湖南媒体艺术产业园开工建设

GOeEx-news 发布时间: 2020-07-10 08:26:03

“【cpUnh】幸运飞艇五六码”InFranceBeccaria’sbookbecamewidelypopular,andmanywritershelpedtopropagatehisideas,suchasServan,Brissot,Lacretelle,andPastoret.LacretelleattributesthewholeimpulseofcriminallawreformtoBeccaria,whileregrettingthatMontesquieuhadnotsaidenoughtoattractgeneralattentiontothesubject.HisbookissaidtohavesochangedthespiritoftheoldFrenchcriminaltribunals,that,tenyearsbeforetheRevolution,theyborenoresemblancetotheirformerselves.AlltheyoungermagistratesgavetheirjudgmentsmoreaccordingtotheprinciplesofBeccariathanaccordingtothetextofthelaw.[21][35]TheresultoftheagitationappearedintheRoyalOrdinancesof1780and1788,directedtothediminutionoftorture,theonlyreformswhichprecededtheRevolution.ItissaidthatthelasttimeanyonewastorturedinFrancewasintheyear1788,thelastyearoftheancienrégime.AttheverybeginningoftheRevolutionmorethanahundreddifferentoffencesceasedtoincurthepenaltyofdeath.

CHAPTERXXXVIII.FALSEIDEASOFUTILITY.

Ofwhatkind,then,willbethepunishmentsduetothecrimesofnobles,whoseprivilegesformsogreatapartofthelawsofdifferentcountries?Iwillnothereinquirewhetherthistraditionaldistinctionbetweennoblesandcommonsbeadvantageousinagovernment,ornecessaryinamonarchy;norwhetheritbetruethatanobilityformsanintermediatepowerinrestraintoftheexcessesofthetwo[207]extremes,andnotratheracastewhich,inslaverytoitselfandtoothers,confinesallcirculationofmeritandhopetoaverynarrowcircle,likethosefertileandpleasantoasesscatteredamongthevastsand-desertsofArabia;norwhether,supposingittobetruethatinequalityisinevitableandusefulinsociety,itbealsotruethatsuchinequalityshouldsubsistbetweenclassesratherthanindividuals,andshouldremainwithonepartofthebodypoliticratherthancirculatethroughthewhole;whetheritshouldratherperpetuateitselfthanbesubjecttoconstantself-destructionandrenovation.Iwillconfinemyselftothepunishmentsproperfornobles,affirmingthattheyshouldbethesameforthegreatestcitizenasfortheleast.Everydistinctionofhonourorofrichespresupposes,tobelegitimate,apriorstateofequality,foundedonthelaws,whichregardallsubjectsasequallydependentonthemselves.Onemustsupposethemen,whorenouncedtheirnaturalstateofdespoticindependence,tohavesaid:‘Lethimwhoismoreindustriousthanhisfellowshavegreaterhonours,andlethisfamebegreateramonghissuccessors;lethimwhoismoreprosperousandhonouredhopeeventobecomemoreso,butlethimfearnolessthanothermentobreakthoseconditionsbyvirtueofwhichheisraisedabovethem.’Trueitisthatsuchdecreesdidnotemanateinaconvocationofthehumanrace,butsuchdecreesexistinthe[208]eternalrelationsofthings;theydonotdestroythesupposedadvantagesofanobility,thoughtheypreventitsabuses;andtheymakelawsfeared,byclosingeveryadmissiontoimpunity.Andifanyoneshallsaythatthesamepunishmentinflicteduponanobleanduponacommonerisnotreallythesame,byreasonofthediversityoftheireducation,andofthedisgracespreadoveranillustriousfamily,Iwillreply,thatthesensibilityofthecriminalisnotthemeasureofpunishment,butthepublicinjury,andthatthisisallthegreaterwhencommittedbythemorehighlyfavouredman;thatequalityofpunishmentcanonlybesowhenconsideredextrinsically,beingreallydifferentineachindividual;andthatthedisgraceofafamilycanberemovedbypublicproofsofkindnessonthepartofthesovereigntowardstheinnocentfamilyofthecriminal.Andwhoistherebutknowsthatformalitieswhichstrikethesensesserveasreasoningswiththecredulousandadmiringpopulace?Wouldyoupreventcrimes,thenseethatenlightenmentaccompaniesliberty.Theevilsthatflowfromknowledgeareininverseratiotoitsdiffusion;thebenefitsdirectlyproportionedtoit.Aboldimpostor,whoisneveracommonplaceman,isadoredbyanignorantpeople,despisedbyanenlightenedone.Knowledge,byfacilitatingcomparisonsbetweenobjectsandmultiplyingmen’spointsofview,bringsmanydifferentnotionsintocontrast,causingthemtomodifyoneanother,allthemoreeasilyasthesameviewsandthesamedifficultiesareobservedinothers.Inthefaceofawidelydiffusednationalenlightenmentthecalumniesofignorancearesilent,andauthority,disarmedofpretextsforitsmanifestation,trembles;whilsttherigorousforceofthelawsremainsunshaken,nooneofeducationhavinganydisliketotheclearandusefulpubliccompactswhichsecurethecommonsafety,whenhecomparesthetriflinganduselesslibertysacrificedbyhimselfwiththesum-totalofallthelibertiessacrificedbyothers,whowithoutthelawsmighthavebeenhostiletohimself.Whoeverhasasensitivesoul,whenhecontemplatesacodeofwell-madelaws,andfindsthathehasonlylosttheperniciouslibertyofinjuringothers,willfeel[246]himselfconstrainedtoblessthethroneandthemonarchthatsitsuponit.

