贵州省自然资源厅:22项措施为发展保驾护航

WMDmE-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 11:47:58

“【Vxdli】幸运飞艇前五位定位胆计划”

Answeringtothefirstprinciplesofdemonstrationinlogic,ifnotabsolutelyidenticalwiththem,arewhatAristotlecallscausesinthenatureofthings.WehaveseenwhatanimportantpartthemiddletermplaysinAristotle’stheoryofthesyllogism.Itisthevitalprincipleofdemonstration,theconnectinglinkbywhichthetwoextremetermsareattachedtooneanother.Inthetheoryofappliedlogic,whoseobjectistobringtheorderofthoughtintocompleteparallelismwiththeorderofthings,themiddletermthroughwhichafactisdemonstratedanswerstothecausethroughwhichitexists.Accordingtoournotions,onlytwoterms,antecedentandconsequent,areinvolvedintheideaofcausation;andcausationonlybecomesamatterforreasoningwhenweperceivethatthesequenceisrepeatedinauniformmanner.ButAristotlewasveryfarfromhavingreached,orevensuspected,thispointofview.Acauseiswithhimnotadeterminingantecedent,butasecretnexusbywhichtheco-existenceoftwophenomenaisexplained.Insteadofprecedingitintercedes;andthisiswhyhefindsitssubjectivecounterpartinthemiddletermofthesyllogism.Someofhisownexampleswillmakethematterclearer.Whyisthemooneclipsed?Becausetheearthintervenesbetweenherandthesun.Whyisthebrightsideofthemoonalwaysturnedtowardsthesun?Becausesheshinesbyhisreflectedlight(herelightisthemiddleterm).Whyisthatpersontalkingtotherichman?Becausehewantstoborrowmoneyofhim.Whyarethosetwomenfriends?Becausetheyhavethesameenemy.281

Ifprivatesocietyexercisedademoralisinginfluenceonitsmostgiftedmembers,andinturnsufferedastillfurtherdebasementbylisteningtotheiropinions,thesamefatalinterchangeofcorruptionwentonstillmoreactivelyinpubliclife,sofar,atleast,asAtheniandemocracywasconcerned.Thepeoplewouldtoleratenostatesmanwhodidnotpamper199theirappetites;andthestatesmen,fortheirownambitiouspurposes,attendedsolelytothematerialwantsofthepeople,entirelyneglectingtheirspiritualinterests.Inthisrespect,Pericles,themostadmiredofall,hadbeenthechiefofsinners;for‘hewasthefirstwhogavethepeoplepayandmadethemidleandcowardly,andencouragedthemintheloveoftalkandofmoney.’Accordingly,arighteousretributionovertookhim,for‘attheveryendofhislifetheyconvictedhimoftheft,andalmostputhimtodeath.’Soithadbeenwiththeotherboastedleaders,Miltiades,Themistocles,andCimon;allsufferedfromwhatisfalselycalledtheingratitudeofthepeople.Likeinjudiciouskeepers,theyhadmadetheanimalcommittedtotheirchargefiercerinsteadofgentler,untilitssavagepropensitieswereturnedagainstthemselves.Or,changingthecomparison,theywerelikepurveyorsofluxury,whofedtheStateonadiettowhichitspresent‘ulceratedandswollencondition’wasdue.Theyhad‘filledthecityfullofharbours,anddocks,andwalls,andrevenuesandallthat,andhadleftnoroomforjusticeandtemperance.’Oneonlyamongtheelderstatesmen,Aristeides,isexceptedfromthissweepingcondemnation,and,similarly,Socratesisdeclaredtohavebeentheonlytruestatesmanofhistime.127

AnotherandprofoundercharacteristicofPlato,asdistinguishedfromAristotle,ishisthorough-goingoppositionofrealitytoappearance;hisdistrustofsensuousperception,imagination,andopinion;hiscontinualappealtoahiddenworldofabsolutetruthandjustice.WefindthisprofounderprinciplealsograspedandappliedtopoeticalpurposesinourElizabethanliterature,notonlybySpenser,butbyastillgreatermaster—Shakespeare.ItisbynomeansunlikelythatShakespearemayhavelookedintoatranslationoftheDialogues;atanyrate,theintellectualatmospherehebreathedwassosaturatedwiththeirspiritthathecouldeasilyabsorbenoughofittoinspirehimwiththetheoryofexistencewhichalonegivesconsistencytohisdramaticworkfromfirsttolast.Fortheessenceofhiscomediesisthattheyrepresenttheordinaryworldofsensibleexperienceasasceneofbewildermentanddelusion,wherethereisnothingfixed,nothingsatisfying,nothingtrue;assomethingwhich,becauseofitsveryunreality,isbestrepresentedbythedrama,371butadramathatisnotwithoutmysteriousintimationsofarealitybehindtheveil.Inthemwehavethe

