班禅画师尼玛泽仁:致力于“一带一路”文化交流

CaY4v-news 发布时间: 2020-07-04 11:06:14

“北京赛车怎么玩怎么输”Wehavenowtoshowwhatnewbeliefsgainedmostground,andwhatoldbeliefsweremostsuccessfullyrevived,throughthecombinationoffavourableconditions,ananalysisofwhichhasbeenattemptedintheprecedingpages.Amongthehostofcreedswhichatthisperiodcompetedwithoneanotherforthefavouroftherichorforthesuffragesofthepoor,thereweresomethatpossessedamarkedadvantageovertheirrivalsinthestruggleforexistence.TheworshipofNatureconsideredasimagingthevicissitudesofhumanlife,couldnotfailtobethemostpopularofany.Allwhodesiredabondofsympathyunitingthemwiththeirfellow-subjectsoverthewholeempire,andevenwiththetribesbeyonditsfrontiers,mightmeetonthismostuniversalground.Allwhowishedtocombineexcitementwithdevotionwereattractedbythedramaticrepresentationofbirthanddeath,ofbereavementandsorrowandsearching,ofpurificationthroughsuffering,andtriumphantreunionwiththelostobjectsofaffectioninthisorinanotherworld.Inquisitiveorinnovatingmindsweregratifiedbyadmissiontosecretsaknowledgeofwhichwasbelievedtopossessinestimablevalue.Andthemostconservativecouldseeinsuchcelebrationsanacknowledgment,underotherforms,ofsomedivinitywhichhadalwaysbeenreverencedintheirownhome,perhapseventhemoreauthenticreproductionofadventuresalreadyrelatedtothemasdimanduncertaintraditionsofthepast.Morethanonesuchcultus,representingunderthetraitsofpersonalloveandlossandrecovery,thedeathofvegetationinwinteranditsreturntolifeinspring,wasintroducedfromtheEast,andobtainedawidepopularitythroughtheempire.Longbeforethecloseoftherepublic,theworshipofCybelewasestablishedinRomewiththesanctionoftheSenate.OtherAsiaticdeitiesofamuchlessrespectablecharacter,Astarteandtheso-calledSyriangoddess,thoughnotofficially215recognised,enjoyedacelebrityextendingtotheremotestcornersofthewesternworld.327StillgreaterandmoreuniversalwasthevenerationbestowedonIsisandSerapis.Fromtheprincetothepeasant,fromthephilosophertotheignorantgirl,allclassesunitedindoinghomagetotheirpower.TheirmysterieswerecelebratedinthemountainvalleysoftheTyrol,andprobablycreatedasmuchexcitementamongthepeopleofthatneighbourhoodastheAmmergaupassion-playdoesatpresent.328AninscriptionhasbeendiscovereddescribinginminutedetailanofferingmadetoIsisbyaSpanishmatroninhonourofherlittledaughter.Itwasasilverstatuerichlyornamentedwithpreciousstones,resembling,asourauthorityobserves,whatwouldnowbepresentedtotheMadonna,329whoindeedisprobablynomorethanaChristianadaptationoftheEgyptiangoddess.AndPlutarch,oranotherlearnedandingeniouswriterwhoseworkhascomedowntousunderhisname,devotesalongtreatisetoIsisandOsiris,inwhichthemythicalhistoryofthegoddessisasthicklycoveredwithallegoricalinterpretationsasthestatuededicatedtoherbytheSpanishladywaswithemeraldsandpearls.Hisanalysisofindividualitywasthefirststepinthisdirection.Wehaveseenthathetreatsdefinitionasaprocessofgradualspecification,beginningwiththemostgeneralnotions,andworkingdownbysuccessivedifferentiationstothemostparticular.Now,thecompletedconceptionisitselftheintegrationofallthesedifferences,thebondofunionholdingthemtogether.Turningtoanantitheticalorderofideas,tothematerialsubstanceofwhichbodiesarecomposed,anditsvarioustransformations,wefindhimworkingoutthesameveinofthought.AccordingtotheAristotelianchemistry,anultimateindeterminateunknowablesomethingclothesitselfwithoneorotheroftheopposingattributes,dryandmoist,hotandcold;andwhentwoofthesearecombined,manifestsitselftooursensesasoneofthefourelements.Theelementscombineinaparticularmannertoformhomogeneousanimaltissues,andtheseagainareunitedintoheterogeneousorgans,whichtogetherconstitutethelivingbody.Here,then,wehavetwoanalogousseriesofspecifications鈥 攐neconceptualandleadingdownfromtheabstracttotheconcrete,theotherphysical,andleadingupfromthevague,thesimple,andthehomogeneous,tothedefinite,thecomplex,andtheheterogeneous.Aristotleembracesbothprocessesunderasinglecomprehensivegeneralisation.Hedescribeseachofthemasthecontinuousconversionofa346possibilityintoanactuality.Forthesakeofgreaterclearness,letustakethelibertyofsubstitutingmodernscientifictermsforhiscumbrousandobsoleteclassifications.Weshallthensaythatthegeneralnotion,livingthing,containsunderitthetwolessgeneralnotions鈥 攑lantandanimal.Ifweonlyknowofanygivenobjectthatithaslife,thereisimpliedthepossibilityofitsbeingeithertheoneortheother,butnotbothtogether.Ondeterminingittobe(say)ananimal,weactualiseoneofthepossibilities.Buttheactualisationisonlyrelative,andimmediatelybecomesthepossibilityofbeingeitheravertebrateoraninvertebrateanimal.Theactualityvertebratebecomesthepossibilityofviviparousoroviparous,andsoonthroughsuccessivedifferentiationsuntilwecome(say)toaman.Nowletusbeginatthematerialend.Hereareamassofmolecules,which,intheiractualstateareonlycarbon,nitrogen,andsoforth.Buttheyarepotentialstarch,gluten,water,oranyotherarticleoffoodthatmightbenamed;forunderfavourableconditionstheywillcombinetoformit.Onceactualisedassuch,theyarepossibleblood-cells;thesearepossibletissues;these,again,possibleorgans,andlastlywecometotheconsensusofvitalfunctions,whichisaman.Whattherawmaterialistothefinishedproduct,thatarethepartstotheentireorganism,theelementstothecompound,thegenustothespecies,andsuchinitsverywidestsenseispotencytorealisation,δ?ναμι?to?ντελ?χεια,throughouttheuniverseofgrowthanddecay.246

