis(accordingtothedoctorsoflaw),which,insteadofapplying,astheyshoulddo,[145]tothegenusinthecircumstancesofacrime,refertothespecies;those,inotherwords,whichfromtheirimmediateconnectionwithacrimesuggesttotheaccusedadirectanswer.Questions,accordingtothecriminallawyers,ought,sotospeak,‘toenvelopthemainfactspirallyandnevertoattackitinadirectline.’Thereasonsforthismethodare,eitherthatananswermaynotbesuggestedtotheaccusedwhichmayplacehimfacetofacewiththechargeagainsthim,orperhapsbecauseitseemsunnaturalforhimdirectlytocriminatehimself.But,whicheverofthesereasonsitmaybe,thecontradictionisremarkablebetweentheexistenceofsuchacustomandthelegalauthorisationoftorture;forwhatinterrogatorycanbemoresuggestivethanpain?Theformerreasonappliestothequestionoftorture,becausepainwillsuggesttoastrongmanobstinatesilence,inorderthathemayexchangethegreaterpenaltyforthelesser,whilstitwillsuggesttoaweakmanconfession,inorderthathemayescapefrompresenttorment,whichhasmoreinfluenceoverhimthanpainwhichistocome.Theotherreasonevidentlyappliestoo,forifaspecialquestionleadsamantoconfessagainstnaturalright,theagoniesoftorturewillmoreeasilydothesame.Butmenaremoregovernedbythedifferenceofnamesthanbythatofthings.

CHAPTERXIX.THEPROMPTNESSOFPUNISHMENTS.

Ifitbesaidthatasecondconvictionmakesitnecessaryforsocietytoprotectitselfbystrongermeasuresagainstamemberwhothusdefiesitspower,itmaybeaskedwhetherthisisnotanapplicationofexactlythesamereasoningtothecrimesofindividuals,whichasappliedtothecrimesofallmengenerallyledourancestorssofarastrayinthedistributionoftheirpunishments.Nothingcouldhavebeenmoreplausiblethantheirreasoning:‘Thepunishmentinvoguedoesnotdiminishthecrime,thereforeincreasethepunishment.’Butnothingcouldhave[92]beenlesssatisfactorythantheresult,forwiththeincreaseofpunishmentthatofcrimewenthandinhand.Thesamereasoningisequallyplausibleinthecaseofindividuals,withthesameperplexingquestionresultingintheend:‘Howcomesitthat,inspiteofthethreatenedgreaterpunishment,themajorityofcriminalsareyetoldoffenders?’

Buttherewasanothersidetothebrightnessofthissuccess.Inliteratureasinwarnopositionofhonourcanbewonorheldwithoutdanger,andofthisBeccariaseemstohavebeenconsciouswhenhe[15]pleadedagainstthechargeofobscurity,thatinwritinghehadhadbeforehiseyesthefearofecclesiasticalpersecution.Hislovefortruth,heconfessed,stoppedshortattheriskofmartyrdom.Hehad,indeed,threeveryclearwarningstojustifyhisfears.Muratori,thehistorian,hadsufferedmuchfromaccusationsofheresyandatheism,andhadowedhisimmunityfromworseconsequenceschieflytotheliberalprotectionofPopeBenedictXIV.TheMarquisScipioMaffeihadalsoincurredsimilarchargesforhishistoricalhandlingofthesubjectofFree-will.Buttherewasevenastrongerwarningthanthese,andonenotlikelytobelostonamanwithyouthandlifebeforehim;thatwasthefateoftheunfortunateGiannone,who,onlysixteenyearsbeforeBeccariawrote,hadendedwithhislifeinthecitadelofTurinanimprisonmentthathadlastedtwentyyears,forcertainobservationsontheChurchofRomewhichhehadbeenrashenoughtoinsertinhis‘HistoryofNaples.’[66]

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  • 雨花郡主q7oOv

     

  • 雪灵芝3hShI

    CHAPTERII.THEGENERALINFLUENCEOFBECCARIAONLEGISLATION.