Thethreeformsofindividualismalreadyenumerateddonotexhaustthegeneralconceptionofsubjectivity.AccordingtoHegel,ifweunderstandhimaright,themostimportantaspectoftheprincipleinquestionwouldbethephilosophicalside,thereturnofthoughtonitself,alreadylatentinphysicalspeculation,proclaimedbytheSophistsasanall-dissolvingscepticism,andworkedupintoatheoryoflifebySocrates.Thattherewassuchamovementis,ofcourse,certain;butthatitcontributedperceptiblytothedecayofoldGreekmorality,orthatitwasessentiallyopposedtotheoldGreekspirit,cannot,wethink,betrulyasserted.Whathasbeenalreadyobservedofpoliticallibertyandofpoliticalunscrupulousnessmayberepeatedofintellectualinquisitiveness,rationalism,scepticism,orbywhatevernamethetendencyinquestionistobecalled—italwayswas,andstillis,essentiallycharacteristicoftheGreekrace.Itmayverypossiblyhavebeenasourceofpoliticaldisintegrationatalltimes,butthatitbecamesotoagreaterextentafterassumingtheformofsystematicspeculationhasneverbeenproved.Ifthestudyofscience,orthepassionforintellectualgymnastics,drewmenawayfromthedutiesofpubliclife,itwassimplyasonemoreprivateinterestamongmany,justlikefeasting,orlovemaking,ortravelling,orpoetry,oranyotheroftheoccupationsinwhichawealthyGreekdelighted;notfromanyintrinsicincompatibilitywiththedutiesofastatesmanorasoldier.Sofar,indeed,wasthisfrombeingtrue,thatliberalstudies,evenoftheabstrusestorder,werepursuedwitheveryadvantagetotheirpatrioticenergybysuchcitizensasZeno,Melissus,Empedocles,and,aboveall,byPericlesandEpameinondas.IfSocratesstoodalooffrompublicbusinessitwasthathemighthavemoreleisuretotrainothersforitsproperperformance;andhehimself,whencalledupontoservetheState,provedfullyequaltotheemergency.AsfortheSophists,itiswellknownthattheirprofessionwastogiveyoungmenthesortofeducationwhichwouldenable251themtofillthehighestpoliticalofficeswithhonourandadvantage.Itistruethatsuchaspecialpreparationwouldendbythrowingincreaseddifficultiesinthewayofacareerwhichitwasoriginallyintendedtofacilitate,byraisingthestandardoftechnicalproficiencyinstatesmanship;andthatmanypossibleaspirantswould,inconsequence,bedrivenbackonlessarduouspursuits.ButPlatowassofarfromopposingthisspecialisationthathewishedtocarryitmuchfarther,andtomakegovernmenttheexclusivebusinessofasmallclasswhoweretobephysiologicallyselectedandtoreceiveaneducationfarmoreelaboratethananythattheSophistscouldgive.If,however,weconsiderPlatonotastheconstructorofanewconstitutionbutinrelationtothepoliticsofhisowntime,wemustadmitthathiswholeinfluencewasusedtosetpublicaffairsinahatefulandcontemptiblelight.Sofar,therefore,asphilosophywasrepresentedbyhim,itmustcountforadisintegratingforce.ButinjustthesamedegreeweareprecludedfromassimilatinghisideaofaStatetotheoldHellenicmodel.Wemustrathersay,whathehimselfwouldhavesaid,thatitneverwasrealisedanywhere;although,asweshallpresentlysee,acertainapproachtoitwasmadeintheMiddleAges.Nexttoitsbearingonthequestionofimmortality,theEpicureanpsychologyismostinterestingasacontributiontothetheoryofcognition.Epicurusholdsthatallourknowledgeisderivedfromexperience,andallourexperience,directlyorindirectly,fromthepresentationsofsense.SofarhesaysnomorethanwouldbeadmittedbytheStoics,byAristotle,andindeedbyeveryGreekphilosopherexceptPlato.Thereis,therefore,nonecessaryconnexionbetweenhisviewsinthisrespectandhistheoryofethics,sinceothershadcombinedthesameviewswithaverydifferentstandardofaction.Itisindiscussingthevexedquestionofwhatconstitutestheultimatecriterionoftruththatheshowstomostdisadvantageincomparisonwiththemoreintellectual96schools.Heseemstohaveconsideredthatsensationsuppliesnotonlythematterbuttheformofknowledge;orrather,heseemstohavemissedthedistinctionbetweenmatterandformaltogether.Whatthesensestellus,hesays,isalwaystrue,althoughwemaydrawerroneousinferencesfromtheirstatements.184Butthisonlyamountstotheidenticalpropositionthatwefeelwhatwefeel;foritcannotbepretendedthattheorderofoursensationsinvariablycorrespondstotheactualorderofthingsinthemselves.Evenconfiningourselvestoindividualsensations,orsinglegroupsofsensations,therearesomethatdonotalwayscorrespondtothesameobjectivereality,andothersthatdonotcorrespondtoanyrealityatall;while,conversely,thesameobjectproducesamultitudeofdifferentsensationsaccordingtothesubjectiveconditionsunderwhichitaffectsus.Toescapefromthisdifficulty,Epicurushasrecoursetoasingularlycrudetheoryofperception,borrowedfromEmpedoclesandtheolderatomists.Whatweareconsciousofis,ineachinstance,nottheobjectitself,butanimagecomposedoffineatomsthrownofffromthesurfacesofbodiesandbroughtintocontactwiththeorgansofsense.Ourperceptioncorrespondsaccuratelytoanexternalimage,buttheimageitselfisoftenveryunliketheobjectwhenceitoriginallyproceeded.Sometimesitsuffersaconsiderablechangeintravellingthroughtheatmosphere.Forinstance,whenasquaretower,seenatagreatdistance,producestheimpressionofroundness,thisisbecausethesharpanglesofitsimagehavebeenrubbedoffonthewaytooureyes.Sometimestheimagecontinuestowanderaboutafteritsoriginalhasceasedtoexist,andthatiswhythedeadseemtorevisitusinourdreams.Andsometimestheimagesofdifferentobjectscoalesceastheyarefloatingabout,thusproducingtheappearanceofimpossiblemonsters,suchascentaursandchimaeras.185