Socrateswas,beforeallthings,anAthenian.Tounder126standhimwemustfirstunderstandwhattheAtheniancharacterwasinitselfandindependentlyofdisturbingcircumstances.OurestimateofthatcharacteristooapttobebiassedbythetotallyexceptionalpositionwhichAthensoccupiedduringthefifthcenturyB.C.Thepossessionofempiredevelopedqualitiesinherchildrenwhichtheyhadnotexhibitedatanearlierperiod,andwhichtheyceasedtoexhibitwhenempirehadbeenlost.Amongthesemustbereckonedmilitarygenius,anadventurousandromanticspirit,andahighcapacityforpoeticalandartisticproduction鈥 攓ualitiesdisplayed,itistrue,byeveryGreekrace,butbysomeforalongerandbyothersforashorterperiod.Now,thetraditionofgreatnessdoesnotseemtohavegoneveryfarbackwithAthens.Herlegendaryhistory,whatwehaveofit,issingularlyunexciting.Thesamerathermonotonousthoughedifyingstoryofshelteraccordedtopersecutedfugitives,ofsuccessfulresistancetoforeigninvasions,andofdevotedself-sacrificetotheState,meetsusagainandagain.TheAtticdramaitselfshowshowmuchmorestirringwasthelegendaryloreofothertribes.Oneneedonlylookatthefewremainingpieceswhichtreatofpatrioticsubjectstoappreciatethedifference;andanEnglishreadermayeasilyconvincehimselfofitbycomparingMr.Swinburne鈥 檚Erechtheuswiththesameauthor鈥 檚Atalanta.Thereisawantofvividindividualityperceptibleallthrough.EvenTheseus,thegreatnationalhero,strikesoneasarathertamesortofpersonagecomparedwithPerseus,Heracl锚s,andJason.NoAthenianfiguresprominentlyintheIliad;andontheonlytwooccasionswhenPindarwasemployedtocommemorateanAthenianvictoryatthePanhellenicgames,heseemsunabletoassociateitwithanylegendarygloriesinthepast.ThecircumstanceswhichforalongtimemadeAttichistorysobarrenofincidentarethesametowhichitssubsequentimportanceisdue.TherelationinwhichAtticastoodtotherestofGreecewassomewhatsimilartotherelationin127whichTuscany,longafterwards,stoodtotherestofItaly.Itwastheregionleastdisturbedbyforeignimmigration,andthereforebecametheseatofaslowerbutsteadiermentaldevelopment.Itwasamongthosetowhomwar,revolution,colonisation,andcommercebroughtthemostmany-sidedexperiencethatintellectualactivitywasmostspeedilyripened.Literature,art,andsciencewerecultivatedwithextraordinarysuccessbytheGreekcitiesofAsiaMinor,andeveninsomepartsoftheoldcountry,beforeAthenshadasinglemanofgenius,exceptSolon,toboastof.Butalongwiththeenjoymentofundisturbedtranquillity,habitsofself-government,orderliness,andreasonablereflectionwereestablishingthemselves,whichfinallyenabledhertoinheritallthatherpredecessorsintheracehadaccomplished,andtoadd,whatalonetheystillwanted,thecrowningconsecrationofself-consciousmind.Therehad,simultaneously,beengrowingupanintenselypatrioticsentiment,due,inpart,tothelong-continuedindependenceofAttica;inpart,also,wemaysuppose,totheunion,ataveryearlyperiod,ofherdifferenttownshipsintoasinglecity.Thesamecauseshad,however,alsofavouredacertainloveofcomfort,ajovialpleasure-seekingdispositionoftendegeneratingintocoarsesensuality,athriftiness,andaninclinationtograspatanysourceofprofit,coupledwithextremecredulitywherehopesofprofitwereexcited,togetherforminganelementofprose-comedywhichminglesstrangelywiththetragicgrandeurofAthensinherimperialage,andemergesintogreaterprominenceafterherfall,untilitbecomesthepredominantcharacteristicofherlaterdays.Itis,wemayobserve,thecontrastbetweenthesetwoaspectsofAthenianlifewhichgivestheplaysofAristophanestheirunparalleledcomiceffect,anditistheirveryawkwardconjunctionwhichmakesEuripidessounequalanddisappointingapoet.Wefind,then,thattheoriginalAtheniancharacterismarkedbyreasonablereflection,bypatriotism,andbyatendencytowardsself-seeking128materialism.Letustakenoteofthesethreequalities,forweshallmeetwiththemagaininthephilosophyofSocrates.

