浅析人民网《图解新闻》栏目的信息传播实践

V9OB9-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 05:47:49

“彩票大乐透查询”TheEpicureancosmologyneednotdelayuslong.Itiscompletelyindependentoftheatomictheory,whichhadonlybeenintroducedtoexplaintheindestructibilityofmatter,and,lateron,themechanismofsensation.Indescribinghowtheworldwasfirstformed,EpicurusfallsbackontheoldIonianmeteorology.Heassumestheexistenceofmatterindifferentstatesofdiffusion,andsegregatesfluidfromsolid,lightfromheavy,hotfromcold,bythefamiliardeviceofarapidvorticalmovement.168Fortherest,aswehavealreadynoticed,Epicurusgivesanimpartialwelcometothemostconflictingtheoriesofhispredecessors,providedonlythattheydispensewiththeaidofsupernaturalintervention;aswill87beseenbythefollowingsummary,whichwequotefromZeller:—Utilitarianismagreeswiththeancienthedonisminholdingpleasuretobethesolegoodandpainthesoleevil.Itsadherentsalso,forthemostpart,admitthatthedesireoftheoneandthedreadoftheotherarethesolemotivestoaction;but,whilemakingtheendabsolutelyuniversalandimpersonal,theymakethemotiveintoamomentaryimpulse,withoutanynecessaryrelationtothefuturehappinessoftheagenthimself.Thegoodmandoeshisdutybecausedoingitgiveshimpleasure,orbecausethefailuretodoitwouldgivehimpain,atthemoment;althoughheknowsthatacontrarycoursewouldsavehimfromgreaterpainorwinhimgreaterpleasurehereafter.Noaccuratethinkerwouldcallthisactingfromaselfishorinterestedmotive;nordoesitagreewiththeteachingofEpicurus.Wereallsensitivebeingstobeunitedinasingleorganism,then,onutilitarianprinciples,self-interest,interpretedinthesenseofseekingitsownpreservationandpleasure,wouldbetheonlylawthattheindividualisedaggregatecouldrationallyobey.Butthegoodofeachpartwouldberigorouslysubordinatedtothegoodofthewhole;andutilitarianmoralitydesiresthatweshouldactasifthishypothesiswererealised,atleastinreferencetoourownparticularinterests.Now,theideaofhumanityasformingsuchaconsolidatedwholeisnotEpicurean.Itbelongstothephilosophywhichalwaysreprobatedpleasure,preciselybecauseitspursuitisassociatedwiththederelictionofpublicdutyandwithbitterrivalryforthepossessionofwhat,byitsverynature,existsonlyinlimitedquantities,whilethedemandforitisunlimitedor,atanyrate,farexceedsthesupply.AccordingtotheStoics,therewasonlyonewayinwhichtheindividualcouldstudyhisprivate425interestwithoutabandoninghispositionasasocialbeing,andthiswastofinditexclusivelyinthepracticeofvirtue.575Butvirtueandpublicinterestremainedmereformsscantilysupplementedbyappealstothetraditionalmorality,untiltheideaofgeneralisedhappiness,ofpleasurediffusedthroughthewholecommunity,cametofillthemwithsubstanceandlife.

Onpassingfromtheultimateelementsofmattertothoseimmenseaggregateswhichsurpassmaninsizeandcomplexityasmuchastheatomsfallbelowhim,butonwhoseenergieshisdependenceisnolesshelplessandcomplete—theinfiniteworldstypifiedforusbythisonesystemwhereinwedwell,withitssolidearthlynucleussurroundedbyrollingorbsoflight—Lucretiusstillcarrieswithhimtheanalogiesoflife;butinproportiontothemagnitudeandremotenessoftheobjectsexamined,hisgraspseemstogrowlessfirmandhistouchlesssure.InmarkedcontrasttoPlato,Aristotle,andtheStoics,hearguespassionatelyagainsttheascriptionofabeneficentpurposetotheconstitutionoftheworld;buthisreasoningsarebasedsolelyonitsimperfectadaptationtothenecessitiesofhumanexistence.Withequalvigourhemaintains,apparentlyagainstAristotle,thatthepresentsystemhashadabeginning;againstbothAristotleandPlatothat,incommonwithallsystems,itwillhaveanend—aperfectlytruecon111clusion,butevidentlybasedonnothingstrongerthantheanalogiesofvitalphenomena.Andeverywherethesubjectivestandpoint,makingmantheuniversalmeasure,isequallymarked.Becauseourknowledgeofhistorydoesnotgofarback,wecannotbefarremovedfromitsabsolutebeginning;andthehistoryofthehumanracemustmeasurethedurationofthevisibleworld.Theearthisconceivedasamotherbringingfortheveryspeciesoflivingcreaturefromherteemingbosom;andnotonlythat,butanursingmotherfeedingheryoungoffspringwithabundantstreamsofmilk—anunexpectedadaptationfromthemythofagoldenage.Ifwenolongerwitnesssuchwonderfuldisplaysoffertility,thesameelasticmethodisinvokedtoexplaintheircessation.Theworld,likeotheranimals,isgrowingoldandeffete.TheexhaustionofItalianagricultureisadducedasasignoftheworld’sdecrepitudewithnolessconfidencethanthefreshnessofItalianpoetryasasignofitsyouth.Thevastprocessofcosmicchange,withitsinfinitecyclesofaggregationanddissolution,doesbutrepeatonanoverwhelmingscalethefamiliarsequencesofbirthanddeathinanimalspecies.Eventherisingandsettingoftheheavenlybodiesandthephasesofthemoonmay,itisargued,resultfromasimilarsuccessionofperishingindividuals,althoughwetakethemfordifferentappearancesofasingleunalterablesphere.207