ButiftheinterestofBeccaria’schapteronTortureisnowmerelyhistorical,aninterestthatisactualstillattachestohisadvocacyofthetotalabolitionofcapitalpunishment,thisbeingthecausewithwhichhisnameismostgenerallyassociated,andforwhichitislikelytobelongestremembered.Previouswriters,likeMontaigne,iftheydeprecatedtheexcessorseverityofthedeathpenalty,neverthoughtofurgingthatitshouldbeabolishedaltogether.

Fromallthathasgonebeforeageneraltheoremmaybededuced,ofgreatutility,thoughlittlecomformabletocustom,thatcommonlawgiverofnations.Thetheoremisthis:‘Inorderthateverypunishmentmaynotbeanactofviolence,committedbyonemanorbymanyagainstasingleindividual,itoughttobeaboveallthingspublic,speedy,necessary,theleastpossibleinthegivencircumstances,proportionedtoitscrime,dictatedbythelaws.’

Amanaccusedofacrime,imprisonedandacquitted,oughttobearnomarkofdisgrace.HowmanyRomans,accusedofthegravestcrimesandthenfoundinnocent,werereverencedbythepeopleandhonouredwithmagisterialpositions!Forwhatreason,then,isthelotofamaninnocentlyaccusedsodifferentinourowntimes?Because,inthecriminalsystemnowinvogue,theideaofforceandmightisstrongerinmen’smindsthantheideaofjustice;becauseaccusedandconvictedarethrowninconfusionintothesamedungeon;becauseimprisonmentisratheraman’spunishmentthanhismerecustody;andbecausethetwoforceswhichshouldbeunitedareseparatedfrom[134]oneanother,namely,theinternalforce,whichprotectsthelaws,andtheexternalforce,whichdefendsthethroneandthenation.Weretheyunited,theformer,throughthecommonsanctionofthelaws,wouldpossessinadditionajudicialcapacity,althoughindependentofthatpossessedbythesupremejudicialpower;andtheglorythataccompaniesthepompandceremonyofamilitarybodywouldremovetheinfamy,which,likeallpopularsentiments,ismoreattachedtothemannerthanthething,asisprovedbythefactthatmilitaryprisonsarenotregardedinpublicestimationassodisgracefulascivilones.Therestillremainamongourpeople,intheircustomsandintheirlaws(alwaysahundredyears,inpointofmerit,inarrearoftheactualenlightenmentofanation),therestillremain,Isay,thesavageimpressionsandfierceideasofourancestorsoftheNorth.

CHAPTERXXXIII.OFTHEPUBLICTRANQUILLITY.

Beccariawouldcertainlyhavedonebetternotto[23]havegonetoParisatall.Hisletterstohiswifeduringhisabsenceshowthathewasmiserableallthetime.Ineveryletterhecalculatesthedurationoftimethatwillelapsebeforehisreturn,andthereisanevencurrentofdistressandaffectionrunningthroughallthedescriptionsofhisjourney.Theassuranceisfrequentthatbutformakinghimselfridiculoushewouldreturnatonce.FromLyonshewritesthatheisinastateofthedeepestmelancholy;thateventheFrenchtheatrehehadsomuchlookedforwardtofailstodiverthim;andhebegshiswifetopreparepeopleforhisspeedyreturnbytellingthemthattheairofFrancehasabadeffectonhishealth.

[22]

[54]CHAPTERX.SUGGESTIVEINTERROGATIONS—DEPOSITIONS.

CHAPTERXI.OATHS.

