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a8PsB-news 发布时间: 2020-07-07 04:04:12

“极速赛车是北京开奖”Thereformedsystemofeducationwastobenotonlymoralandreligiousbutalsoseverelyscientific.Theplacegiventomathematicsasthefoundationofarightintellectualtrainingismostremarkable,andshowshowtrulyPlatoapprehendedtheconditionsunderwhichknowledgeisacquiredandenlarged.Here,asinotherrespects,heis,moreeventhanAristotle,theprecursorofAugusteComte.Hearrangesthemathematicalsciences,sofarastheythenexisted,intheirlogicalorder;andhisremarksonthemostgeneralideassuggestedbyastronomyreadlikeadivinationofrationalmechanics.ThatarecommendationofsuchstudiesshouldbeputintothemouthofSocratesisastrikingincongruity.TheolderPlatogrewthefartherheseemstohaveadvancedfromthehumanisttothenaturalisticpointofview;and,hadhebeenwillingtoconfessit,HippiasandProdicusweretheteacherswithwhomhefinallyfoundhimselfmostinsympathy.

Theconcessionstocommonsenseandtocontemporaryschoolsofthought,alreadypointedoutinthoseDialogueswhichwesupposetohavebeenwrittenaftertheRepublic,arestillmoreconspicuousintheLaws.Wedonotmeanmerelytheprojectofapoliticalconstitutionavowedlyofferedasthebestpossibleinexistingcircumstances,thoughnotthebestabsolutely;butwemeanthatthereisthroughoutadesiretopresentphilosophyfromitsmostintelligible,practical,andpopularside.Theextremelyrigorousstandardofsexualmorality(p.838)seems,indeed,moreakintomodernthantoancientnotions,butitwasinallprobabilityborrowedfromthenaturalisticschoolofethics,theforerunnerofStoicism;fornotonlyisthereadirectappealtoNature’steachinginthatconnexion;butthroughouttheentireworktheterms‘nature’and‘naturally’occurwithgreaterfrequency,webelieve,thaninalltherestofPlato’swritingsputtogether.When,ontheotherhand,itisassertedthatmencanbegovernedbynoothermotivethanpleasure(p.663,B),weseemtoseeinthisdeclarationaconcessiontotheCyrenaicschool,aswellasareturntotheforsakenstandpointoftheProtagoras.TheincreasinginfluenceofPythagoreanismisshownby271theexaggeratedimportanceattributedtoexactnumericaldeterminations.Thetheoryofideasis,asProf.Jowettobserves,entirelyabsent,itsplacebeingtakenbythedistinctionbetweenmindandmatter.159

Ourpersonality,saystheAlexandrianphilosopher,cannotbeapropertyofthebody,forthisiscomposedofparts,andisinastateofperpetualflux.Aman’sself,then,ishissoul;andthesoulcannotbematerial,fortheultimateelementsofmatterareinanimate,anditisinconceivablethatanimationandreasonshouldresultfromtheaggregationofparticleswhich,takensingly,aredestituteofboth;while,evenwereitpossible,theirdispositioninacertainorderwouldarguethepresenceofanintelligencecontrollingthemfromwithout.TheStoicsthemselvesadmittheforceoftheseconsiderations,whentheyattributereasontothefieryelementorvitalbreathbywhich,accordingtothem,allthingsareshaped.Theydo,indeed,talkaboutacertainelementarydispositionastheprincipleofanimation,butthisdispositioniseitheridenticalwiththematterpossessingit,inwhichcasethedifficultiesalreadymentionedrecur,ordistinctfromit,inwhichcasetheanimatingprinciplestillremainstobeaccountedfor.