Whatremainsofthevisibleworldafterdeductingitsidealelementsispurespace.This,whichtosomeseemstheclearestofallconceptions,wastoPlatooneoftheobscurest.Hecanonlydescribeitastheformlesssubstanceoutofwhichthefourelements,fire,air,water,andearth,aredifferentiated.Itclosesthescaleofexistenceandevenlieshalfoutsideit,justastheIdeaofGoodintheRepublictranscendsthesamescaleattheotherend.Wemayconjecturethatthetwoprinciplesareopposedasabsoluteself-identityandabsoluteself-separation;thewholeintermediateseriesofformsservingtobridgeovertheintervalbetweenthem.Itwillthenbeeasytounderstandhow,asAristotletellsus,PlatofinallycametoadoptthePythagoreannomenclatureanddesignatedhistwogeneratingprinciplesasthemonadandtheindefinitedyad.Numberwasformedbytheircombination,andallotherthingsweremadeoutofnumber.Aristotle267complainsthatthePlatonistshadturnedphilosophyintomathematics;andperhapsintheinterestsofscienceitwasfortunatethatthetransformationoccurred.Tosupposethatmattercouldbebuiltupoutofgeometricaltriangles,asPlatoteachesintheTimaeus,was,nodoubt,ahighlyreprehensibleconfusion;butthatthesystematicstudyofscienceshouldbebasedonmathematicswasanequallynewandimportantaper?u.Theimpulsegiventoknowledgefollowedunforeseendirections;andatalaterperiodPlato’struespiritwasbetterrepresentedbyArchimedesandHipparchusthanbyArcesilausandCarneades.

II.

ThuswecanquiteagreewithZellerwhenheobserves435293thatNeo-PlatonismonlycarriedoutatendencytowardsspiritualismwhichhadbeenalreadymanifestingitselfamongthelaterStoics,andhadbeenstillfurtherdevelopedbytheNeo-Pythagoreans.Butwhatdoesthisprove?NotwhatZellercontendsfor,whichisthatNeo-Platonismstandsonthesamegroundwiththeotherpost-Aristoteliansystems,butsimplythatarecurrenceofthesameintellectualconditionswasbeingfollowedbyarecurrenceofthesameresults.Now,asbefore,materialismwasprovingitsinadequacytoaccountforthefactsofmentalexperience.Now,asbefore,morality,afterbeingcutofffromphysicallaws,wasseekingabasisinreligiousormetaphysicalideas.Now,asbefore,thestudyofthoughtswassucceedingtothestudyofwords,andthemethodsofpopularpersuasionweregivingplacetothemethodsofdialecticaldemonstration.Ofcourse,theageofPlotinuswasfarinferiortotheageofPlatoinvitality,ingenius,andingeneralenlightenment,notwithstandingtheenormousextensionwhichRomanconquesthadgiventothesuperficialareaofcivilisation,asthedifferencebetweentheEnneadsandtheDialogueswouldalonesufficetoprove.Butthisdoesnotalterthefactthatthegeneraldirectionoftheirmovementproceedsinparallellines.

