中南大学湘雅五医院南栋主体结构封顶

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“腾讯分分彩历史开奖号”Here,then,wefind,chieflyamongtherusticpopulation,areligionintimatelyassociatedwithmorality,andincludingthedoctrineofretributionafterdeath.Butthissimplefaith,thoughwelladaptedtothefewwantsofitsoriginalvotaries,couldnotberaisedtotheutmostexpansionandpurityofwhichitwassusceptiblewithoutbeingbroughtintovivifyingcontactwiththatotherOlympianreligionwhich,aswehaveseen,belongedmorepeculiarlytotherulingaristocracy.Thepoormaybemoremoralthantherich,andthecountrythanthetown;neverthelessitisfromdwellersincities,andfromthehigherclasses,includingastheydoalargepercentageofeducated,open-mindedindividuals,thattheimpulsestomoralprogressalwaysproceed.Ifthenarrownessandhardnessofprimitivesocialarrangementswereovercome;ifjusticewasdisengagedfromthetiesofblood-relationship,andtemperedwithconsiderationforinevitableerror;ifdeadlyfeudswereterminatedbyahabitualappealtoarbitration;iftheworshipofonesupremeidealwassubstitutedforablindsympathywiththeebbandflowoflifeonearth;ifthenumericalstrengthofstateswasincreasedbygivingsheltertofugitives;ifaHellenicnationwascreatedandheldtogetherbyacommonliteratureandacommoncivilisation,byoraclesaccessibletoall,andbyperiodicalgamesinwhicheveryfree-bornGreekcouldtakepart;and,lastly,ifabrighterabodethantheslumberousgardenofPersephonêwasassignedafterdeathtothegodlikeheroeswhohadcomeforthfromathricerepeatedordealwithsoulsunstainedbysin;55—allthiswasduetothemilitaryratherthantotheindustrialclasses,tothespiritthatbreathesthroughHomer69ratherthantothetamerinspirationofHesiod’smuse.ButifjusticewasraisedtoanOlympianthrone;ifrighteousprovidence,nolessthancreativepower,becameaninalienableattributeofZeus;iflyricpoetry,fromArchilochustoSimonidesandPindar,isonelonghymnofprayerandpraiseeverturnedupwardinadoringlovetotheDivine;wemustrememberthatThemiswasasynonymeforEarth,andthatPrometheus,theoriginalfriendofhumanity,forwhosebenefitheinventedeveryusefulart,auguryincluded,washerson.TheseedsofimmortalhopewerefirstplantedinthefructifyingbosomofDêmêtêr,andlife,aforsakenAriadnê,tookrefugeinthemysticalembracesofDionysusfromthememoryofapromisethathadalluredhertobetray.Thus,wemayconjecturethatbetweenhallandfarm-house,betweentheOlympianandtheChthonianreligions,therewasaconstantreactiongoingon,duringwhichethicalideaswerecontinuallyexpanding,andextricatingthemselvesfromthesuperstitiouselementsassociatedwiththeirearliesttheologicalexpression.

