疫情防控工作新闻发布会|宁夏创建“放心消费在宁夏”活动 切实维护旅游消费市场秩序

0DheE-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 12:56:00

“幸运分分彩查询【注册大礼】”Again,thespiritualismtaughtbyPlatoandAristotlealike—bythedisciple,indeed,withevenmoredistinctnessthanbythemaster—wassoentirelyinconsistentwiththecommonbeliefofantiquityastoremainadeadletterfornearlysixcenturies—thatis,untilthetimeofPlotinus.Thedifferencebetweenbodyandmindwasrecognisedbyeveryschool,butonlyasthedifferencebetweensolidandgaseousmatterisrecognisedbyus;whiletheantithesisbetweenconsciousandunconsciousexistence,withallitsmomentousconsequences,wasrecognisedbynone.Theoldhypothesishadtobethoroughlythoughtoutbeforeitsinsufficiencycouldbecompletelyandirrevocablyconfessed.223

Howmuchoriginalitytheremaybeintheanti-materialisticargumentsofPlotinuswecannottell.HecertainlymarksagreatadvanceonPlatoandAristotle,approximating,inthisrespect,muchmorecloselythantheydotothemodernstandpoint.Theindivisibilityandpermanenceofmindhad,nodoubt,beenstronglyinsistedonbythoseteachers,incontrastwiththeextendedandfluctuatingnatureofbody.Buttheydidnot,likehim,deducethesecharacteristicsfromadirectanalysisofconsciousnessassuch.Platoinferredthesimplicityandself-identityofmindfromthesimplicityandself-identityoftheideaswhichitcontemplates.Aristotlewentastepfurther,orperhapsonlyexpressedthesamemeaningmoreclearly,whenheassociatedimmaterialitywiththeidentityofsubjectandobjectinthought.444Moreover,bothPlatoandAristotleseemtohaverestedthewholespiritualisticcaseonobjectiveratherthanonsubjectiveconsiderations;although,aswehaveseen,thesubjectiveinterestwaswhatdominatedallthewhileintheirthoughts.Startingwiththeanalogyofalivingbody,Platoargues,bothinthePhaedrusandintheLaws,thatsoulmusteverywherebethefirstcauseofmotion,andthereforemustexistpriortobody.445TheelaboratescientificanalysisofAristotle’sPhysicsleadsuptoasimilarconclusion;andtheontologicalanalysisoftheMetaphysicsstartswiththedistinctionbetweenFormandMatterinbodies,toendwiththequestionoftheirrelativepriority,andoftheobjectivemachinerybywhichtheyareunited.Plotinus,too,sometimesreferstomindasthesource300ofphysicalorder;butthisisratherindeferencetohisauthoritiesthanbecausethenecessityofsuchanexplanationseemedtohim,asitdidtothem,thedeepestgroundofaspiritualisticphilosophy.Ontheotherhand,hispsychologicalargumentsfortheimmaterialityofthesoularedrawnfromawiderareaofexperiencethantheirs,feelingbeingtakenintoaccountnolessthanthought;insteadofrestrictinghimselftooneparticularkindofcognitionforevidenceofspiritualpower,helooksforitineverymanifestationoflivingpersonality.