Yet,whiletheStoicswerefarfromanticipatingthemethodsofmodernUtilitarianism,theywere,inacertainsense,strictUtilitarians—thatistosay,theymeasuredthegoodnessorbadnessofactionsbytheirconsequences;inotherwords,by39theirbearingonthesupposedinterestoftheindividualorofthecommunity.Theydidnot,itistrue,identifyinterestwithpleasureortheabsenceofpain;butalthough,inourtime,HedonismandUtilitarianismare,forconvenience,treatedasinterchangeableterms,theyneednotnecessarilybeso.Ifanyonechoosetoregardbodilystrength,health,wealth,beauty,intellect,knowledge,orevensimpleexistence,asthehighestgoodandtheendconducivenesstowhichdeterminesthemoralityofactions,heisaUtilitarian;and,evenifitcouldbeshownthatamaximumofhappinesswouldbeensuredbytheattainmentofhisend,hewouldnotonthataccountbecomeaHedonist.NowitiscertainthattheearlyStoics,atleast,regardedthepreservationofthehumanraceasanendwhichrightfullytookprecedenceofeveryotherconsideration;and,likeCharlesAustin,theysometimespushedtheirprinciplestoparadoxicaloroffensiveextremes,apparentlyfornootherpurposethanthatofaffrontingthecommonfeelingsofmankind,84withoutrememberingthatsuchfeelingswerelikelytorepresentembodiedexperiencesofutility.Thus—apartfromtheircommunistictheories—theywerefondofspecifyingthecircumstancesinwhichincestwouldbecomelegitimate;andtheyaresaidnotonlytohavesanctionedcannibalismincasesofextremenecessity,buteventohaverecommendeditsintroductionasasubstituteforburialorcremation;althoughthis,wemayhope,wasratheragrimillustrationofwhattheymeantbymoralindifferencethanaseriouspracticalsuggestion.85

Inhiscriticismontheidealtheory,Aristotlearguesthatitisunproved;thattheconsequencestowhichitleadswouldberejectedbytheidealiststhemselves;thatitinvolvesaneedlessadditiontothesumofexistence;thatitneitherexplainstheoriginofthingsnorhelpsustounderstandthem,whiletakingawayfromthemtheirsubstantialreality;thattheIdeasaremerelysensibleobjectshypostasised,liketheanthropomorphicdivinitiesofprimitivemen;that,tospeakofthemaspatterns,inwhoselikenesstheworldwascreated,isamereidlemetaphor;that,evenassumingtheexistenceofsuchpatterns,eachindividualmustbemadeinthelikeness,notofone,butofmanyideas—ahumanbeing,forinstance,mustbemodelledaftertheidealbipedandtheidealanimal,aswellasaftertheidealman;whilemanyoftheideasthemselves,althoughallaresupposedtoexistabsolutely,mustbedependentonotherandsimplertypes;finally,that,assuminganideaforeveryabstractrelation,theremustbeideastorepresenttherelationbetweeneverysensibleobjectanditsprototype,othersforthenewrelationsthusintroduced,andsoontoinfinity.

Abiding,dothabidemostfirmlyfixed,

Bethisasitmay,weventuretohopethataprinciplehas154beenheresuggesteddeepandstrongenoughtoreunitethetwohalvesintowhichhistorianshavehithertodividedtheSocraticsystem,or,rather,thebeginningofthatuniversalsystematisationcalledphilosophy,whichisnotyet,andperhapsneverwillbe,completed;aprinciplewhichisoutwardlyrevealedinthecharacterofthephilosopherhimself.Withsuchanone,ethicsanddialecticsbecomealmostindistinguishablethroughtheintermixtureoftheirprocessesandtheparallelismoftheiraims.Integrityofconvictionenters,bothasameansandasanelement,intoperfectintegrityofconduct,norcanitbemaintainedwhereanyotherelementofrectitudeiswanting.Clearness,consecutiveness,andcoherencearethemoralityofbelief;whiletemperance,justice,andbeneficence,takenintheirwidestsenseandtakentogether,constitutethesupremelogicoflife.

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    Whocanbecalmwhenheiscalledupontoprovetheexistenceofthegods?Whocanavoidhatingandabhorringthemenwhoareandhavebeenthecauseofthisargument?Ispeakofthosewhowillnotbelievethewordswhichtheyhaveheardasbabesandsucklingsfromtheirmothersandnurses,repeatedbythembothinjestandearnestlikecharms;whohavealsoheardandseentheirparentsofferingupsacrificesandprayers—sightsandsoundsdelightfultochildren—sacrificing,Isay,inthemostearnestmanneronbehalfofthemandofthemselves,andwitheagerinteresttalkingtothegodsandbeseechingthemasthoughtheywerefirmlyconvincedoftheirexistence;wholikewiseseeandhearthegenuflexionsandprostrationswhicharemadebyHellenesandbarbarianstotherisingandsettingsunandmoon,inallthevariousturnsofgoodandevilfor272tune,notasiftheythoughtthattherewerenogods,butasiftherecouldbenodoubtoftheirexistence,andnosuspicionoftheirnon-existence;whenmen,knowingallthesethings,despisethemonnorealgrounds,aswouldbeadmittedbyallwhohaveanyparticleofintelligence,andwhentheyforceustosaywhatwearenowsaying,howcananyoneingentletermsremonstratewiththelikeofthem,whenhehastobeginbyprovingtothemtheveryexistenceofthegods?160