  • 如萱紫儿rfuXZ

    Wouldyoupreventcrimes,thencausethelawstobeclearandsimple,bringthewholeforceofanationtobearontheirdefence,andsuffernopartofittobebusiedinoverthrowingthem.Makethelawstofavournotsomuchclassesofmenasmenthemselves.Causementofearthelawsandthelawsalone.Salutaryisthefearofthelaw,butfatalandfertileincrimeisthefearofonemanofanother.Menasslavesaremoresensual,moreimmoral,morecruelthanfreemen;and,whilstthelattergivetheirmindstothesciencesortotheinterestsoftheircountry,settinggreatobjectsbeforethemastheirmodel,theformer,contentedwiththepassingday,seekintheexcitementoflibertinageadistractionfromthenothingnessoftheirexistence,and,accustomedtoanuncertaintyofresultineverything,theylookupontheresultoftheircrimesasuncertaintoo,andsodecideinfavourofthepassionthattemptsthem.Ifuncertaintyofthelawsaffectsanation,renderedindolentbyitsclimate,itsindolenceandstupidityistherebymaintainedandincreased;ifitaffectsanation,whichthoughfondofpleasureisalsofullofenergy,itwastesthatenergyinanumberofpettycabalsandintrigues,whichspreaddistrustineveryheart,andmaketreacheryanddissimulationthefoundationofprudence;if,again,itaffectsa[245]courageousandbravenation,theuncertaintyisultimatelydestroyed,aftermanyoscillationsfromlibertytoservitude,andfromservitudebackagaintoliberty.

  • 但法国auU0N

    Tocombinethemaximumofperspicuitywiththemaximumoffidelitytotheoriginalhasbeenthecardinalprincipleobservedinthetranslation.Butitwould,ofcourse,havebeennolessimpossiblethancontrarytothespiritoftheoriginaltohaveattemptedtorenderperfectlycomprehensiblewhattheauthorpurposelywrappedinobscurity.Atranslationcanbutfollowthelightsandshadesofthesurfaceitreflects,renderingclearwhatisclearintheoriginal,andopaquewhatisopaque.

     

  • 大笨蛋23JZN

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  • 扒皮成51rTZ

    Thefirstclassofcrimes—thatis,theworst,becausetheyarethemostinjurioustosociety—arethoseknownascrimesofhightreason.Onlytyrannyandignorance,whichconfoundwordsandideasoftheclearestmeaning,canapplythisname,andconsequentlytheheaviestpunishment,todifferentkindsofcrimes,thusrenderingmen,asinathousandothercases,thevictimsofaword.Everycrime,beiteversoprivate,injuressociety;buteverycrimedoesnotaimatitsimmediatedestruction.Moral,likephysicalactions,havetheirlimitedsphereofactivity,andaredifferentlycircumscribed,likeallthemovementsofnature,bytimeandspace;andthereforeonlyasophisticalinterpretation,whichisgenerallythephilosophyofslavery,canconfoundwhateternaltruthhasdistinguishedbyimmutabledifferences.

     SuchwasthereasoningwhichfornearlyhalfacenturygovernedthecourseofEnglishhistory,andwhichforallthattimeitwasaheresytodispute.

  • 草莓果bdefx

    Whosoeverwillreadwithaphilosophicaleyethecodesandannalsofdifferentnationswillfindalmostalwaysthatthenamesofvirtueandvice,ofgoodcitizenandcriminal,arechangedinthecourseofages,notinaccordancewiththechangesthatoccurinthecircumstancesofacountry,andconsequentlyinconformitywiththegeneralinterest,butinaccordancewiththepassionsanderrorsthathaveswayeddifferentlegislatorsinsuccession.Hewillobservefulloften,thatthepassionsofoneageformthebasisofthemoralityoflaterones;thatstrongpassions,theoffspringoffanaticismandenthusiasm,weakenedand,sotospeak,gnawedawaybytime(whichreducestoalevelallphysicalandmoralphenomena)becomelittlebylittletheprudenceoftheage,andauseful[204]instrumentinthehandofthestrongmanandtheclever.Inthiswaythevaguestnotionsofhonourandvirtuehavebeenproduced;fortheychangewiththechangesoftime,whichcausesnamestosurvivethings;asalsowiththechangesofriversandmountains,whichformfrequentlytheboundariesofmoralnolessthanofphysicalgeography.