Ifpleasureandpainarethemotorsofsensitivebeings,iftheinvisiblelawgiverofhumanityhasdecreedrewardsandpunishmentsasoneofthemotivestoimpelmentoeventheirnoblestendeavours,theinexactdistributionofthesemotiveswillgiverisetothatcontradiction,aslittlenoticedasitisofcommonoccurrence,namely,thatthelawspunishcrimeswhichareentirelyoftheirowncreation.Ifanequalpenaltyisattachedtotwocrimesofunequalinjurytosociety,thegreatercrimeofthetwo,ifitpromiseagreateradvantagethantheother,willhavenostrongermotiveinrestraintofitsperpetration.[197]Whoever,forexample,seesthesamepunishmentofdeathdecreedforthemanwhokillsapheasantandthemanwhoslayshisfelloworfalsifiesanimportantdocument,willdrawnodistinctionbetweensuchcrimes;andthusmoralsentiments,theproductonlyofmanyagesandofmuchbloodshed,theslowestandmostdifficultattainmentofthehumanmind,dependent,ithasbeenthought,ontheaidofthemostsublimemotivesandonaparadeofthegravestformalities,willbedestroyedandlost.

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  • 雨花郡主npEZe

    CHAPTERX.SUGGESTIVEINTERROGATIONS—DEPOSITIONS.

     

  • 雪灵芝kBXrJ

    CHAPTERXXXVII.OFAPARTICULARKINDOFCRIME.

  • 如萱紫儿zighE

  • 但法国4QlFh

     ButoffargreaterhistoricalinterestthansuchcriticismisthatofRamsay,theScotchpoetandpainter,towhomacopyofBeccaria’streatisehadbeenshownbyDiderot,andwhowrotealetteraboutittothelatter,which,thoughitcontainssomeveryjustcriticismsonBeccaria,yetreadsforthemostpartverycuriouslybythelightofsubsequenthistory,andillustratesgraphicallythedespairofallreformthenfeltbymostmenofreflection.[8]

  • 大笨蛋Ux6hN

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  • 扒皮成y7Y4c

     

  • 草莓果oLECR

     Thus,thetwowriterstowhomBeccariaowedmostwereMontesquieuandHelvetius.The‘LettresPersanes’oftheformer,whichsatirisedsomanythingsthenincustom,containedbutlittleaboutpenallaws;buttheideaistherestartedforthefirsttimethatcrimesdependbutlittleonthemildnessorseverityofthepunishmentsattachedtothem.‘Theimagination,’saysthewriter,‘bendsofitselftothecustomsofthecountry;andeightdaysofprisonoraslightfinehaveasmuchterrorforaEuropeanbroughtupinacountryofmildmannersasthelossofanarmwouldhaveforanAsiatic.’[4]The‘EspritdesLois,’bythesameauthor,probablycontributedmoretotheformationofBeccaria’sthoughtsthanthe‘LettresPersanes,’foritisimpossibletoreadthetwelfthbookofthatworkwithoutbeingstruckbytheresemblanceofideas.The‘DeL’Esprit’ofHelvetiuswascondemnedbytheSorbonneas‘acombinationofallthevariouskindsofpoisonscatteredthroughmodernbooks.’Yetitwasoneofthemostinfluentialbooksofthetime.WefindHumerecommendingittoAdamSmithforitsagreeablecompositionfatherthanforitsphilosophy;andawriterwhohadmuchincommonwithBeccariadrew[8]fromitthesameinspirationthathedid.ThatwriterwasBentham,whotellsusthatwhenhewasabouttwenty,andonavisittohisfatherandstepmotherinthecountry,hewouldoftenwalkbehindthemreadingabook,andthathisfavouriteauthorwasHelvetius.

  • 绿卡纸Yz0H7

     Butcommerceandtheinterchangeofthepleasuresofluxuryhavethisdrawback,thathowevermanypersonsareengagedintheirproduction,theyyetbeginandendwithafew,thegreatmajorityofmenonlyenjoyingthesmallestshareofthem,sothatthefeelingofmisery,whichdependsmoreoncomparisonthanonreality,isnotprevented.ButtheprincipalbasisofthishappinessIspeakofispersonalsecurityandlibertyunderthelimitationsofthelaw;withthesethepleasuresofluxuryfavourpopulation,andwithoutthemtheybecometheinstrumentoftyranny.Asthenoblestwildbeastsandthefreestbirdsremovetosolitudesandinaccessibleforests,leavingthefertileandsmilingplainstothewilesofman,somenflyfrompleasuresthemselveswhentyrannyactsastheirdistributor.

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