Fromutterconfusiontoextremenihilismtherewasbutasinglestep.ThisstepwastakenbyGorgias,theSicilianrhetorician,whoheldthesamerelationtowardswesternHellasandtheEleaticschoolasthatwhichProtagorasheldtowardseasternHellasandthephilosophyofHeracleitus.He,likehiseminentcontemporary,wasopposedtothethinkerswhom,borrowingausefultermfromthenomenclatureofthelastcentury,wemaycalltheGreekphysiocrats.Toconfutethem,hewroteabookwiththesignificanttitle,OnNatureorNothing:maintaining,first,thatnothingexists;secondly,thatifanythingexists,wecannotknowit;thirdly,thatifweknowit,thereisnopossibilityofcommunicatingourknowledgetoothers.ThefirstthesiswasestablishedbypushingtheEleaticargumentsagainstmovementandchangealittlefurther;thesecondbyshowingthatthoughtandexistencearedifferent,orelseeverythingthatisthoughtofwouldexist;thethirdbyestablishingasimilarincommensurabilitybetweenwordsandsensations.Grote96hasattemptedtoshowthatGorgiaswasonlyarguingagainsttheexistenceofanoumenonunderlyingphenomena,suchasallidealistsdeny.Zellerhas,however,convincinglyprovedthatGorgias,incommonwitheveryotherthinkerbeforePlato,wasignorantofthisdistinction;72andwemayaddthatitwouldleavethesecondandthirdthesesabsolutelyunimpaired.Wemusttakethewholetogetherasconstitutingadeclarationofwaragainstscience,anassertion,instillstrongerlanguage,oftheagnosticismtaughtbyProtagoras.Thetruthis,thataGreekcontroversialistgenerallyoverprovedhiscase,andinordertooverwhelmanadversarypulleddownthewholehouse,evenattheriskofbeingburiedamongtheruinshimself.Amodernreasoner,takinghiscuefromGorgias,withoutpushingthemattertosuchanextreme,mightcarryonhisattackonlinesrunningparallelwiththoselaiddownbytheSicilianSophist.Hewouldbeginbydenyingtheexistenceofa‘stateofNature’;forsuchastatemustbeeithervariableorconstant.Ifitisconstant,howcouldcivilisationeverhavearisen?Ifitisvariable,whatbecomesofthefixedstandardappealedto?Then,again,supposingsuchastateevertohaveexisted,howcouldauthenticinformationaboutithavecomedowntousthroughtheagesofcorruptionwhicharesupposedtohaveintervened?And,lastly,grantingthatastateofNatureaccessibletoenquiryhaseverexisted,howcanwereorganisesocietyonthebasisofsuchdiscordantdataasarepresentedtousbythephysiocrats,notwoofwhomagreewithregardtothefirstprinciplesofnaturalorder;onesayingthatitisequality,anotheraristocracy,andathirddespotism?Wedonotsaythattheseargumentsareconclusive,weonlymeanthatinrelationtomodernthoughttheyveryfairlyrepresentthedialecticartillerybroughttobearbyGreekhumanismagainstitsnaturalisticopponents.

WhereforeaholylawforbidsthatBeing

ThesecondthesisofGorgiaswasthat,evengrantingtheworldtoexist,itcouldnotpossiblybeknown.Herethereasoningisunexpectedlyweak.Becauseallthoughtsdonotrepresentfacts,—as,forexample,ourideasofimpossiblecombinations,likechariotsrunningoverthesea,—itisassumedthatnonedo.Buttheproblemhowtodistinguishbetweentrueandfalseideaswasraised,anditwasroundthisthatthefiercestbattlebetweendogmatistsandscepticssubsequentlyraged.AndinthecompleteconvertibilityofconsciousnessandrealitypostulatedbyGorgias,wemayfindthesuggestionofapointsometimesoverlookedintheautomatistcontroversy—namely,thattheimpossibility,ifany,ofouractingonthematerialworldreciprocallyinvolvestheimpossibilityofitsactingonus,insofarasweareconsciousbeings.Ifthoughtcannotbetranslatedintomovement,neithercanmovementbetranslatedintothought.