However,aswehaveseen,heisnotaboveturningitagainstMill.Thedriftofhisownillustrationisnotveryclear,butwesupposeitimpliesthatthematronunconsciouslyframesthegeneralproposition:MyremedyisgoodforallchildrensufferingfromthesamediseaseasLucy;andwithequalunconsciousnessreasonsdownfromthistothecaseofherneighbour’schild.Now,itisquiteunjustifiabletocallMill’sanalysissuperficialbecauseitleavesoutofaccountahypothesisincompatiblewiththenominalismwhichMillprofessed.Itisstillmoreunjustifiabletoquoteagainstit390theauthorityofaphilosopherwhoperfectlyagreedwiththosewhodisbelieveinthepossibilityofunconsciousknowledge,286andcontemptuouslyrejectedPlato’sopiniontothecontrary.Noristhisall.Thedoctrinethatreasoningisfromparticularstoparticulars,evenwhenitpassesthroughgeneralpropositions,mayberigorouslydeducedfromAristotle’sownadmissions.Ifnothingexistsbutparticulars,andifknowledgeisofwhatexists,thenallknowledgeisofparticulars.Therefore,ifthepropositionsenteringintoachainofreasoningareknowledge,theymustdealwithparticularsexclusively.And,quiteapartfromthelaterdevelopmentsofAristotle’sphilosophy,wehavehisexpressassertion,thatallgeneralsarederivedfromparticulars,whichisabsolutelyincompatiblewiththeallegedfact,that‘allknowledge,allthought,restsonuniversaltruths,ongeneralpropositions;thatallknowledge,whether“deductive”or“inductive,”isarrivedatbytheaid,theindispensableaid,ofgeneralpropositions.’ToAristotlethebasisofknowledgewasnot‘truths’ofanykind,butconcepts;andinthelastchapterofthePosteriorAnalyticshehasexplainedhowtheseconceptsarederivedfromsense-perceptionswithouttheaidofany‘propositions’whatever.

Itseemsdifficulttoreconcileviewsaboutmarriageinvolvingarecognitionofthefactthatmentalandmoralqualitiesarehereditarilytransmitted,withthebeliefinmetempsychosiselsewhereprofessedbyPlato.Butperhapshisadhesiontothelatterdoctrineisnottobetakenveryseriously.Inimitationoftheobjectiveworld,whoseessentialtruthishalfhiddenandhalfdisclosedbyitsphenomenalmanifestations,helovestopresenthisspeculativeteachingunderamythicaldisguise;andsohemayhavechosentheolddoctrineoftransmigrationasanaptexpressionfortheunityandcontinuityoflife.And,atworst,hewouldnotbeguiltyofanygreaterinconsistencythanischargeabletothosemodernphilosopherswho,whiletheyadmitthatmentalqualitiesareinherited,holdeachindividualsoultobeaseparateandindependentcreation.

Ananswermightconceivablyhavebeensupplied,hadAristotlebeenenabletocompletethatsketchofanidealStatewhichwasoriginallyintendedtoformpartofhisPolitics.Butthephilosopherevidentlyfoundthattodosowasbeyondhispowers.Iftheseventhandeighthbooksofthattreatise,whichcontainthefragmentaryattemptinquestion,hadoriginallyoccupiedtheplacewheretheynowstandinourmanuscripts,itmighthavebeensupposedthatAristotle’slabourswereinterruptedbydeath.Moderncriticismhasshown,however,thattheyshouldfollowimmediatelyafterthefirstthreebooks,andthattheauthorbrokeoff,almostatthebeginningofhisidealpolity,totakeupthemuchmorecongenialtaskofanalysingandcriticisingtheactuallyexistingHellenicconstitutions.Butthelittlethathehasdoneproveshimtohavebeenprofoundlyunfittedforthetaskofapracticalreformer.Whatfewactualrecommendationsitcontainsareacompromise—somewhatinthespiritofPlato’sLaws—betweentheRepublicandreallife.Therestiswhatheneverfailstogiveus—amassofdetailsaboutmattersoffact,andasummaryofhisspeculativeethics,alongwithcounselsofmoderationinthespiritofhispracticalethics;butnotone296practicalprincipleofanyvalue,notoneremarktoshowthatheunderstoodwhatdirectionhistorywastaking,orthathehadmasteredtheelementsofsocialreformassetforthinPlato’sworks.Theprogressivespecialisationofpoliticalfunctions;thenecessityofaspiritualpower;theformationofatrainedstandingarmy;theadmissionofwomentopublicemployments;theelevationofthewholeracebyartificialselection;theradicalreformofreligion;thereconstitutionofeducation,bothliteraryandscientific,theredistributionofproperty;theenactmentofanewcode;theuseofpublicopinionasaninstrumentofmoralisation;—thesearetheideaswhichstillagitatethemindsofmen,andtheyarealsotheideasoftheRepublic,theStatesman,andtheLaws.Aristotle,ontheotherhand,occupieshimselfchieflywithdiscussinghowfaracityshouldbebuiltfromthesea,whetheritshouldbefortified;howitscitizensshouldnotbeemployed;whenpeopleshouldnotmarry;whatchildrenshouldnotbepermittedtosee;andwhatmusictheyshouldnotbetaught.Apartfromhisenthusiasmforphilosophy,thereisnothinggenerous,nothinglarge-minded,nothinginspiring.Theterritoryofthecityistobeself-sufficing,thatitmaybeisolatedfromotherStates;thecitizensaretokeepalooffromallindustrialoccupations;scienceisputoutofrelationtothematerialwell-beingofmankind.Itwas,inshort,tobeacitywhereeverygentlemanshouldholdanidlefellowship;acitywhereAristotlecouldlivewithoutmolestation,andintheenjoymentofcongenialfriendships;justastheGodofhissystemwasastillhigherAristotle,perpetuallyengagedinthestudyofformallogic.

ModernagnosticismoccupiesthesamepositionwithregardtothepresentfoundationandpossiblefutureextensionofhumanknowledgeaswasoccupiedbytheancientScepticswithregardtothepossibilityofallknowledge.Itsconclusionsalsoarebasedonaveryinsufficientexperienceofwhatcanbeeffectedbyexperience,andonananalysisofcognitionlargelyadoptedfromthesystemwhichitseekstooverthrow.LikeScepticismalso,whenlogicallythoughtout,ittendstoissueinaself-contradiction,atonetimeaffirmingtheconsciousnessofwhatis,bydefinition,beyondconsciousness;andatanothertimedogmaticallydeterminingthepointsonwhichwemustremainforeverignorant.Itmaybethatsomeproblems,asstatedbymodernthinkers,areinsoluble;butperhapswemayfindourwayourofthembytransformingthequestiontobesolved.

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Thus,sofaraswaspossibleinsuchalteredcircumstances,didtheRenaissanceofthesecondcenturyreproducethe271intellectualenvironmentfromwhichPlato’sphilosophyhadsprung.Inliterature,therewasthesameattentiontowordsratherthantothings;sometimestakingtheformofexactscholarship,afterthemannerofProdicus;sometimesoflooseandsuperficialdeclamation,afterthemannerofGorgias.TherewasthenaturalismofHippias,elaboratedintoasystembytheStoics,andpractisedasalifebythenewCynics.TherewasthehedonismofAristippus,inculcatedunderadilutedformbytheEpicureans.TherewastheoldIonianmaterialism,professedbyStoicsandEpicureansalike.TherewasthescepticismofProtagoras,revivedbyAenesidêmusandhisfollowers.TherewasthemathematicalmysticismofthePythagoreans,flourishinginEgyptinsteadofinsouthernItaly.TherewasthepurergeometryoftheAlexandrianMuseum,correspondingtotheschoolofCyrênê.Onallsides,therewasamassofvaguemoralpreaching,withoutanyattempttoexhibitthemoraltruthswhichweempiricallyknowaspartofacomprehensivemetaphysicalphilosophy.And,lastly,therewasanimmenseundefinedreligiousmovement,rangingfromtheologieswhichtaughtthespiritualityofGodandofthehumansoul,downtothemostirrationalandabjectsuperstition.Wesawinthelastchapterhow,correspondingtothisenvironment,therewasarevivedPlatonism,thatPlatonismwasinfactthefashionablephilosophyofthatage,justasitafterwardsbecamethefashionablephilosophyofanotherRenaissancethirteencenturieslater.ButitwasaPlatonismwiththebackboneofthesystemtakenout.Plato’sthoughtsallcentredinacarefullyconsideredschemeforthemoralandpoliticalregenerationofsociety.Now,withthedestructionofGreekindependence,andtheabsorptioneverywhereoffreecity-statesintoavastmilitaryempire,itmightseemasiftherealisationofsuchaschemehadbecomealtogetherimpracticable.TheRepublicwas,indeed,atthatmomentrealisingitselfunderaformadaptedtothealteredexigenciesofthetime;butnoPlatonistcouldasyetrecognise272intheChristianChurchevenanapproximatefulfilmentofhismaster’sdream.Failinganypracticalissue,thereremainedthespeculativesideofPlato’steaching.Hiswritingsdidnotembodyacompletesystem,buttheyofferedthematerialswhenceasystemcouldbeframed.Herethechoicelaybetweentwopossiblelinesofconstruction;andeachhad,infact,beenalreadyattemptedbyhisownimmediatedisciples.OnewasthePythagoreanmethodoftheOldAcademy,whatAristotlecontemptuouslycalledtheconversionofphilosophyintomathematics.WesawinthelastchapterhowtherevivedPlatonismofthefirstandsecondcenturiesenteredoncemoreonthesameperilouspath,apathwhichledfartherandfartherawayfromthetrueprinciplesofGreekthought,andofPlatohimselfwhenhisintellectstoodatitshighestpointofsplendour.Neo-Pythagoreanmysticismmeantanunreconcileddualismofspiritandmatter;andastheultimateconsequenceofthatdualism,itmeantthesubstitutionofmagicalincantationsandceremonialobservancesforthestudyofreasonandvirtue.Moreover,itreadilyallieditselfwithOrientalbeliefs,whichmeantanegationofnaturallawthattheGreekscouldhardlytolerate,and,undertheformofGnosticpessimism,abeliefintheinherentdepravityofNaturethattheycouldnottolerateatall.Thanrightfullytocelebrate