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Logicaldivisionis,however,aprocessnotfullyrepresentedbyanyfixedandformaldistributionoftopics,noryetisitequivalenttothearrangementofgeneraandspeciesaccordingtotheirnaturalaffinities,asintheadmirablesystemsofJussieuandCuvier.Itissomethingmuchmoreflexibleandsubtle,acarryingdownintotheminutestdetail,ofthatpsychologicallawwhichrequires,asaconditionofperfectconsciousness,thatfeelings,conceptions,judgments,and,generallyspeaking,allmentalmodesshouldbeapprehendedtogetherwiththeircontradictoryopposites.Heracleitushadadimperceptionofthistruthwhenhetaughttheidentityofantitheticalcouples,anditismoreorlessvividlyillustratedbyallGreekclassicliteratureafterhim;butSocratesseemstohavebeenthefirstwhotransformeditfromalawofexistenceintoalawofcognition;withhimknowledgeandignorance,reasonandpassion,freedomandslavery,virtue,andvice,rightandwrong(πολλ?ν?νομ?τωνμορφ?μ?α)wereapprehendedininseparableconnexion,andwereemployedformutualelucidation,notonlyinbroadmasses,butalsothroughtheirlastsubdivisions,likethedelicateadjustmentsoflightandshadeonaVenetiancanvas.Thismethodofclassificationbygraduateddescentandsymmetricalcontrast,likethewholedialecticsystemofwhichitformsabranch,isonlysuitedtothementalphenomenaforwhichitwasoriginallydevised;andHegelcommittedafatalerrorwhenheappliedittoexplaintheorderofexternalcoexistenceandsuccession.WehavealreadytouchedontheessentiallysubjectivecharacteroftheSocraticdefinition,and148weshallpresentlyhavetomakeasimilarrestrictionindealingwithSocraticinduction.Withregardtothequestionlastconsidered,ourlimitswillnotpermitus,nor,indeed,doesitfallwithinthescopeofourpresentstudy,topursueaveinofreflectionwhichwasneverfullyworkedouteitherbytheAthenianphilosophersorbytheirmodernsuccessors,atleastnotinitsonlylegitimatedirection.

