郑新立:抓住转变发展方式的历史机遇

W6uzC-news 发布时间: 2020-07-12 10:29:04

“分分彩大小计算公式”[33]

Yet,onthefirstviewofthecase,theselectionoftheSwedesauguredanythingbutaRussianalliance;andshowedonthesurfaceeverythinginfavourofNapoleonandFrance,foritfellonaFrenchgeneralandfield-marshal,Bernadotte.TheprinceroyalelectmadehispublicentryintoStockholmonthe2ndofNovember.Thefailinghealthoftheking,theconfidencewhichthetalentsofBernadottehadinspired,theprospectofastrongalliancewithFrancethroughhim—allthesecausesunitedtoplacethenationalpowerinhishands,andtocastuponhim,atthesametime,aterribleresponsibility.Theverycrowdsandcrieswhichsurroundedhimexpressedthethousandexpectationswhichhispresenceraised.Thepeasantry,whohadheardsomuchofhishumbleoriginandpopularsentiments,lookedtohimtocurbtheprideandoppressionofthenobles;thenoblesflatteredthemselvesthathewouldsupporttheircause,inthehopethattheywouldsupporthim;themassofthepeoplebelievedthataRepublicanwasthemostlikelytomaintaintheprinciplesoftheRevolutionof1809;themerchantstrustedthathewouldbeabletoobtainfromNapoleonfreedomfortradewithGreatBritain,soindispensabletoSweden;andthe[7]armyfeltsurethat,withsuchageneral,theyshouldbeabletoseizeNorwayandre-conquerFinland.Norwasthisall.Bernadotteknewthatthereexistedalegitimistpartyinthecountry,whichmightlongremainaformidableorganinthehandsofinternalfactionsorexternalenemies.Howwashetolaythefoundationofanewdynastyamidalltheseconflictinginterests?HowsatisfyatoncethedemandsofFrance,Britain,andRussia?Nothingbutfirmness,prudence,andsagacitycouldavailtosurmountthedifficultiesofhissituation;buttheseBernadottepossessed.

Onthe22ndofAprilMr.O'Connellbroughtforwardaverycomprehensivemotion.ItwasforaselectcommitteetoinquireandreportonthemeansbywhichthedestructionoftheIrishParliamenthadbeeneffected;ontheresultsoftheunionuponIreland,anduponthelabourersinhusbandryandoperativesinmanufacturesinEngland;andontheprobableconsequencesof[371]continuingtheLegislativeunionbetweenGreatBritainandIreland.ThismotionoriginatedadebateontheRepealquestionwhichlastedfourdays.O'Connellhimselfspokeforsixhours.ThedebatewaschieflymemorableforaspeechofMr.Spring-Rice,indefenceoftheunion,whichalsooccupiedsixhoursinthedelivery.HeconcludedbyproposinganamendmenttotheeffectthatanAddressshouldbepresentedtothekingbybothHousesofParliament,expressingtheirdeterminationtomaintaintheLegislativeunioninviolate.InaveryfullHousetheamendmentwascarriedbyanoverwhelmingmajority,thenumbersbeingfor,523;against,38.Mr.Spring-Rice'sspeechservedtheGovernmentmaterially,whilebytheConservativesitwasregardedas"adamper"totheirownhopes.THEBRITISHFLEETPASSINGTHROUGHTHEDARDANELLES.(Seep.538.)