     Thereisalsoafourthconsequenceoftheaboveprinciples:thattherighttointerpretpenallawscannotpossiblyrestwiththecriminaljudges,forthe[126]veryreasonthattheyarenotlegislators.Thejudgeshavenotreceivedthelawsfromourancestorsasafamilytradition,asalegacythatonlylefttoposteritythedutyofobeyingthem,buttheyreceivethemfromlivingsociety,orfromthesovereignthatrepresentsitandisthelawfultrusteeoftheactualresultofmen’scollectivewills;theyreceivethem,notasobligationsarisingfromanancientoath[65](null,becauseitboundwillsnottheninexistence,andiniquitous,becauseitreducedmenfromastateofsocietytothatofaflock),butastheresultofthetacitorexpressedoathmadetothesovereignbytheunitedwillsoflivingsubjects,aschainsnecessaryforcurbingandregulatingthedisorderscausedbyprivateinterests.Thisisthenaturalandrealsourceoftheauthorityofthelaws.

  • 绿卡纸V1Hkd

    ThusbeforehisdeathBeccariasawtorturealmostentirelyabolishedinEurope,andageneraltendencyspreadingtofollowthespiritofthechangesheadvocatedinotherdetailsofcriminallaw.Probablynoothertheoristeverlivedtowitnesssocompleteanadoptionofhisprinciplesinpractice,orsothoroughatransformationofthesystemheattacked.Itispossiblethathebutgavebodyandvoicetoideasofchangealreadywidelyprevalentinhistime;butthe[38]meritofamanbelongsnonethelesstohimself,whochangestheinstabilityofpublicopinionintoanactiveandsolidforce,andwhogivesdistinctexpressiontothelongingsvaguelyfeltbyamultitude.

     SuchcontradictionsbetweenthelawsofafamilyandthefundamentallawsofaStateareafertile[238]sourceofothercontradictionsbetweenpublicandprivatemorality,givingriseconsequentlytoaperpetualconflictineveryindividualmind.Forwhilstprivatemoralityinspiresfearandsubjection,publicmoralityteachescourageandfreedom;whilsttheformerinculcatestherestrictionofwell-doingtoasmallnumberofpersonsindiscriminately,thelatterinculcatesitsextensiontoallclassesofmen;andwhilsttheoneenjoinstheconstantsacrificeofselftoavainidol,called‘thegoodofthefamily’(whichisfrequentlynotthegoodofanysinglememberthatcomposesit),theotherteachesmentobenefitthemselves,providedtheybreaknotthelaws,andincitesthem,bytherewardofenthusiasm,whichistheprecursoroftheiraction,tosacrificethemselvestothegoodoftheircountry.Suchcontradictionsmakemenscorntofollowvirtue,whichtheyfindsocomplicatedandconfused,andatthatdistancefromthem,whichobjects,bothmoralandphysical,derivefromtheirobscurity.Howoftenithappensthataman,inreflectingonhispastactions,isastonishedatfindinghimselfdishonest.Thelargersocietygrows,thesmallerfractionofthewholedoeseachmemberofitbecome,andthemoreisthefeelingofthecommonwealthdiminished,unlesscarebetakenbythelawstoreinforceit.Societies,likehumanbodies,havetheircircumscribedlimits,extensionbeyondwhichinvolvesinevitablyadisturbanceoftheir[239]economy.ThesizeofaStateoughtapparentlytovaryinverselywiththesensibilityofitscomponentparts;otherwise,ifbothincreasetogether,goodlawswillfind,intheverybenefittheyhaveeffected,anobstacletothepreventionofcrimes.Toolargearepubliccanonlysaveitselffromdespotismbyaprocessofsubdivision,andaunionofthepartsintosomanyfederativerepublics.Buthoweffectthis,savebyadespoticdictatorwiththecourageofSyllaandasmuchgeniusforconstructionashehadfordestruction?Ifsuchamanbeambitious,thegloryofalltheagesawaitshim;andifhebeaphilosopher,theblessingsofhisfellow-citizenswillconsolehimforthelossofhisauthority,evenshouldhenotbecomeindifferenttotheiringratitude.Inproportionasthefeelingswhichuniteustoourownnationareweakened,dothosefortheobjectsimmediatelyaroundusgaininstrength;anditisforthisreasonthatundertheseverestdespotismthestrongestfriendshipsaretobefound,andthatthefamilyvirtues,everofanexaltedcharacter,areeitherthemostcommonortheonlyones.Itisevident,therefore,howlimitedhavebeentheviewsofthegreatmajorityoflegislators.

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