Asmightbeexpected,theParmenideanparadoxesprovokedaconsiderableamountofcontradictionandridicule.TheReidsandBeattiesofthattimedrewsundryabsurdconsequencesfromthenewdoctrine,andofferedthemasasufficientrefutationofitstruth.Zeno,ayoungfriendand20favouriteofParmenides,tookuparmsinhismaster鈥 檚defence,andsoughttoprovewithbrilliantdialecticalabilitythatconsequencesstillmoreabsurdmightbededucedfromtheoppositebelief.Heoriginatedaseriesoffamouspuzzlesrespectingtheinfinitedivisibilityofmatterandthepossibilityofmotion,subsequentlyemployedasadisproofofallcertaintybytheSophistsandSceptics,andoccasionallymadetoserveasargumentsonbehalfofagnosticismbywritersofourowntime.Statedgenerally,theymaybereducedtotwo.Awholecomposedofpartsanddivisibleadinfinitummustbeeitherinfinitelygreatorinfinitelylittle;infinitelygreatifitspartshavemagnitude,infinitelylittleiftheyhavenot.Amovingbodycannevercometotheendofagivenline,foritmustfirsttraversehalftheline,thenhalftheremainder,andsoonforever.Aristotlethoughtthatthedifficultyaboutmotioncouldbesolvedbytakingtheinfinitedivisibilityoftimeintoaccount;andColeridge,accordingtohiscustom,repeatedtheexplanationwithoutacknowledgment.ButZenowouldhaverefusedtoadmitthatanyinfiniteseriescouldcometoanend,whetheritwascomposedofsuccessiveorofco-existentparts.Solongastheabstractionsofourunderstandingaretreatedasseparateentities,theseandsimilarpuzzleswillcontinuetoexercisetheingenuityofmetaphysicians.Ourpresentbusiness,however,isnottosolveZeno鈥 檚difficulties,buttoshowhowtheyillustratealeadingcharacteristicofGreekthought,itstendencytoperpetualanalysis,atendencynotlimitedtothephilosophyoftheGreeks,butpervadingthewholeoftheirliteratureandevenoftheirart.Homercarefullydistinguishesthesuccessivestepsofeveryaction,andleadsuptoeverycatastrophebyaseriesoffinelygraduatedtransitions.LikeZeno,again,hepursuesasystemofdichotomy,passingrapidlyoverthefirsthalfofhissubject,andrelaxesthespeedofhisnarrativebygoingintoever-closerdetailuntiltheconsummationisreached.Suchapoemasthe鈥 楢chilleis鈥 檕fmoderncritics21wouldhavebeenperfectlyintolerabletoaGreek,fromthetoorapidanduniformmarchofitsaction.Herodotusproceedsafterapreciselysimilarfashion,advancingfromabroadandfreetreatmentofhistorytoelaborateminutenessofdetail.So,too,aGreektempledividesitselfintopartssodistinct,yetsocloselyconnected,thattheeye,afterseparating,aseasilyrecombinesthemintoawhole.TheevolutionofGreekmusictellsthesametaleofprogressivesubdivision,whichisalsoillustratedbythepassagefromlongspeechestosinglelines,andfromtheseagaintohalflinesinthedialogueofaGreekdrama.Nootherpeoplecouldhavecreatedmathematicaldemonstration,fornootherwouldhavehadskillandpatienceenoughtodiscoverthesuccessiveidentitiesinterposedbetweenandconnectingthesidesofanequation.ThedialecticofSocratesandPlato,thesomewhatwearisomedistinctionsofAristotle,and,lastofall,thefine-spunseriesoftriadsinsertedbyProclusbetweenthesuperessentialOneandthefleetingworldofsense,鈥 攚ereallproductsofthesamefundamentaltendency,alternatelymostfruitfulandmostbarreninitsresults.ItmaybeobjectedthatZeno,sofarfromobeyingthistendency,followedadiametricallyoppositeprinciple,thatofabsolutelyunbrokencontinuity.True;butthe鈥 楨leaticPalamedes鈥 檉oughthisadversarieswithaweaponwrestedoutoftheirownhands;rejectinganalysisasalawofrealexistence,hecontinuedtoemployitasalogicalartificewithgreatersubtletythanhadeveryetbeendisplayedinpurespeculation.18