TheexampleofOxford,whomadeanattemptonthelifeoftheQueen,wasfollowedbyanothercrazyyouth,namedFrancis,excitedbyasimilarmorbidpassionfornotoriety.Onthe29thofMay,1842,theQueenandPrinceAlbertwerereturningtoBuckinghamPalacedownConstitutionHillinabaroucheandfour,whenamanwhohadbeenleaningagainstthewallofthepalacegardenwentuptothecarriage,drewapistolfromhispocket,andfiredattheQueen.HerMajestywasuntouched,andseemedunawareofthedanger.TheassassinwasobservedbyPrinceAlbert,andpointedoutbyhimtooneoftheoutriders,whodismountedtopursuehim;buthehadbeenatoncearrestedbyotherpersons.Thecarriage,whichwasdrivingatarapidpace,nosoonerarrivedatthepalace,thanamessengerwassenttotheDuchessofKenttoannouncetheQueen'sdangerandhersafety.Theprisoner,John[491]Francis,thesonofamachinistorstagecarpenteratCoventGardenTheatre,havingbeentwiceexaminedbythePrivyCouncil,wascommittedtoNewgatefortrialattheCentralCriminalCourtonachargeofshootingattheQueenwithaloadedpistol.Hewasonlytwentyyearsofage.ThetrialofFrancistookplaceonthe17thofJune,beforeChiefJusticeTindal,BaronGurney,andJusticePatteson.TheprincipalwitnesswasColonelArbuthnot,oneoftheequerrieswhowasridingclosetotheQueenwhentheshotwasfired,andcriedouttoapoliceman,"Securehim!"whichwasdone.ColonelWylde,anotherequerry,withseveralotherwitnesses,corroboratedthetestimonyofColonelArbuthnot;anditappearedthatFrancishadonthepreviousdaypointedapistolattheQueen,thoughhedidnotfire.Forthedefenceitwasallegedthattheattemptwastheresultofdistress,andthattheprisonerhadnodesigntoinjuretheQueen.Thejuryretired,andinabouthalfanhourreturnedintocourtwithaverdictof"Guilty,"findingthatthepistolwasloadedwithsomedestructivesubstance,besidesthewaddingandpowder.ChiefJusticeTindalimmediatelypronouncedsentenceofdeathforhightreason,thatheshouldbehanged,beheaded,anddividedintofourquarters.Thesentencewascommutedtotransportationforlife.

Ontheafternoonofthisday,Monday,the11thofMay,astheMinisterwasenteringtheHouse,aboutfiveo'clock,amanofgentlemanlyappearancepresentedapistol,andshothimdead—atleast,hedidnotsurvivetwominutes.Intheconfusionandconsternationthemanmighthaveescaped,buthemadenosuchattempt;hewalkeduptothefireplace,laiddownhispistolonabench,andsaid,inanswertothoseinquiringafterthemurderer,thathewastheperson.HegavehisnameasBellingham,expressedsatisfactionatthedeed,butsaidthatheshouldhavebeenmorepleasedhaditbeenLordLevesonGower.Infact,hisprimeintentionwastoshootLordGower,buthehadalsohisresentmentagainstPerceval,andthereforetooktheopportunityofsecuringoneofhisvictims.ItappearedthathehadbeenaLiverpoolmerchant,tradingtoRussia,andthat,duringtheembassyofLordLevesonGoweratSt.Petersburghehadsufferedsevereand,ashedeemed,unjustlosses,forassistanceintheredressofwhichwiththeRussianGovernmenthehadinvainsoughtthegoodofficesoftheambassador.OnhisreturntoEnglandhehadappliedtoPerceval;butthatMinisterdidnotdeemitacaseinwhichGovernmentcouldinterfere,andhencetheexasperationoftheunhappymanagainstbothdiplomatists.ThetrialofthemurderercameonattheOldBailey,beforeChiefJusticeMansfield,ontheFridayofthesameweek.ApleaofinsanitywasputinbyBellingham'scounsel,anditwasdemandedthatthetrialshouldbepostponedtillinquiriescouldbemadeatLiverpoolastohisantecedents.Butthispleawasoverruled.Bellinghamhimselfindignantlyrejectedtheideaofhisbeinginsane.HedeclaredthattheactwastheconsequenceofacooldeterminationtopunishtheMinisterfortherefusalofjusticetohim,andheagainrepeated,inthepresenceofLordLevesonGower,thathischiefobjecthadbeenhimselfforhiscrueldisregardofhiswrongs.BothLordMansfieldandtherestofthejudgeswouldhearofnodelay;averdictof"WilfulMurder"wasbroughtinbythejury,andtheycondemnedhimtobehanged,andhewasdulyhangedonthefollowingMondayatnineo'clock,exactlythedayweekoftheperpetrationoftheact.