Wehavehere,indeed,somethingcomparablenotonlytothescepticismoftheNewAcademy,butalsototheAristoteliancriticismofPlato’smetaphysics;and,atfirstsight,itmightseemasifthePeripateticphilosophywasdestinedoncemoretoregainthepositiontakenfromitbytheresuscitationofitsancientfoe.ButLockewasnotinclinedtosubstituteoneformofscholasticismforanother.ByapplyingtheanalyticalmethodofAtomismtoknowledgeitself,hecreatedaweaponequallyfataltothetwocompetingsystems.Underhisdissection,theconcreteindividualsubstanceoftheonevanishednolesscompletelythantheuniversalideasoftheother.Nothingremainedbutabundleofqualitiesheldtogetherbyasubjectivebond.

VII.

I.Twophilosophersonlycanbenamedwho,inmoderntimes,haverivalledorapproachedthemoraldignityofSocrates.Likehim,Spinozarealisedhisownidealofagoodandhappylife.Likehim,GiordanoBruno,withoutahopeoffuturerecompense,chosedeathratherthanalifeunfaithfultothehighesttruth,anddeath,too,underitsmostterribleform,notthepainlessextinctionbyhemlockinflictedinaheathencity,buttheagonisingdissolutionintendedbyCatholiclovetoserveasaforetasteofeverlastingfire.Yetwithneithercantheparallelbeextendedfurther;forSpinoza,wiselyperhaps,refusedtofacethestormswhichapublicprofessionandpropagationofhisdoctrinewouldhaveraised;andthewaywardcareerofGiordanoBrunowasnotinkeepingwithitsheroicend.ThecomplexanddistractingconditionsinwhichtheirlotwascastdidnotpermitthemtoattainthatstatuesquecompletenesswhichmarkedtheclassicageofGreeklifeandthought.Thosetimesdevelopedawilderenergy,amorestubbornendurance,asweeterpuritythananythattheancientworldhadknown.Butuntilthescatteredelementsarerecombinedinastillloftierharmony,oursleeplessthirstforperfectioncanbesatisfiedatonespringalone.Periclesmustremaintheidealofstatesmanship,Pheidiasofartisticproduction,andSocratesofphilosophicpower.