ItwillbeseenthatwhathasbeensingledoutasananticipationoftheDarwiniantheorywasonlyoneapplicationofaverycomprehensivemethodforeliminatingdesignfromtheuniverse.ButofwhatismostoriginalandessentialinDarwinism,thatis,themodifiabilityofspecificformsbythesummingupofspontaneousvariationsinagivendirection,theEpicureanshadnottheslightestsuspicion.Andwherevertheyortheirmasterhave,inotherrespects,madesome84approachtothetruthsofmodernscience,itmayfairlybeexplainedontheirownprincipleasasingleluckyguessoutofmanyfalseguesses.Itwasnaturalthatthebestmethodsofinterpretingsousefulasourceofinformationshouldbegreatlysoughtafter,andthattheyshouldbesystematisedintreatisesexpresslydevotedtothesubject.Onesuchwork,theOneirocriticaofArtemid?rus,isstillextant.Itwascomposedtowardstheendofthesecondcentury,asitsauthortellsus,atthedirectandrepeatedcommandofApollo.AccordingtoArtemid?rus,thegeneralbeliefinprophecyandintheexistenceofprovidencemuststandorfallwiththebeliefinpropheticdreams.Helookedonthecompilationofhisworkasthefulfilmentofareligiousmission,andhiswholelifewasdevotedtocollectingthematerialsforit.Hisgoodfaithis,wearetold,beyondquestion,hisindustryisenormous,andheevenexercisesconsiderablediscriminationinselectingandelucidatingthephenomenawhicharerepresentedtousas229manifestationsofasupernaturalinterestinhumanaffairs.Thushisbeliefsmaybetakenasafairgaugeoftheextenttowhicheducatedopinionhadatthattimebecomeinfectedwithvulgarsuperstition.351

Throughallhiscriticismsonthepopularsourcesofinformation—sense,languageandpublicopinion—Platoreferstoanidealofperfectknowledgewhichheassumeswithoutbeingabletodefineit.Itmustsatisfythenegativeconditionofbeingfreefromself-contradiction,butfurtherthanthiswecannotgo.Yet,inthehandsofametaphysician,nomorethanthiswasrequiredtoreconstructtheworld.ThedemandforconsistencyexplainsthepracticalphilosophyofSocrates.Italsoexplains,underanotherform,thephilosophy,bothpracticalandspeculative,ofhisdisciple.Identityandthecorrelativeofidentity,difference,graduallycametocoverwiththeirmanifoldcombinationsallknowledge,alllife,andallexistence.

CHAPTERIV.PLATO:HISTEACHERSANDHISTIMES.

AgainstthesewehavetosettheconfidentexpressionsofbeliefinafuturelifeemployedbyallthePlatonistsandPythagoreans,andbysomeoftheStoicschool.Buttheirdoctrinesonthesubjectwillbemostadvantageouslyexplainedwhenwecometodealwiththereligiousphilosophyoftheageasawhole.Whatwehavenowtoexamineisthegeneralconditionofpopularbeliefasevincedbythecharacterofthefunerealmonumentserectedinthetimeoftheempire.Ourauthoritiesareagreedinstatingthatthemajorityofthesebearwitnesstoawide-spreadandever-growingfaithinimmortality,sometimesconveyedundertheformofinscriptions,sometimesunderthatoffiguredreliefs,sometimesmorena?velysignifiedbyarticlesplacedinthetombforuseinanotherworld.‘Iamwaitingformyhusband,’istheinscriptionplacedoverhisdeadwifebyonewhowas,likeher,anenfranchisedslave.Elsewhereawidow‘commendsherdepartedhusbandtothegodsoftheunderworld,andpraysthattheywillallowhisspirittorevisitherinthehoursofthenight.’366‘Indeaththouartnotdead,’arethewordsdecipheredononemoulderingstone.‘No,’saysafathertoasonwhomhehadlostinNumidia,236‘thouhastnotgonedowntotheabodeoftheManesbutrisentothestarsofheaven.’AtDoxato,nearPhilippiinMacedonia,‘amotherhasgravenonthetombofherchild:“Wearecrushedbyacruelblow,butthouhastrenewedthybeingandartdwellingintheElysianfields.” ’367Thisconceptionofthefutureworldasaheavenlyandhappyabodewherehumansoulsarereceivedintothesocietyofthegods,recurswithespecialfrequencyintheGreekepitaphs,butisalsometwithinLatin-speakingcountries.And,consideringhowgreataparttheworshipofdepartedspiritsplaysinallprimitivereligions,justsuchatendencymightbeexpectedtoshowitselfatsuchatime,if,aswehavecontended,theconditionsofsocietyundertheempirewerecalculatedtosetfreetheoriginalforcesbywhichpopularfaithiscreated.Itseems,therefore,ratherarbitrarytoassume,asFriedl?nderdoes,368thatthemovementinquestionwasentirelyduetoPlatonicinfluence,—especiallyconsideringthattherearedistincttracesofittobefoundinPindar;—althoughatthesametimewemaygrantthatitwaspowerfullyfosteredbyPlato’steaching,andreceivedafreshimpulsefromthereconstitutionofhisphilosophyinthethirdcenturyofourera.