Nowfollowedaperiodinwhichmanyworkswereproducedwhichwereextremelypopularintheirday,butofwhichfewnowretainpublicappreciation.Amongstthesenonereachedthesameestimationas"Henry,EarlofMoreland:or,TheFoolofQuality,"byHenryBrooke.Itwasdesignedtoshowthefollyandtheartificialmoraleoftheage,bypresentingHenryasthemodelofdirectandnaturalsentiments,fortheindulgenceofwhichhewasthoughtafoolbythefashionableworld.Theearlypartoftheworkisadmirable,andtheboyhoodofHenryistheobviousprototypeofDay's"HistoryofSandfordandMerton;"butasitadvancesitbecomesutterlyextravagant.MissFrancesBrooke,too,wastheauthorof"JuliaMandeville"andothernovels.Mrs.CharlotteSmith,longrememberedforherharmonioussonnets,wastheauthorofnumerousnovels,as"TheOldManorHouse,""Celestina,""Marchmont,"etc.;therewerealsoMrs.HannahMore[175]withher"C?lebsinSearchofaWife;"Mrs.Hamiltonwithher"Agrippina;"Bagewithhis"Hermstrong:or,ManasheisNot;""Monk"Lewiswithhis"TalesofWonder"andhis"Monk;"andHoraceWalpolewithhismelodramaticromanceof"TheCastleofOtranto."ButfarbeyondWalpoleroseMrs.AnnRadcliffe,theveryqueenofhorrorandwonder,inherstrange,excitingtalesof"TheSicilianRomance,""TheRomanceoftheForest,""TheMysteriesofUdolpho,""TheItalian,"etc.Nowriterevercarriedthepowersofmystery,wonder,andsuspense,tothesameheight,orsobewitchedheragebythem.

InhisimpatiencetoreachhisbelovedHanover,thekinghadout-travelledhisMinisterandthemistress,andreachedDeldenonthe8thlateatnight.Thenextmorningheproceededagainsoearlyasfouro'clock,andwaspressingonward,whenintheforenoonhewasseizedwithafitofapoplexyinhiscoach,andonarrivingatIppenburenhewasobservedtobequitecomatose—hiseyesfixed,hishandsmotionless,andhistonguehangingfromhismouth.HisattendantswishedtoremainatIppenburentoprocuremedicalassistance;butthisseemedtorousehim,andhemanagedtoarticulate,"Osnabrück!Osnabrück!"Theonlychanceforhislife,iftherewasany,dependedoninstantsurgicalaid;theywentinobediencetohiscommand,andonarrivingatOsnabrückhewasfoundquitedeadonthe9thofJune,1727.

Parliamentmetonthe15thofNovember,andtheveryfirstobjectwhichengagedtheattentionofbothHouseswasWilkes.InsuchfieryhastewereMinisters,thatLordSandwich,inthePeers,startedup,beforetheking'sspeechcouldbeconsidered,anddeclaredthatheheldinhishandamostfilthyandatrociouslibel,writtenbyWilkes,called"AnEssayonWoman."Wilkesneverhadpublishedthefilth.Hehadwritten,asitappeared,bytheassistanceofaprofligateandnowdeceasedsonofArchbishopPotter,this"EssayonWoman;"buthehadneverpublishedit.Ithadlaininhisdesk,andhadonlybeenreadtotwopersons—oneofwhomwasSandwichhimself.WhenWilkes,however,wasdriventosetupaprintingpressinhisownhouse,hehadprintedadozencopiesofthe"EssayonWoman,"togivetohisdissolutefriends,whomheusedtomeetattheDilettantiClub,inPalaceYard.Sandwich,awareoftheexistenceoftheessay,hadbribedoneofWilkes'sprinters,namedCurry,tolendhimacopyofit,andhadpaidhimfiveguineasasaguaranteeforitssafereturn.ThewholethingwasastupidparodyofPope's"EssayonMan;"inwhich,insteadoftheinscriptiontoBolingbroke,commencing"Awake,mySt.John!"thereappearedaninvocationbeginning,"Awake,mySandwich!"andtherewerealsoridiculousnotesattributedtoWarburton.