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  • 雨花郡主Z8D6j

     Wehavenowtoshowwhatnewbeliefsgainedmostground,andwhatoldbeliefsweremostsuccessfullyrevived,throughthecombinationoffavourableconditions,ananalysisofwhichhasbeenattemptedintheprecedingpages.Amongthehostofcreedswhichatthisperiodcompetedwithoneanotherforthefavouroftherichorforthesuffragesofthepoor,thereweresomethatpossessedamarkedadvantageovertheirrivalsinthestruggleforexistence.TheworshipofNatureconsideredasimagingthevicissitudesofhumanlife,couldnotfailtobethemostpopularofany.Allwhodesiredabondofsympathyunitingthemwiththeirfellow-subjectsoverthewholeempire,andevenwiththetribesbeyonditsfrontiers,mightmeetonthismostuniversalground.Allwhowishedtocombineexcitementwithdevotionwereattractedbythedramaticrepresentationofbirthanddeath,ofbereavementandsorrowandsearching,ofpurificationthroughsuffering,andtriumphantreunionwiththelostobjectsofaffectioninthisorinanotherworld.Inquisitiveorinnovatingmindsweregratifiedbyadmissiontosecretsaknowledgeofwhichwasbelievedtopossessinestimablevalue.Andthemostconservativecouldseeinsuchcelebrationsanacknowledgment,underotherforms,ofsomedivinitywhichhadalwaysbeenreverencedintheirownhome,perhapseventhemoreauthenticreproductionofadventuresalreadyrelatedtothemasdimanduncertaintraditionsofthepast.Morethanonesuchcultus,representingunderthetraitsofpersonalloveandlossandrecovery,thedeathofvegetationinwinteranditsreturntolifeinspring,wasintroducedfromtheEast,andobtainedawidepopularitythroughtheempire.Longbeforethecloseoftherepublic,theworshipofCybelewasestablishedinRomewiththesanctionoftheSenate.OtherAsiaticdeitiesofamuchlessrespectablecharacter,Astarteandtheso-calledSyriangoddess,thoughnotofficially215recognised,enjoyedacelebrityextendingtotheremotestcornersofthewesternworld.327StillgreaterandmoreuniversalwasthevenerationbestowedonIsisandSerapis.Fromtheprincetothepeasant,fromthephilosophertotheignorantgirl,allclassesunitedindoinghomagetotheirpower.TheirmysterieswerecelebratedinthemountainvalleysoftheTyrol,andprobablycreatedasmuchexcitementamongthepeopleofthatneighbourhoodastheAmmergaupassion-playdoesatpresent.328AninscriptionhasbeendiscovereddescribinginminutedetailanofferingmadetoIsisbyaSpanishmatroninhonourofherlittledaughter.Itwasasilverstatuerichlyornamentedwithpreciousstones,resembling,asourauthorityobserves,whatwouldnowbepresentedtotheMadonna,329whoindeedisprobablynomorethanaChristianadaptationoftheEgyptiangoddess.AndPlutarch,oranotherlearnedandingeniouswriterwhoseworkhascomedowntousunderhisname,devotesalongtreatisetoIsisandOsiris,inwhichthemythicalhistoryofthegoddessisasthicklycoveredwithallegoricalinterpretationsasthestatuededicatedtoherbytheSpanishladywaswithemeraldsandpearls.

  • 雪灵芝Mx77i

  • 如萱紫儿skdlB

  • 但法国QGOxf

    SocratesrepresentsthepopularAtheniancharactermuchasRichardson,inadifferentsphere,representstheEnglishmiddle-classcharacter—representsit,thatistosay,elevatedintotranscendentgenius.Exceptthiselevation,therewasnothinganomalousabouthim.Ifhewasexclusivelycritical,rationalising,unadventurous,prosaic;inaword,astheGermanhistorianssay,somethingofaPhilistine;so,wemaysuspect,werethemassofhiscountrymen.Hisillustrationsweretakenfromsuchplebeianemploymentsascattle-breeding,cobbling,weaving,andsailoring.Thesewerehis‘touchesofthingscommon’whichatlast‘rosetotouchthespheres.’Hebothpractisedandinculcatedvirtues,thevalueofwhichisespeciallyevidentinhumblelife—frugalityandendurance.ButhealsorepresentstheDêmosinitssovereigncapacityaslegislatorandjudge.Withoutaspiringtobeanoratororstatesman,hereservestheultimatepowerofarbitrationandelection.Hesubmitscandidatesforofficetoaseverescrutiny,anddemandsfromallmenanevenstricteraccountoftheirlivesthanretiringmagistrateshadtogiveoftheirconduct,wheninpower,tothepeople.Heappliesthejudicialmethodofcross-examinationtothedetectionoferror,andtheparliamentarymethodofjointdeliberationtothediscoveryoftruth.Hefollowsoutthedemocraticprinciplesoffreespeechandself-government,bysubmittingeveryquestionthatarisestopublicdiscussion,andinsistingonnoconclusionthatdoesnotcommandthewillingassentofhisaudience.Finally,hisconversation,popularinform,waspopularalsointhisrespect,thateverybodywhochosetolistenmighthavethe130benefitofitgratuitously.HerewehaveagreatchangefromthescornfuldogmatismofHeracleitus,andthevirtuallyoligarchicexclusivenessoftheteacherswhodemandedhighfeesfortheirinstruction.