TherequirementswhichEpicureanismfailedtomeet,were,toagreatextent,satisfiedbyStoicism.Thisphilosophyhad,fromacomparativelyearlyperiod,wonthefavourofaselectclass,buthadbeentemporarilyovershadowedbythepopularityofitshedonisticandanti-religiousrival,whenaknowledgeoftheGreeksystemsfirstbecamediffusedthroughItaly.169TheuncouthlanguageoftheearlyStoicsandtheapparentlyunpracticalcharacteroftheirtheoriesdoubtlessexercisedarepellenteffectonmanywhowerenotoutofsympathywiththeirgeneralspirit.ThesedifficultieswereovercomefirstbyPanaetius,andthen,toastillgreaterextent,byPosidonius,theeldercontemporaryandfriendofPompeiusandCicero,whowasremarkablenotonlyforhisenormouslearningbutalsoforhisoratoricaltalent.267Itseemsprobablethatthelessonsofthisdistinguishedmanmarkedthebeginningofthatreligiousreactionwhicheventuallycarriedallbeforeit.Wehavealreadyseenhowheabandonedtherationalisticdirectionstruckoutbyhispredecessor,Panaetius;andhisreturntotheoldStoicorthodoxymayverywellhaverespondedtoarevivalofreligiousfeelingamongtheeducatedRomanpublic,whobythistimemusthavediscoveredthattherewereotherwaysofescapingfromsuperstitionbesidesacompleterejectionofthesupernatural.