WhathasbeensaidofthehumansoulappliesequallytoGod,whoisthesouloftheworld.Healsoisconceivedundertheformofamaterialbutverysubtleandall-penetratingelementtowhichoursoulsaremuchmorecloselyakinthantothecoarseclaywithwhichtheyaretemporarilyassociated.Anditwasnaturalthattheheavenlybodies,inwhosecompositiontheetherealelementseemedsovisiblytopredominate,shouldpasswiththeStoics,aswithPlatoandAristotle,forconsciousbeingsinferioronlyinsacrednessand14majestytotheSupremeRulerofall.32Thus,thephilosophywhichwearestudyinghelpstoprovethestrengthandenduranceofthereligiousreactiontowhichSocratesfirstgaveanargumentativeexpression,andbywhichhewasultimatelyhurriedtohisdoom.WemayeventraceitsincreasingascendencythroughthesuccessivestagesoftheNaturalisticschool.Prodicussimplyidentifiedthegodsofpolytheismwithunconsciousphysicalforces;33Antisthenes,whilediscardinglocalworship,believed,likeRousseau,intheexistenceofasingledeity;34Zeno,orhissuccessors,revivedthewholepantheon,butassociateditwithapuremorality,andexplainedawayitsmoreoffensivefeaturesbyanelaboratesystemofallegoricalinterpretation.35

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  • 雨花郡主7piqa

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    Itisevident,then,thatAristotlecannotbeapproachedwiththesameperfectdispassionatenessastheothergreatthinkersofantiquity.Heis,ifnotalivingforce,stillaforcewhichmustbereckonedwithincontemporarycontroversy.Hisadmirerspersistinmakinganauthorityofhim,oratleastofquotinghiminbehalfoftheirownfavouriteconvictions.Weare,therefore,boundtosifthisclaimswithaseveritywhichwouldnotbealtogethergraciousinapurelyhistoricalreview.Atthesametimeitishopedthathistoricaljusticewillnotlose,butgain,bysuchaprocedure.WeshallbethebetterabletounderstandwhatAristotlewas,afterfirstshowingwhatheneitherwasnorcouldbe.Andtheutilityofourinvestigationswillbestillfurtherenhancedifwecanshowthatherepresentsafixedtyperegularlyrecurringintherevolutionsofthought.

     ThatanAthenian,or,indeed,anyGreekgentleman,shouldregardthecommonpeoplewithcontemptandaversionwasnothingstrange.AgenerationearliersuchfeelingswouldhaveledPlatotolookontheoverthrowofdemocracyandtheestablishmentofanaristocraticgovernmentastheremedyforeveryevil.Theupperclasses,accustomedtodecoratethemselveswithcomplimentarytitles,hadactuallycometobelievethatallwhobelongedtothemwereparagonsofwisdomandgoodness.WiththeruleoftheThirtycameaterribleawakening.InafewmonthsmoreatrocitieswereperpetratedbytheoligarchsthantheDêmoshadbeenguiltyofinasmanygenerations.ItwasshownthataccomplishedgentlemenlikeCritiaswereonlydistinguishedfromthecommonherdbytheirgreaterimpatienceofoppositionandbythemoredestructivefuryoftheirappetites.WithPlato,atleast,allallusionsonthisheadcametoanend.Henow‘smiledattheclaimsoflongdescent,’consideringthat‘everymanhashadthousandsandthousandsofprogenitors,andamongthemhavebeenrichandpoor,kingsandslaves,Hellenesandbarbarians,manytimesover;’andeventhepossessionofalargelandedpropertyceasedtoinspirehimwithanyrespectwhenhecompareditwiththesurfaceofthewholeearth.K

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     YetifPlato’stheology,fromitspredominantlyrationalcharacter,seemedtoneglectsomefeelingswhichwerebetter182satisfiedbytheearlierorthelaterfaithsofmankind,wecannotsaythatitreallyexcludedthem.Theunfadingstrengthoftheoldgodswascomprehendedintheself-existenceofabsoluteideas,andmoralgoodnesswasonlyaparticularapplicationofreasontotheconductoflife.Anemotionalorimaginativeelementwasalsocontributedbythetheorythateveryfacultyexercisedwithoutareasonedconsciousnessofitsprocessesandaimswasduetosomesavinggraceandinspirationfromasuperhumanpower.Itwasthus,accordingtoPlato,thatpoetsandartistswereabletoproduceworksofwhichtheywerenotabletorenderanintelligentaccount;anditwasthusthatsocietycontinuedtoholdtogetherwithsuchanexceedinglysmallamountofwisdomandvirtue.Here,however,wehavetoobserveamarkeddifferencebetweenthereligiousteacherspureandsimple,andtheGreekphilosopherwhowasadialecticianevenmorethanhewasadivine.ForPlatoheldthatprovidentialgovernmentwasmerelyprovisional;thattheinspiredprophetstoodonadistinctlylowerlevelthanthecritical,self-consciousthinker;thatratiocinationandnotpoetrywasthehighestfunctionofmind;andthatactionshouldbereorganisedinaccordancewithdemonstrablycertainprinciples.118

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