Inabsolutevalue,Neo-Platonismstandslowestaswellaslastamongtheancientschoolsofthought.Noreaderwhohasfollowedusthusfarwillneedtoberemindedhowmanyvaluableideaswerefirstbroughttolight,orreinforcedwithnewargumentsandillustrationsbytheearlyGreekthinkers,bytheSophistsandSocrates,byPlatoandAristotle,bytheStoics,Epicureans,andSceptics,andbythemoralistsoftheRomanempire.Oneverysubjectofspeculationthatcanbestarted,wecontinuetoask,likePlotinushimself,whatthe‘blessedancients’hadtosayaboutit;501not,ofcourse,becausetheylivedalongtimeago,butbecausetheycamefirst,becausetheysaidwhattheyhadtosaywiththeuniquecharmoforiginaldiscovery,becausetheywereinmoredirectcontactthanweare,not,indeed,withthefacts,butwiththe336phenomenaofNatureandlifeandthought.Itistruethatwehavenothingmoretolearnfromthem,forwhateverwassoundintheirteachinghasbeenentirelyabsorbedintomodernthought,andcombinedwithideasofwhichtheydidnotdream.ButuntilwecometoHumeandhissuccessors,thereisnothinginphilosophicalliteraturethatcanbecomparedtotheirwritingsforemancipatingandstimulatingpower;and,perhaps,whenthethinkersofthelastandpresentcenturieshavebecomeasobsoleteasBaconandDescartesarenow,thosewritingswillcontinuetobestudiedwithunabatingzeal.Neo-Platonism,ontheotherhand,isdead,andeveryattemptmadetogalvaniseitintonewlifehasprovedadisastrousfailure.Theworld,thatistosaytheworldofculture,willnotreadPlotinusandhissuccessors,willnotevenreadthebooksthatarewrittenaboutthembyscholarsofbrilliantliteraryabilitylikeMM.VacherotandJulesSimoninFrance,SteinhartandKirchnerinGermany.502

Aconsiderableportionofthepresentwork,comprisingthewholeofthefirstvolumeandthefirsttwochaptersofthesecond,isreprintedwithcorrectionsandadditionsfromtheWestminsterReview.ThelastchapterofthesecondvolumehasalreadyappearedunderaslightlydifferenttitleinMindforJanuaryandApril1882.Thechaptersentitled,‘TheScepticsandEclectics,’ ‘TheReligiousRevival,’and‘TheSpiritualismofPlotinus,’arenowpublishedforthefirsttime.