Suchacharacterwould,inanycase,beremarkable;itbecomesofextraordinary,orratherofunique,interestwhenweconsiderthatSocratescouldbeanddosomuch,notinspiteofbeingaphilosopher,butbecausehewasaphilosopher,thechiefthoughnotthesoleoriginatorofavastintellectualrevolution;onewho,asateacher,constitutedthesupremacy110ofreason,andasanindividualmadereasonhissoleguideinlife.Heatoncediscoverednewprinciples,popularisedthemforthebenefitofothers,andexemplifiedtheminhisownconduct;buthedidnotaccomplishtheseresultsseparately;theywereonlydifferentaspectsofthesamesystematisingprocesswhichisidenticalwithphilosophyitself.YettheverysuccessofSocratesinharmonisinglifeandthoughtmakesitthemoredifficultforustoconstructacompletepictureofhispersonality.Differentobservershaveselectedfromthecomplexcombinationthatwhichbestsuitedtheirownmentalpredisposition,pushingoutofsighttheotherelementswhich,withhim,servedtocorrectandcompleteit.Theverypopularitythathasattacheditselftohisnameisaproofofthis;forthemultitudecanseldomappreciatemorethanoneexcellenceatatime,noristhatusuallyofthehighestorder.HegelcomplainsthatSocrateshasbeenmadethepatron-saintofmoraltwaddle.81WearefiftyyearsfurtherremovedthanHegelfromthegoldenageofplatitude;thetwaddleofourowntimeishalfcynical,halfaesthetic,andwhollyunmoral;yettherearenosignsofdiminutioninthepopularfavourwithwhichSocrateshasalwaysbeenregarded.Themanoftheworld,thewit,theviveur,theenthusiasticadmirerofyouthfulbeauty,thescornfulcriticofdemocracyiswelcometomanywhohavenotasteforethicaldiscoursesandfine-spunarguments.

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  • 雨花郡主PMz8R

    VII.

     SomattersstoodwhentheintroductionofAristotle鈥 檚entiresystemintowesternEuropebroughtaboutarevolutioncomparabletothateffectedtwocenturieslaterbythecompleterecoveryofancientliterature.ItwasthroughLatintranslationsfromtheArabic,accompaniedbyArabiccommentaries,thatthePeripateticphilosophywasfirstrevealedinitsentirety;andevenAlbertusMagnus,livinginthethirteenthcentury,seemstohavederivedhisknowledgeofthesubjectfromtheseexclusively.ButafewyearsafterthecaptureofConstantinoplebytheCrusadersin1204,theGreekmanuscriptsofAristotlewerebroughttoParis;and,towardsthemiddleofthecentury,anewLatinversionwasmadefromtheseunderthesupervisionofSt.ThomasAquinas.536ThetriumphofAristotlewasnow,atleastforatime,secured.For,whileinthefirstperiodoftheMiddleAgeswefindonlyasinglegreatname,thatofAb茅lard,amongtheNominalists,againstastrongarrayofRealists,inthesecondperiodtheproportionsarereversed,andRealismhasonlyasingleworthychampion,DunsScotus,topitagainstAlbertus,Aquinas,andWilliamofOckham,eachofthemrepresentingoneoftheprincipalEuropeannations.537Thehumanintellect,hithertoconfinedwithinthenarrowboundsoflogic,nowrangedoverphysics,metaphysics,psychology,andethics;andalthoughallthesesubjectswere368studiedonlyatsecond-hand,andwithverylimitedopportunitiesforcriticism,stillthebenefitreceivedmusthavebeenimmense.ThepricelessserviceofthelaterSchoolmenistohaveappropriatedandsuccessfullyupheld,againstPlatonismontheonehandandtheologicalmysticismontheother,aphilosophywhich,howeversuperficial,tookinthewholerangeofnaturalphenomena,derivedallknowledgefromexternalobservation,andsetanexampleofadmirableprecisioninthesystematicexpositionofitsresults.Ifnopositiveadditionwasmadetothatvaststorehouseoffactsandideas,theblamedoesnotliewithAristotle鈥 檚method,butwiththeforciblesuppressionoffreementalactivitybytheChurch,oritsdiversiontomoreprofitablefieldsbythestudyofRomanjurisprudence.Evenasitwas,Aristotlecontributedlargelytothedownfallofecclesiasticalauthorityintwoways:directlybyaccustomingmentousetheirreason,andindirectlybythrowingbackmysticismonitsproperoffice鈥 攖herestorationofapurelypersonalreligion.