ButAustriahadnottheprudencetoguideherselfbytheseconsiderations.Herableststatesman,Metternich,andtheableststatesmanofFrance,Talleyrand,hadmanyprivateconferenceswiththeRussianambassador,Romanzoff,toendeavourtoconcertsomeschemebywhichthiswarcouldbeprevented,butinvain.AustriabelievedthatthetimeforregainingherpositioninGermany,Italy,andtheTyrol,wascome;andTalleyrandknewthatBuonapartewouldmakenoconcessiontoavoidthethreatenedcollision,becauseitwouldargueatonceadeclineofhispower.Allthathecoulddo,hedid,whichwasonhishastyreturntoParisfromSpain:heopenedcommunicationswithAustria,intendedtodeferthedeclarationofwarforafewmonthswhilsthemadehispreparations.HehadlittlefearofcrushingAustriasummarily.HebelievedthatSoult,havingdrivenSirJohnMooreoutofSpain,wouldpreventtheBritishfromsending[587]anotherarmythere;andhewasconfidentthathisgeneralstherecouldspeedilyreducetheSpaniardstosubmission.Ontheotherhand,Austria,heknew,couldhavenoassistancefromRussia,Prussia,ortheotherNorthernPowers.Allhewanted,therefore,wasalittletimetocollecthisarmies.Austriahadmadegiganticexertions,andhadnowonfootagreaterhostthanshehadeverbroughtintothefieldbefore.Itwassaidtocomprehendhalfamillionofmen,twohundredthousandofwhomwereunderthecommandoftheEmperor'sbrother,theArchdukeCharles,andpostedinAustriatodefendthemainbodyoftheempire.Anotherlargearmywas,underthecommandoftheArchdukeJohn,inCarinthiaandCarniola,readytodescendonthenorthofItaly;andathirdwaspostedinGalicia,undertheArchdukeFerdinand,todefendPoland.Johnwastoco-operatewithCharlesthroughthedefilesoftheTyrol,which,havingbeengivenover,bythepressureofBuonaparteattheTreatyofPressburg,toBavaria,wasreadytoriseandrenewitsancientanddevotedunionwithAustria.

DuringthisSession,also,animportantBillwaspassedforthereliefofRomanCatholics.TheBillwasintroducedbyMr.MitfordandsecondedbyMr.Windham.Mr.Mitfordshowedthattheenactmentsstillinforceagainstthemoccupied,bymererecitaloftheirpenalties,seventypages[382]of"Burn'sEcclesiasticalLaw."Priestswerestillguiltyofhightreasonandliabletodeathforendeavouringtoconvertpeopletothetenetstheydeemedessentialtosalvation;andthelaitywereliabletoheavypenaltiesfornotgoingtochurch,andforhearingMassattheirownchapels.TheBillwassupportedbyPittandFox,byLordRawdon,bytheArchbishopofCanterbury(Dr.Moore),andbyDr.Horsley,BishopofSt.David's.Itpassed.BythisActallthesevererestrictionsandpenaltieswereremovedfromthoseRomanCatholicswhowouldcomplywithitsrequisitions,toappearatoneofthecourtsofWestminster,oratquartersessions,andmakeandsubscribeadeclarationthattheyprofessedtheRomanCatholicreligion,andalsoanoathexactlysimilartothatrequiredbytheStatuteof1778.Onthisdeclarationandoathbeingdulymade,theywereenabledtoprofessandperformtheofficesoftheirreligion,tokeepschools,toexerciseparochialorotherofficesinpersonorbydeputy,andtheministersofthatreligionwereexemptfromservingonjuriesandfromparochialoffices.Theircongregationswereprotectedfromdisturbance;buttheirpriestswererestrainedfromofficiatinginplacesconsecratedtotheburialofProtestants,andfromwearingtheirhabitsanywherebutintheirownplacesofworship.Theywerealsorestrainedfromestablishingreligiousorders;andtheendowmentofschoolsandcollegeswasstilltobedeemedunlawful.NopersoncouldinfuturebesummonedtotaketheOathofSupremacyandthedeclarationagainstTransubstantiation;norwereRomanCatholicswhohadqualifiedremovablefromLondonandWestminster,orpunishableforcomingintothepresenceorpalaceofthekingorqueen.Theywerenolongerobligedtoregistertheirnamesandestates,orenroltheirdeedsandwills;andeveryRomanCatholicwhohaddulyqualifiedmightactasbarrister,attorney,ornotary.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主qp0d0