However,aswehaveseen,heisnotaboveturningitagainstMill.Thedriftofhisownillustrationisnotveryclear,butwesupposeitimpliesthatthematronunconsciouslyframesthegeneralproposition:MyremedyisgoodforallchildrensufferingfromthesamediseaseasLucy;andwithequalunconsciousnessreasonsdownfromthistothecaseofherneighbour’schild.Now,itisquiteunjustifiabletocallMill’sanalysissuperficialbecauseitleavesoutofaccountahypothesisincompatiblewiththenominalismwhichMillprofessed.Itisstillmoreunjustifiabletoquoteagainstit390theauthorityofaphilosopherwhoperfectlyagreedwiththosewhodisbelieveinthepossibilityofunconsciousknowledge,286andcontemptuouslyrejectedPlato’sopiniontothecontrary.Noristhisall.Thedoctrinethatreasoningisfromparticularstoparticulars,evenwhenitpassesthroughgeneralpropositions,mayberigorouslydeducedfromAristotle’sownadmissions.Ifnothingexistsbutparticulars,andifknowledgeisofwhatexists,thenallknowledgeisofparticulars.Therefore,ifthepropositionsenteringintoachainofreasoningareknowledge,theymustdealwithparticularsexclusively.And,quiteapartfromthelaterdevelopmentsofAristotle’sphilosophy,wehavehisexpressassertion,thatallgeneralsarederivedfromparticulars,whichisabsolutelyincompatiblewiththeallegedfact,that‘allknowledge,allthought,restsonuniversaltruths,ongeneralpropositions;thatallknowledge,whether“deductive”or“inductive,”isarrivedatbytheaid,theindispensableaid,ofgeneralpropositions.’ToAristotlethebasisofknowledgewasnot‘truths’ofanykind,butconcepts;andinthelastchapterofthePosteriorAnalyticshehasexplainedhowtheseconceptsarederivedfromsense-perceptionswithouttheaidofany‘propositions’whatever.117

Platoseemstohavefeltverystronglythatallvirtuousactiontendstowardsagoodexceedinginvalueanytemporarysacrificewhichitmayinvolve;andtheacceptedconnotationofethicaltermswententirelyalongwiththisbelief.Buthecouldnotseethataparticularactionmightbegoodforthecommunityatlargeandbadfortheindividualwhoperformedit,notinadifferentsensebutintheverysamesense,asinvolvingadiminutionofhishappiness.ForfromPlato’sabstractandgeneralisingpointofviewallgoodwashomogeneous,andthewelfareoftheindividualwasabsolutelyidentifiedwiththewelfareofthewholetowhichhebelonged.Asagainstthosewhomaderightdependentonmightanderectedself-indulgenceintothelawoflifePlatooccupiedanimpregnableposition.Heshowedthatsuchprinciplesmadesocietyimpossible,andthatwithouthonourevenagangofthievescannotholdtogether.140Healsosawthatitisreasonwhichbringseachindividualintorelationwiththewholeandenableshimtounderstandhisobligationstowardsit;butatthesametimehegavethis232reasonapersonalcharacterwhichdoesnotproperlybelongtoit;or,whatcomestothesamething,hetreatedhumanbeingsaspureentiarationis,thusunwittinglyremovingthenecessityforhavinganymoralityatall.Onhisassumptionitwouldbeabsurdtobreakthelaw;butneitherwouldtherebeanytemptationtobreakit,norwouldanyunpleasantconsequencesfollowonitsviolation.Platospeaksofinjusticeasaninjurytothesoul’shealth,andthereforeasthegreatestevilthatcanbefallahumanbeing,withoutobservingthattheinferenceinvolvesaconfusionofterms.Forhisargumentrequiresthatsoulshouldmeanboththewholeofconsciouslifeandthesystemofabstractnotionsthroughwhichwecommunicateandco-operatewithourfellow-creatures.Allcrimeisaseriousdisturbancetothelatter,foritcannotwithoutabsurditybemadethefoundationofageneralrule;but,apartfrompenalconsequences,itdoesnotimpair,andmaybenefittheformer.