     In347Platodied,leavinghisnephewSpeusippustosucceedhimintheheadshipoftheAcademy.AristotlethenleftAthens,accompaniedbyanotherPlatonist,Xenocrates,acircumstancetendingtoprovethathisrelationswiththeschoolcontinuedtobeofacordialcharacter.ThetwosettledinAtarneus,attheinvitationofitstyrantHermeias,anoldfellow-studentfromtheAcademy.Hermeiaswasaeunuchwhohadrisenfromthepositionofaslavetothatofvizier,andthen,afterhismaster’sdeath,tothepossessionofsupremepower.Threeyearssubsequentlyastillmoreabruptturnoffortunebroughthisadventurouscareertoaclose.LikePolycrates,hewastreacherouslyseizedandcrucifiedbyorderofthePersianGovernment.Aristotle,whohadmarriedPythias,hisdeceasedpatron’sniece,fledwithhertoMitylênê.Alwaysgrateful,andsingularlyenthusiasticinhisattachments,hecelebratedthememoryofHermeiasinamannerwhichgavegreatoffencetothereligioussentimentofHellas,bydedicatingastatuetohimatDelphi,andcomposinganelegy,stillextant,inwhichhecomparestheeunuch-despottoHeracles,theDioscuri,Achilles,andAjax;andpromiseshimimmortalityfromtheMusesinhonourofXenianZeus.

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    MeanwhilethescepticismofProtagorashadnotbeenentirelyabsorbedintothesystemsofhisrivals,butcontinuedtoexistasanindependenttradition,orinassociationwithasimplerphilosophy.ThefamousschoolofMegara,aboutwhich,unfortunately,wehavereceivedverylittledirect136information,wasnominallyadevelopmentoftheSocraticteachingonitslogicalside,astheCynicandCyrenaicschoolswereonitsethicalside,butlikethemalso,itseemstohaveamorerealconnexionwiththegreatimpulsepreviouslygiventospeculationbytheSophists.Atanyrate,wechieflyhearoftheMegariansashavingdeniedthepossibilityofdefinition,towhichSocratesattachedsomuchimportance,andasframingquestionsnotsusceptibleofacategoricalanswer,—anevidentsatireontheSocraticmethodofelicitingthetruthbycross-examination.224WhattheyreallyderivedfromSocratesseemstohavebeenhismentalconcentrationandindependenceofexternalcircumstances.HeretheycloselyresembledtheCynics,asalsointheircontemptforformallogic;butwhileAntisthenesfoundasanctionforhisindifferenceandimpassivityintheorderofnature,theirchiefrepresentative,Stilpo,achievedthesameresultbypushingthescepticalprincipletoconsequencesfromwhicheventheCyrenaicswouldhaveshrunk.Denyingthepossibilityofattachingapredicatetoasubject,heseems,inlikemanner,tohaveisolatedthemindfromwhatarecalleditsaffections,or,atleast,tohavemadethisisolationhisidealofthegood.EventheStoicsdidnotgotosuchalength;andSenecadistinguisheshimselffromthefollowersofStilpobysaying,‘Oursagefeelstroublewhileheovercomesit,whereastheirsdoesnotfeelitatall.’225

     Inthenextplace,ifitisnotinthepowerofotherstoinjureus,wehavenorighttoresentanythingthattheycandotous.SoarguesEpictêtus,whobegantolearnphilosophywhenstillaslave,andwascarefullypreparedbyhisinstructor,Musonius,tobearwithoutrepiningwhateveroutrageshismastermightchoosetoinflictonhim.Finally,tothosewhourgedthattheymightjustlyblametheevilintentionsoftheirassailants,MarcusAureliuscouldreplythateventhiswastoopresumptuous,thatallmendidwhattheythoughtright,andthatthemotivesofnonecouldbeadequatelyjudgedexceptbyhimself.97AndalltheStoicsfoundacommongroundforpatienceintheiroptimisticfatalism,inthedoctrinethatwhateverhappensisbothnecessarilydetermined,anddeterminedbyabsolutegoodnesscombinedwithinfalliblewisdom.98

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