    ButwhilstTchitchagoffattackedtheFrenchontherightbank,Wittgensteinattackedthemontheleft.TheRussiansthenthrewabridgeofpontoonsovertheriveratBorissov,and,beingincommunication,attackedtheFrenchvehementlyonbothsidesoftheriveratonce.Buonaparteandthetroopswhowereovertheriverforcedtheirwayacrosssomemarshesoverwoodenbridges,whichtheRussianshadneglectedtodestroy,andreachedBrelowa,alittleaboveBorissovontheotherside.Butterriblenowwastheconditionoftheforcesandthecamp-followerswhohadnotcrossed.Wittgenstein,Victor,andOudinotwereengagedinmortalcombatontheleftbankattheapproachofthebridge,theFrenchgeneralsendeavouringtobeatofftheRussiansasthetroopsandpeoplepressedinaconfusedcrowdoverthebridges.EverymomenttheRussiansdrovetheFrenchnearertothebridges,andthesceneofhorrorbecameindescribable.Thethrongsrushedtomaketheirwayoverthebridge;thesoldiers,forgettingtheirdiscipline,addedtotheconfusion.Theweakandhelplessweretrampleddown;thousandswereforcedoverthesidesofthebridge,andperishedinthefreezingwaters.Inthemidstofthestruggleafiercetempestarose,anddelugesofrainfell;andtocarrythehorrortothehighestpitch,[53]thebridgeoverwhichthebaggagewaspassingbrokedown,plungingnumbersofsick,andwomenandchildren,intotheflood,amidthemostfearfulcriesandscreams.ButallnightthedistractedmultitudecontinuedtopressoverthesoleremainingbridgeunderthefireoftheRussianartillery,andamongstthempassedthetroopsofVictor,whogaveupthecontestontheleftbank,andleftthosewhohadnotcrossedtotheirfate.Thousandsofpoorwretcheswereseen,asmorningdawned,huddledonthebankoftheriver,amidbaggage-waggonsandartillery,surroundedbytheinfuriatedRussians,andindumbdespairawaitingtheirfate.TopreventthecrossingoftheRussians,theFrenchsetfiretothebridge,andleftthosebehindtothemercyoftheenemy.

     AlmostimmediatelyonthemeetingoftheHouseofCommons,WelboreEllisdemandedwhetherareturnhadbeenmadeforWestminster,andbeingansweredinthenegative,movedthatMr.Corbett,thehighbailiff,withhisassessor,shouldattendtheHouse;andthenextday,February2nd,ColonelFitzpatrickpresentedapetitionfromtheelectorsofWestminster,complainingthattheywerenotlegallyanddulyrepresented.Infact,thescrutinyhadnowbeengoingonforeightmonths,andasnoteventwoofthesevenparishesofWestminsterwereyetscrutinised,itwascalculatedthat,atthisrate,thewholeprocesswouldrequirethreeyears,andthecitywould,therefore,remainaslongunrepresented.Thehighbailiffstatedthattheexaminations,cross-examinations,andargumentsofcounselweresolong,thathesawnoprospectofaspeedyconclusion;andMr.Murphy,hisassessor,gaveevidencethateachvotewastriedwithasmuch[310]formandprolixityasanycauseinWestminsterHall;thatcounsel—andthisappliedtobothsides—claimedarighttomakefivespeechesononevote;andthatpropositionshadbeenputinonthepartofSirCecilWraytoshortentheproceedings,butobjectedtoonthepartofMr.Fox.

  • 雪灵芝62Rkr

    [Seelargerversion]