InEngland,themostgenerallyacceptedmethodseemstobethatfollowedbyGrote.ThisconsistsintakingthePlatonicApologiaasasufficientlyfaithfulreportofthedefenceactuallymadebySocratesonhistrial,andpiecingitontothedetailssuppliedbyXenophon,oratleasttoasmanyofthemascanbemadetofit,withouttooobviousanaccommodationoftheirmeaning.If,however,weaskonwhatgroundsagreaterhistoricalcredibilityisattributedtotheApologiathantotheRepublicorthePhaedo,nonecanbeofferedexcepttheseeminglytransparenttruthfulnessofthenarrativeitself,anargumentwhichwillnotweighmuchwiththosewhorememberhowbrilliantwasPlato’stalentforfiction,andhowunscrupulouslyitcouldbeemployedforpurposesofedification.ThePhaedoputsanautobiographicalstatementintothemouthofSocrateswhichweonlyknowtobeimaginarybecauseitinvolvestheacceptanceofatheoryunknowntotherealSocrates.Why,then,maynotPlatohavethoughtpropertointroduceequallyfictitiousdetailsintothespeechdeliveredbyhismasterbeforethedicastery,if,indeed,thespeech,aswehaveit,benotafancycompositionfrombeginningtoend?

ToSocrateshimselfthestrongestreasonforbelievingintheidentityofconvictionandpracticewas,perhaps,thathehadmadeitalivingreality.Withhimtoknowtheright137andtodoitwerethesame.Inthissensewehavealreadysaidthathislifewasthefirstverificationofhisphilosophy.Andjustastheresultsofhisethicalteachingcanonlybeideallyseparatedfromtheirapplicationtohisconduct,soalsotheseresultsthemselvescannotbekeptapartfromthemethodbywhichtheywerereached;noristheprocessbywhichhereachedthemforhimselfdistinguishablefromtheprocessbywhichhecommunicatedthemtohisfriends.Intouchingonthispoint,wetouchonthatwhichisgreatestandmostdistinctivelyoriginalintheSocraticsystem,orratherintheSocraticimpulsetosystematisationofeverykind.Whatitwaswillbemadeclearerbyrevertingtothecentralconceptionofmind.WithProtagorasmindmeantanever-changingstreamoffeeling;withGorgiasitwasaprincipleofhopelessisolation,theinterchangeofthoughtsbetweenoneconsciousnessandanother,bymeansofsigns,beinganillusion.Socrates,onthecontrary,attributedtoitasteadfastcontroloverpassion,andaunifyingfunctioninsocietythroughitsessentiallysyntheticactivity,itsneedofco-operationandresponsiveassurance.Hesawthatthereasonwhichovercomesanimaldesiretendstodrawmentogetherjustassensualitytendstodrivethemintohostilecollision.Ifherecommendedtemperanceonaccountoftheincreasedegoisticpleasurewhichitsecures,herecommendeditalsoasmakingtheindividualamoreefficientinstrumentforservingthecommunity.Ifheinculcatedobediencetotheestablishedlaws,itwasnodoubtpartlyongroundsofenlightenedself-interest,butalsobecauseunionandharmonyamongcitizensweretherebysecured.Andifheinsistedonthenecessityofformingdefiniteconceptions,itwaswiththesametwofoldreferencetopersonalandpublicadvantage.Alongwiththediffusive,socialcharacterofmindherecogniseditsessentialspontaneity.Inacommonwealthwhereallcitizenswerefreeandequal,theremustalsobefreedomandequalityofreason.Havingworkedoutatheoryoflifeforhimself,he138desiredthatallothermenshould,sofaraspossible,passthroughthesamebracingdiscipline.Herewehavethesecretofhisfamouseroteticmethod.Hedidnot,liketheSophists,givecontinuouslectures,norprofess,likesomeofthem,toanswereveryquestionthatmightbeputtohim.Onthecontrary,heputaseriesofquestionstoallwhocameinhisway,generallyintheformofanalternative,onesideofwhichseemedself-evidentlytrueandtheotherself-evidentlyfalse,arrangedsoastoleadtherespondent,stepbystep,totheconclusionwhichitwasdesiredthatheshouldaccept.Socratesdidnotinventthismethod.IthadlongbeenpractisedintheAthenianlaw-courtsasameansforextractingfromtheoppositepartyadmissionswhichcouldnotbeotherwiseobtained,whenceithadpassedintothetragicdrama,andintothediscussionofphilosophicalproblems.NowhereelsewastheanalyticalpowerofGreekthoughtsobrilliantlydisplayed;forbeforeacontestedpropositioncouldbesubjectedtothismodeoftreatment,ithadtobecarefullydiscriminatedfromconfusingadjuncts,consideredunderallthevariousmeaningswhichitmightpossiblybemadetobear,subdivided,ifitwascomplex,intotwoormoredistinctassertions,andlinkedbyaminutechainofdemonstrationtotheadmissionbywhichitsvaliditywasestablishedoroverthrown.