  • 雪灵芝VJpZ7

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     Thefinalantithesisofconsciouslifeisthatbetweenthe398individualandthestate.Inthissense,Aristotle鈥 檚PoliticsisthecompletionofhisEthics.Itisonlyinawell-orderedcommunitythatmoralhabitscanbeacquired;anditisonlyinsuchacommunitythatthebestorintellectuallifecanbeattained,although,properlyspeaking,itisnotasociallife.Nevertheless,thePolitics,likeeveryotherportionofAristotle鈥 檚system,reproduceswithinitselftheelementsofanindependentwhole.Tounderstanditsinternalorganisation,wemustbeginbydisregardingAristotle鈥 檚abortiveclassification(chieflyadaptedfromPlato)ofconstitutionsintothreelegitimate鈥 擬onarchy,Aristocracy,andRepublic;andthreeillegitimate鈥 擠emocracy,Oligarchy,andTyranny.Aristotledistinguishesthembysayingthatthelegitimateformsaregovernedwithaviewtothegeneralgood;theillegitimatewithaviewtotheinterestsofparticularclassesorpersons.But,inpointoffact,asZellershows,291hecannotkeepupthisdistinction;andweshallbetterunderstandhistrueideabysubstitutingforitanother鈥 攖hatbetweentheintellectualandthematerialstate.Theobjectoftheoneistosecurethehighestcultureforarulingcaste,whoaretoabstainfromindustrialoccupations,andtobesupportedbythelabourofadependentpopulation.Suchagovernmentmaybeeithermonarchicaloraristocratic;butitmustnecessarilybeinthehandsofafew.Theobjectoftheotheristomaintainastableequilibriumbetweentheopposinginterestsofrichandpoor鈥 攖woclassespracticallydistinguishedasthefewandthemany.Thisendisbestattainedwheresupremepowerbelongstothemiddleclass.Thedeviationsarerepresentedbyoligarchyandtyrannyontheoneside,andbyextremedemocracyontheother.Wheresuchconstitutionsexist,thebestmodeofpreservingthemistomoderatetheircharacteristicexcessbyborrowingcertaininstitutionsfromtheoppositeformofgovernment,orbymodifyingtheirowninstitutionsinaconciliatorysense.

  • 草莓果tIAgb

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  • 绿卡纸NDcsE

     OnturningtoAristotle鈥 檚Rhetoricwefindthat,fromapracticalpointofview,hisfailurehereis,ifpossible,stillmorecomplete.Thistreatisecontains,aswehavealreadyobserved,animmensemassofmoreorlessvaluableinformationonthesubjectofpsychology,ethics,anddialectic,butgivesexceedinglylittleadviceabouttheveryessenceofrhetoricasanart,whichistosaywhateveryouhavetosayinthemosttellingmanner,bythearrangementoftopicsandarguments,bytheuseofillustrations,andbythechoiceoflanguage;andthatlittleistobefoundinthethirdbook,thegenuinenessofwhichisopentoverygravesuspicion.ItmaybedoubtedwhetheranyoratororcriticoforatorywaseverbenefitedintheslightestdegreebythestudyofAristotle鈥 檚rules.Hiscollectionsofscientificdataaddnothingtoourknowledge,butonlythrowcommonexperienceintoabstractformulas;andevenasabodyofmemorandatheywouldbeuseless,fornomemorycouldcontainthem,orifanymancouldrememberthemhewouldhaveintellectenoughnottorequirethem.184Theprofessionalteacherswhom300Aristotlesoheartilydespisedseemtohavefollowedamuchmoreeffectualmethodthanhis;theygavetheirpupilsready-madespeechestoanalyseandlearnbyheart,rightlytrustingtotheimitativeinstincttodotherest.Hecomparesthemtoamasterwhoshouldteachhisapprenticeshowtomakeshoesbysupplyingthemwithagreatvarietyofready-madepairs.Butthiswouldbeamuchbetterplanthantogivethemanelaboratelectureontheanatomyofthefoot,withafullenumerationofitsbones,muscles,tendons,nerves,andblood-vessels,whichisthemostappropriateparalleltohissystemofinstruction.

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