  • 如萱紫儿c7CT0

    Jellacic,theBan,orGovernor,ofCroatia,resolvedtoholdaSlavonicDietatAgramonthe5thofJune;butitwasforbiddenasillegalbytheAustrianGovernment,andtheBanwassummonedtoInnsbrucktoexplainhisconducttotheemperor.Hedisobeyedthesummons.TheDietwasheld,andoneofitsprincipalactswastoconferuponJellacicthetitleofBan,whichhehadheldunderthenowrepudiatedauthorityoftheemperor.Hewasconsequentlydenouncedasarebel,anddivestedofallhistitlesandoffices.Theemperorproceededtorestorehisauthoritybyforceofarms.Carlowitzwasbombarded,andconvertedintoaheapofruins;andothercitiessurrenderedtoescapeasimilarfate.Itwasnot,however,fromdisloyaltytotheimperialthrone,butfromhostilitytotheascendencyofHungary,thattheBanhadtakenuparms.HethereforewenttoInnsbruckearlyinJuly,andhavingobtainedaninterviewwiththeemperor,hedeclaredhisloyaltytotheSovereign,andmadeknownthegrievanceswhichhisnationenduredundertheHungarianGovernment.HisdemandsweresecurityandequalityofrightswiththeHungarians,bothintheHungarianDietandin[579]theadministration.TheseconditionswereprofoundlyresentedbytheMagyars,who,headedbyCountBatthyányandLouisKossuth,hadin1847extortedaConstitutionfromtheemperor.Itwastheunfortunateantipathyofraces,excitedbytheGermanicandPan-Slavonicmovements,thatenabledtheemperortodivideandconquer.TheArchdukeStepheninopeningtheHungarianDietindignantlyrepelledtheinsinuationthateitherthekingoranyoftheroyalfamilycouldgivetheslightestencouragementtotheBanofCroatiainhishostileproceedingsagainstHungary.Yet,onthe30thofSeptemberfollowing,letterswhichhadbeeninterceptedbytheHungarianswerepublishedatVienna,completelycompromisingtheemperor,andrevealingadisgracefulconspiracywhichheappearstohaveenteredintowithJellacic,whentheymetatInnsbruck.NotonlywerethebarbarousCroatians,intheirdevastatingaggressiononHungary,encouragedbytheemperorwhileprofessingtodeploreandcondemnthem,buttheImperialGovernmentweresecretlysupplyingtheBanwithmoneyforcarryingonthewar.EarlyinAugusttheCroatiantroopslaidsiegetoseveralofthemostimportantcitiesinHungary,andlaidwastesomeoftherichestdistrictsinthatcountry.InthesecircumstancestheDietvotedthatadeputationoftwenty-fivemembersshouldproceedatoncetoVienna,andmakeanappealtotheNationalAssemblyforaidagainsttheCroats,whowerenowrapidlyoverrunningthecountryunderJellacic,whoproclaimedthathewasabouttoridHungary"fromtheyokeofanincapable,odious,andrebelGovernment."ThedeputationwenttoVienna,andtheAssembly,byamajorityof186to108,resolvedtorefuseitahearing.Deeplymortifiedatthisinsult,theHungariansresolvedtobreakcompletelywithAustria.TheyinvestedKossuthwithfullpowersasDictator,whereupontheArchdukeresignedhisvice-royaltyonthe25thofSeptember,andretiredtoMoravia.

  • 但法国cZEyj

    [593]

     TheMinistry,asreconstructed,consistedofLordNorth,FirstLordoftheTreasury;theGreatSealwasincommission;Granby'splaces,theOrdnanceandCommanderoftheForces,werestillunsupplied;sowastheDukeofManchester'soldpostofLordoftheBed-Chamber.TheEarlofHalifaxbecameLordPrivySeal;theEarlofPembrokebecameaLordoftheBed-Chamber;theEarlofWaldegrave,MasteroftheHorsetothequeen;SirGilbertElliot,TreasureroftheNavy;CharlesJamesFoxbecameajuniorLordoftheAdmiralty;AdmiralHolborneanother;Mr.WelboreEllisbecameoneoftheVice-TreasurersofIreland;andThurlowwasappointedSolicitor-General,inplaceofDunning.

  • 大笨蛋eCK1O

    v

  • 扒皮成UDfn9

    [Seelargerversion]

     