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  • 雨花郡主s7wej

     DarumverbrenntmanAtheisten;

  • 雪灵芝Dz950

  • 如萱紫儿mgnVo

    Inaformerpartofthiswork455wefoundreasontobelievethatPlato’ssupremegoodisnootherthantheIdeaofSamenesswhichoccursintheSophistandintheTimaeus,whereitiscorrelatedwiththeIdeaofDifference;andwealsoconcludedthatthedivinecreatorofthelast-nameddialogueisintendedtorepresentitunderamoreconcreteandpopularform.456Wemay,perhaps,alsodiscoveritintheLimitofthePhilêbus;andifwearetobelievewhatAristotletellsusaboutthelaterteachingofPlato,itseemstohavefinallycoalescedwiththePythagoreanOne,whichcombineswiththeunlimitedDyadtoformfirstnumber,andtheneverythingelse,justastheSamecombineswiththeDifferenttoformexistenceintheTimaeus.457

  • 但法国JhfKv

     TheradicalselfishnessofEpicureanismcomesoutstillmoredistinctlyinitsattitudetowardspoliticalactivity.Notonlydoesitsystematicallydiscouragemerepersonalambition73—thedesireofpossessingpoliticalpowerforthefurtheranceofone’sownends—butitpassesalikecondemnationondisinterestedeffortstoimprovetheconditionofthepeoplebylegislation;whilethegeneralrulelaiddownforthewisemaninhiscapacityofcitizenispassiveobediencetotheestablishedauthorities,tobedepartedfromonlywhentheexigenciesofself-defencerequireit.OnthisMr.Wallaceobservesthat‘politicallife,whichinallageshasbeenimpossibleforthosewhohadnotwealth,andwhowereunwillingtomixthemselveswithvileandimpureassociates,wasnottothemindofEpicurus.’148NoauthorityisquotedtoprovethattheabstentionrecommendedbyEpicuruswasdictatedbypuristsentimentsofanykind;norcanwereadilyadmitthatitisimpossibletorecordavote,tocanvassatanelection,oreventoaddressapublicmeeting,withoutfulfillingoneorotheroftheconditionsspecifiedbyMr.Wallace;andweknowbytheexampleofLittréthatitispossibleforapoormantotakearatherprominentpartinpubliclife,withouttheslightestsacrificeofpersonaldignity.149ItmustalsoberememberedthatEpicuruswasnotspeakingforhimselfalone;hewasgivingpracticaladvicetoallwhomitmightconcern—adviceofwhichhethought,aequepauperibusprodest,locupletibusaeque;sothatwhenMr.Wallaceaddsthat,‘aboveall,itisnotthebusinessofaphilosophertobecomeapoliticalpartisan,andspendhislifeinanatmosphereofavariciousandmalignantpassions,’150wemustobservethatEpicureanismwasnotdesignedtomakephilosophers,butperfectmen.Therealquestioniswhetheritwouldservethepublicinterestwereallwhoendeavourtoshapetheirlivesbythepreceptsofphilosophytowithdrawthemselves74entirelyfromparticipationintheaffairsoftheircountry.And,havingregardtothegeneralcharacterofthesystemnowunderconsideration,wemaynotuncharitablysurmisethatthemotiveforabstentionwhichitsuppliedwasselfishloveofeasefarmorethanunwillingnesstobemixedupwiththedirtyworkofpolitics.