     Theconcessionstocommonsenseandtocontemporaryschoolsofthought,alreadypointedoutinthoseDialogueswhichwesupposetohavebeenwrittenaftertheRepublic,arestillmoreconspicuousintheLaws.Wedonotmeanmerelytheprojectofapoliticalconstitutionavowedlyofferedasthebestpossibleinexistingcircumstances,thoughnotthebestabsolutely;butwemeanthatthereisthroughoutadesiretopresentphilosophyfromitsmostintelligible,practical,andpopularside.Theextremelyrigorousstandardofsexualmorality(p.838)seems,indeed,moreakintomodernthantoancientnotions,butitwasinallprobabilityborrowedfromthenaturalisticschoolofethics,theforerunnerofStoicism;fornotonlyisthereadirectappealtoNature’steachinginthatconnexion;butthroughouttheentireworktheterms‘nature’and‘naturally’occurwithgreaterfrequency,webelieve,thaninalltherestofPlato’swritingsputtogether.When,ontheotherhand,itisassertedthatmencanbegovernedbynoothermotivethanpleasure(p.663,B),weseemtoseeinthisdeclarationaconcessiontotheCyrenaicschool,aswellasareturntotheforsakenstandpointoftheProtagoras.TheincreasinginfluenceofPythagoreanismisshownby271theexaggeratedimportanceattributedtoexactnumericaldeterminations.Thetheoryofideasis,asProf.Jowettobserves,entirelyabsent,itsplacebeingtakenbythedistinctionbetweenmindandmatter.159

  • 大笨蛋gGGCk

    v

  • 扒皮成HudsF

    BesidestherevivalofPlatonism,threecauseshadconspiredtooverthrowthesupremacyofAristotle.TheliteraryRenaissancewithitsadorationforbeautyofformwasalienatedbythebarbarousdialectofScholasticism;themysticaltheologyofLuthersawinitanallybothofecclesiasticalauthorityandofhumanreason;andthenewspiritofpassionaterevoltagainstalltraditionattackedtheacceptedphilosophyincommonwitheveryotherbranchoftheofficialuniversitycurriculum.Beforelong,however,areactionsetin.Theinnovatorsdiscreditedthemselvesbyanextravagance,anignorance,acredulity,andanintoleranceworsethananythingintheteachingwhichtheydecried.NosoonerwastheReformationorganisedasapositivedoctrinethanitfellbackforsupportontheonlymodelofsystematicthinkingatthattimetobefound.TheHumanistswereconciliatedbyhavingtheoriginaltextofAristotleplacedbeforethem;andtheyreadilybelieved,whatwasnottrue,thatitcontainedawisdomwhichhadeludedmediaevalresearch.Butthegreatscientificmovementofthesixteenthcenturycontributed,morethananyotherimpulse,tobringaboutanAristotelianreaction.Afterwinningimmortaltriumphsineverybranchofartandliterature,theItalianintellectthrewitselfwithequalvigourintotheinvestigationofphysicalphenomena.HerePlatocouldgivelittlehelp,whereasAristotlesuppliedamethodiseddescriptionofthewholefieldtobeexplored,andcontributionsofextraordinaryvaluetowardstheunder372standingofsome,atleast,amongitsinfinitedetails.AndwemaymeasuretherenewedpopularityofhissystemnotonlybythefactthatCesalpino,thegreatestnaturalistoftheage,professedhimselfitsadherent,butalsobythebitternessofthecriticismsdirectedagainstit,andtheinvoluntaryhomageofferedbyrivalsystemswhichwerelittlemorethanmeagreexcerptsfromthePeripateticontologyandlogic.