  • 草莓果L9UCY

    Astrongparty,notsatisfiedwithhavingdestroyedLordMansfield'stownhouse,setofftoburnthatatCaenWood,nearHighgate.Theyweremetandturnedbackbyadetachmentofcavalry.TheywereequallydisappointedintheirintendedsackoftheBankofEngland.Theyfoundthismineofwealthguardedbyinfantry,whohadhereorderstofire,anddiditwithoutscruple,killingandwoundingagreatmany.Theyweremoresuccessfulagainsttheprisons.TheybrokeopentheKing'sBench,theFleet,theMarshalsea,andalltheotherprisonsexceptthePoultryCompter,andsetatlibertyalltheprisoners.Beforethedayhaddawned,thewholeskywasglaringwiththelightofconflagrations.Thenumberofseparatefiresburningatthesametimewascounteduptothirty-six.Hadtheweatherbeenstormy,thewholeofLondonmusthavebeenlaidinashes;but,providentially,theweatherwasperfectlycalm.ThesceneofthegreatestcatastrophewasatthedistilleryofaMr.Langdale,onHolbornBridge.ThisgentlemanwasaCatholic,andhisstoresofspiritswereaviolenttemptation.Theybrokeopenhispremisesintheevening,anddestroyedeverything.Theystavedinhishogsheadsofspirits,andotherscollectedtheminpailsandintheirhats,anddrankvoraciously.Thekennelranamingledriverofgin,brandy,andpurealcohol,andmen,women,andchildrenwereseenontheirkneessuckingupthestreamasitflowed!Firewassettothepremises,andcatchingthespiritswhichfloodedthefloors,theflamesshotuptotheskylikeavolcano.Theunhappywretches,whohadstupefiedthemselveswiththefieryfluid,perishedlikefliesintheragingelement.Nosuchsceneofhorrorhadbeenseeninallthesespectaclesofviolenceandcrime.ThelossofMr.Langdalealonewasestimatedatonehundredthousandpounds.

     Notatalldismayedbythisunrighteousseverity,theScottishFriendsofthePeoplemetinconvention,inEdinburgh,onthe9thofOctober.AtthisConventiondelegatesappeared,notonlyfrommostofthelargetownsofScotland,butalsofromLondon,Sheffield,andDublin.LetterswerealsoreceivedfromtheSocietiesinEngland.Mr.WilliamSkirving,afriendofMuirandPalmer,assecretarytotheConvention,readtheseletters,andotherpapers,demandingannualparliamentsanduniversalsuffrage.AstheBritishParliamentwasconsidered,andtruly,merelyacorruptcliqueoftherepresentativesofboroughmongers,theyproposedtoapplydirectlytotheking,thathemighturgethosenecessaryreformsontheLegislature.[428]InScottishfashion,theReformersopenedandclosedtheirsittingswithprayer,presentingastrikingcontrasttotheFrenchRevolutionists.Onthe6thofNovemberdelegatesappearedfromtheSocietyofUnitedIrishmen,andMargarotandGeraldfromtheSocietyoftheFriendsofthePeopleinLondon.MargarotstatedthatfivehundredconstableshadbesetthemeetinginLondon,topreventdelegatesfromgettingawaytothisConvention,butthatthemanufacturingtownsofEnglandwerealmostallinfavourofReform;thatinSheffieldalonetherewerefiftythousand;thatageneralunionoftheReformersoftheUnitedKingdomwouldstriketerrorintotheirenemies,andcompelthemtograntannualparliamentsanduniversalsuffrage.

  • 绿卡纸NizGA

    BythisdispersionoftheSpaniardstheBritishbattalionswerewhollyexposed,andthewholemightofSoult'sforcewasthrownuponthem.Atremendousfirefromthehills,wheretheSpaniardsoughttohavestood,wasopenedontheBritishranks,andseveralregimentswerealmostannihilatedinalittletime.Butthe31stregiment,belongingtoColborne'sbrigade,supportedbyHorton'sbrigade,stoodtheirgroundunderamurderousfireofartillery,andthefierychargeofbothhorseandfoot.Theymustsoonhavefallentoaman,butBeresfordquicklysentupaPortuguesebrigade,underGeneralHarvey,toroundthehillontheright,andothertroops,underAbercrombie,tocompassitontheleft;while,atthesuggestionofColonel(afterwardsLord)Hardinge,hepushedforwardGeneralColewithhisbrigadeoffusiliersupthefaceofthehill.Thesethreedivisionsappearedonthesummitsimultaneously.Theadvanceofthesetroopsthroughthetempestofdeathhasalwaysbeendescribedassomethingactuallysublime.Movingonward,unshaken,undisturbed,thoughopposedbythefuriousonslaughtofSoult'sdensestcentre,theyclearedthehill-topwiththemostdeadlyandunerringfire;theysweptawayatroopofPolishlancersthatweremurderouslyridingaboutgoringourwoundedmen,astheylayontheground,withtheirlonglances.

     

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