  • 大笨蛋BOy5O

    v

  • 扒皮成CtD7b

    OnesymptomofthisreactionwasthefashionablearchaismoftheAugustanage,thetendencytodespisewhateverwasnewinliterature,andtoexaltwhateverwasold.ItiswellknownhowfeelinglyHoracecomplainsofamovementwhichwasusedtodamagehisownreputationasapoet;309butwhatseemstohaveescapedobservationis,thatthisprotestagainsttheliteraryarchaismofhiscontemporariesisonlyonesymptomofamuchprofounderdivisionbetweenhisphilosophyandtheirs.Hewasjustasgoodapatriotastheywere,buthissympathieswerewiththeHellenisingaristocracytowhichLucretiusandCicerohadbelonged,notwiththenarrow-mindedconservatismofthemiddleclassesandthecountrypeople.Hewasamanofprogressandfree-thought,whoacceptedtheempireforwhatitmightbeworth,aRomanProsperMeriméeorSainte-Beuve,whosepreferenceofordertoanarchydidnotinvolveanyrespectforsuperstitiousbeliefssimplybecausetheyweresupportedbyauthority.Andthishealthycommonsenseissomuchapartofhischaracter,thathesometimesgiveshismistressesthebenefitofit,warningLeuconoeagainsttheBabyloniansoothsayers,andtelling202Phidylethatthegodsshouldbeapproachednotonlywithsacrificesbutwithcleanhands.310Yetsostrongwasthespiritoftheage,thatthescepticalpoetoccasionallyfeelshimselfobligedtosecondortoapplaudtheworkofrestorationundertakenbyAugustus,andtoaugurfromit,withmoreorlesssincerity,areformationinprivatelife.311AndeventhefrivolousOvidmaybesupposedtohavehadthesameobjectinviewwhencomposinghisFasti.

     