     

  • 草莓果UypjC

    ‘Alas!whatislife,whatisdeath,whatarewe,

     FortherestrictionsunderwhichAristotlethoughtwerenotdeterminedbyhispersonalityalone;theyfollowedonthelogicaldevelopmentofspeculation,andwouldhaveimposedthemselvesonanyotherthinkerequallycapableofcarryingthatdevelopmenttoitspredeterminedgoal.TheIoniansearchforaprimarycauseandsubstanceofnatureledtothedistinction,madealmostsimultaneously,althoughfromoppositepointsofview,byParmenidesandHeracleitus,betweenappearanceandreality.Fromthatdistinctionsprangtheideaofmind,organisedbySocratesintoasystematicstudyofethicsanddialectics.Timeandspace,thenecessaryconditionsofphysicalcausality,wereeliminatedfromamethodhavingforitsformtheeternalrelationsofdifferenceandresemblance,foritsmatterthepresentinterestsofhumanity.Socratestaughtthatbeforeenquiringwhencethingscomewemustfirstdeterminewhatitistheyare.322Hencehereducedsciencetotheframingofexactdefinitions.Platofollowedonthesametrack,andrefusedtoanswerasinglequestionaboutanythinguntilthesubjectofinvestigationhadbeenclearlydetermined.ButtheformofcausationhadtakensuchapowerfulholdonGreekthought,thatitcouldnotbeimmediatelyshakenoff;andPlato,ashedevotedmoreandmoreattentiontothematerialuniverse,sawhimselfcompelled,liketheolderphilosophers,toexplainitsconstructionbytracingoutthehistoryofitsgrowth.Whatisevenmoresignificant,heappliedthesamemethodtoethicsandpolitics,findingiteasiertodescribehowthevariousvirtuesandtypesofsocialunioncameintoexistence,thantoanalyseandclassifythemasfixedideaswithoutreferencetotime.Again,whiletakinguptheEleaticantithesisofrealityandappearance,andre-interpretingitasadistinctionbetweennoumenaandphenomena,ideasandsensations,spiritandmatter,hewasimpelledbythenecessityofexplaininghimself,andbytheactuallimitationsofexperiencetoassimilatethetwoopposingseries,or,atleast,toviewthefleeting,superficialimagesasareflectionandadumbrationofthebeingwhichtheyconcealed.Andofallmaterialobjects,itseemedasiftheheavenlybodies,withtheirorderly,unchangingmovements,theirclearbrilliantlight,andtheirremotenessfromearthlyimpurities,bestrepresentedthephilosopher’sideal.Thus,Plato,whileontheonesidehereachesbacktothepre-Socraticage,ontheotherreachesforwardtotheAristoteliansystem.

  • 绿卡纸0cgCg

    Passingfromsensationtothought,itisadmittedthatabstractconceptionsareincorporeal:how,then,cantheybereceivedandentertainedbyacorporealsubstance?Orwhatpossibleconnexioncantherebebetweendifferentarrangementsofmaterialparticlesandsuchnotionsastemperanceandjustice?Thisisalreadyasufficientlynearapproachtothelanguageofmodernphilosophy.Inanotheressay,whichaccordingtotheoriginalarrangementstandsthird,andmusthavebeencomposedimmediatelyafterthatwhencetheforegoingargumentsaretranscribed,thereismorethananapproach,thereiscompletecoincidence.437Todeducemindfromatomsis,saysPlotinus,ifwemaysospeak,stillmoreimpossiblethantodeduceitfromtheelementarybodies.Grantingthattheatomshaveanaturalmovementdownwards,grantingthattheysufferalateraldeflectionandsoimpingeononeanother,stillthiscoulddonomorethanproduceadisturbanceinthebodiesagainstwhichtheystrike.Buttowhatatomicmovementcanoneattributepsychicenergiesandaffections?Whatsortofcollisionintheverticallineofdescent,orintheobliquelineofdeflection,orinanydirectionyouplease,willaccountfortheappearanceofaparticularkindofreasoningormentalimpulseorthought,orhowcanitaccountfortheexistenceofsuchprocessesatall?Here,ofcourse,PlotinusisalludingtotheEpicureans;butitiswiththeStoicandotherschoolsthatheisprincipallyconcerned,andwereturntohisattackontheirpsychology.

     268

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