ItisgenerallyassumedbytheGermancriticsthattheatomictheorywaspeculiarlyfittedtoserveasabasisfortheindividualisticethicsofEpicureanism.Tothiswecanhardlyagree.Theinsignificanceandpowerlessnessoftheatoms,exceptwhenaggregatedtogetherinenormousnumbers,wouldseemtobenaturallymorefavourabletoasystemwherethecommunitywentforeverythingandtheindividualfornothing;nordoesthegeneralacceptanceofatomismbymodernscienceseemtobeaccompaniedbyanyrelaxationofthesocialsentimentinitsprofessors.HadtheStoicsfollowedDemocritusandEpicurusHeracleitus—atleastaconceivablehypothesis—someequallycogentreasonwoulddoubtlesshavebeenforthcomingtoindicatetheappropriatenessoftheirchoice.161Asitis,wehavenoevidencethatEpicurussawanythingmoreintheatomictheorythanaconvenientexplanationoftheworldonpurelymechanicalprinciples.

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  • 雨花郡主LCRxq

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    Itwasbyananalogous,though,ofcourse,farmorecomplicatedandingeniousadjustment,thatHegelsoughttoovercometheagnosticismwhichKantprofessedtohavefoundedonabasisofirrefragableproof.Withbothphilosophers,however,thescepticalprinciplewascelebratingitssupremetriumphatthemomentofitsfanciedoverthrow.Thedogmatismofdoubtcouldgonofurtherthantoresolvethewholechainofexistenceintoasuccessionofmutuallycontradictoryideas.

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  • 绿卡纸sacUV

     Descartes’theoryoftheuniverseincluded,however,somethingmorethanextension(ormatter)andmotion.ThiswasThought.IfweaskwhencecamethenotionofThought,ourphilosopherwillanswerthatitwasobtainedbylookingintohimself.Itwas,inreality,obtainedbylookingintoAristotle,orintosometext-bookreproducinghismetaphysics.ButthePlatonicelementinhissystemenabledDescartestoisolateThoughtmuchmorecompletelythanithadbeenisolatedbyAristotle.Tounderstandthis,wemustturnoncemoretotheTimaeus.PlatomadeuphisuniversefromspaceandIdeas.ButtheIdeasweretoovagueortoounintelligibleforscientificpurposes.EvenmediaevalRealistswerecontenttoreplacethembyAristotle’smuchclearerdoctrineofForms.Ontheotherhand,Aristotle’sFirstMatterwasanythingbutasatisfactoryconception.Itwasamereabstraction;the390unknowableresiduumleftbehindwhenbodieswerestripped,inimagination,ofalltheirsensibleandcogitablequalities.Inotherwords,therewasnoMatteractuallyexistingwithoutForm;whereasFormwasneversotrulyitself,neversoabsolutelyexistent,aswhencompletelyseparatedfromMatter:itthenbecamesimpleself-consciousness,asinGod,orinthereasonablepartofthehumansoul.TherevolutionwroughtbysubstitutingspaceforAristotle’sFirstMatterwillnowbecomeapparent.Corporealsubstancecouldatoncebeconceivedasexistingwithouttheco-operationofForm;andatthesamestroke,Form,liberatedfromitsmaterialbonds,sprangbackintothesubjectivesphere,tolivehenceforwardonlyaspureself-consciousthought.

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