  • 草莓果dG3W2

    Theideaofvirtueasahedonisticcalculus,abandonedbyitsfirstoriginator,andapparentlyneglectedbyhisimmediatesuccessors,wastakenupbyEpicurus;forthatthelatterborroweditfromPlatoseemstobeprovedbytheexact62resemblanceoftheirlanguage;125andM.Guyauisquitemistakenwhenherepresentshisheroasthefounderofutilitarianmorality.126Itwasnotenough,however,toappropriatethecast-offideasofPlato;itwasnecessarytomeettheargumentsbywhichPlatohadbeenledtothinkthatpleasurewasnotthesupremegood,andtodoubtwhetheritwas,assuch,agoodatall.Themostnaturalcoursewouldhavebeentobeginbyexhibitingthehedonisticidealinamorefavourablelight.Sensualgratifications,fromtheirremarkableintensity,hadlongbeentheacceptedtypesofpleasurablefeeling,andfromtheiranimalcharacter,aswellasfromotherobviousreasons,hadfrequentlybeenusedtoexciteaprejudiceagainstit.Ontheotherhand,Platohimself,andAristotlestillmore,hadbroughtintoprominencethesuperiority,simplyaspleasures,ofthoseintellectualactivitieswhichtheyconsideredtobe,evenapartfromallpleasure,thehighestgood.ButEpicurusrefusedtoavailhimselfofthisopportunityforeffectingacompromisewiththeoppositeschool,boldlydeclaringthatheforhispartcouldnotconceiveanypleasuresapartfromthosereceivedthroughthefivesenses,amongwhichhe,characteristicallyenough,includedaestheticenjoyments.Theobvioussignificanceofhiswordshasbeenexplainedaway,andtheyhavebeenassertedtocontainonlytheveryharmlesspropositionthatouranimalnatureisthebasis,thecondition,ofourspiritualnature.127But,ifthiswerethetrueexplanation,itwouldbepossibletopointoutwhatotherpleasureswererecognisedbyEpicurus.These,iftheyexistedatall,musthavebelongedtothemindassuch.Now,wehaveitonCicero’sauthoritythat,whileadmittingtheexistenceofmentalfeelings,bothpleasurableandpainful,hereducedthemtoanextensionandreflectionofbodilyfeelings,mentalhappinessproperlyconsistingintheassuranceof63prolongedandpainlesssensualgratification.Thisissomethingverydifferentfromsayingthatthehighestspiritualenjoymentsareconditionedbythehealthyactivityofthebodilyorgans,orthattheycannotbeappreciatediftheanimalappetitesarestarved.Itamountstosayingthattherearenospecificandpositivepleasuresapartfromthefivesensesasexercisedeitherinrealityorinimagination.128AndevenwithouttheevidenceofCicero,wecanseethatsomesuchconclusionnecessarilyfollowedfromtheprincipleselsewherelaiddownbyEpicurus.ToaGreek,thementalpleasures,parexcellence,werethosederivedfromfriendshipandfromintellectualactivity.Butourphilosopher,whilewarmlypanegyrisingfriendship,recommendsitnotforthedirectpleasurewhichitaffords,butforthepainanddangerwhichitprevents;129whilehisrestrictionofscientificstudiestotheofficeofdispellingsuperstitiousfearsseemsmeantforadirectprotestagainstAristotle’sopinion,thatthehighestpleasureisderivedfromthosestudies.Equallysignificantishisoutspokencontemptforliteraryculture.130Inthisrespect,heoffersamarkedcontrasttoAristippus,who,whenaskedbysomeonewhatgoodhissonwouldgetbyeducation,answered,‘Thismuch,atleast,thatwhenheisattheplayhewillnotsitlikeastoneuponastone,’131thecustomaryattitude,itwouldseem,ofanordinaryAthenianauditor.

     

  • 绿卡纸uwHyi

    AnotherandprofoundercharacteristicofPlato,asdistinguishedfromAristotle,ishisthorough-goingoppositionofrealitytoappearance;hisdistrustofsensuousperception,imagination,andopinion;hiscontinualappealtoahiddenworldofabsolutetruthandjustice.WefindthisprofounderprinciplealsograspedandappliedtopoeticalpurposesinourElizabethanliterature,notonlybySpenser,butbyastillgreatermaster—Shakespeare.ItisbynomeansunlikelythatShakespearemayhavelookedintoatranslationoftheDialogues;atanyrate,theintellectualatmospherehebreathedwassosaturatedwiththeirspiritthathecouldeasilyabsorbenoughofittoinspirehimwiththetheoryofexistencewhichalonegivesconsistencytohisdramaticworkfromfirsttolast.Fortheessenceofhiscomediesisthattheyrepresenttheordinaryworldofsensibleexperienceasasceneofbewildermentanddelusion,wherethereisnothingfixed,nothingsatisfying,nothingtrue;assomethingwhich,becauseofitsveryunreality,isbestrepresentedbythedrama,371butadramathatisnotwithoutmysteriousintimationsofarealitybehindtheveil.Inthemwehavethe

     

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