【健康情报局】先心病如何选择手术时机

d5UqP-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 12:55:30

“马来三分彩人工计划”Thedishonourwasforthetownsmenwho,inanoutbreakofinsanefanaticism,drovetheblamelesstruthseekerfromhisadoptedhome.AnaxagoraswastheintimatecompanionofPericles,andPericleshadmademanyenemiesbyhisdomesticaswellasbyhisforeignpolicy.Acoalitionofharassedinterestsandoffendedprejudiceswasformedagainsthim.Acryarosethatreligionandtheconstitutionwereindanger.TheAthenianshadtoomuchgoodsensetodismisstheirgreatdemocraticMinister,buttheypermittedtheillustriousstatesman’spoliticalopponentstostrikeathimthroughhisfriends.29Aspasiawassavedonlybythetearsofherlover.Pheidias,thegrandest,mostspiritual-mindedartistofalltime,wasarrestedonachargeofimpiety,anddiedinaprisonofthecitywhosetempleswereadornedwiththeimperishablemonumentsofhisreligiousinspiration.Adecreeagainst‘astronomersandatheists’wassoevidentlyaimedatAnaxagorasthatthephilosopherretiredtoLampsacus,wherehediedattheageofseventy-two,universallyadmiredandrevered.AltarsdedicatedtoReasonandTruthwereerectedinhishonour,andforcenturieshismemorycontinuedtobecelebratedbyanannualfeast.30Hiswholeexistencehadbeendevotedtoscience.Whenaskedwhatmadelifeworthliving,heanswered,‘Thecontemplationoftheheavensandoftheuniversalcosmicorder.’Thereplywaslikeatitle-pagetohisworks.Wecanseethatspecialisationwas38beginning,thatthepositivescienceswereseparatingthemselvesfromgeneraltheoriesaboutNature,andcouldbecultivatedindependentlyofthem.Asingleindividualmight,indeed,combinephilosophyofthemostcomprehensivekindwithadetailedenquiryintosomeparticularorderofphenomena,buthecoulddothiswithoutbringingthetwostudiesintoanyimmediateconnexionwitheachother.SuchseemstohavebeenthecasewithAnaxagoras.Hewasaprofessionalastronomerandalsotheauthorofamodifiedatomichypothesis.This,fromitsgreatercomplexity,seemsmorelikelytohavebeensuggestedbythepurelyquantitativeconceptionofLeucippusthantohaveprecededitintheorderofevolution.Democritus,andprobablyhisteacheralso,drewaverysharpdistinctionbetweenwhatwereafterwardscalledtheprimaryandsecondaryqualitiesofmatter.ExtensionandresistancealonehadarealexistenceinNature,whiletheattributescorrespondingtoourspecialsensations,suchastemperature,taste,andcolour,wereonlysubjectively,or,asheexpressedit,conventionallytrue.Anaxagorasaffirmednolessstronglythanhisyoungercontemporariesthatthesumofbeingcanneitherbeincreasednordiminished,thatallthingsariseandperishbycombinationanddivision,andthatbodiesareformedoutofindestructibleelements;liketheAtomists,again,heregardedtheseelementarysubstancesasinfiniteinnumberandinconceivablyminute;onlyheconsideredthemasqualitativelydistinct,andasresemblingonaninfinitesimalscalethehighestcompoundsthattheybuildup.Notonlyweregold,iron,andtheothermetalsformedofhomogeneousparticles,butsuchsubstancesasflesh,bone,andbloodwere,accordingtohim,equallysimple,equallydecomposable,intomoleculesoflikenaturewiththemselves.Thus,asAristotlewellobserves,hereversedthemethodofEmpedocles,andtaughtthatearth,air,fire,andwaterwerereallythemostcomplexofallbodies,sincetheysupplied39nourishmenttothelivingtissues,andthereforemustcontainwithinthemselvesthemultitudinousvarietyofunitsbywhoseaggregationindividualisedorganicsubstanceismadeup.31Furthermore,ourphilosopherheldthatoriginallythisintermixturehadbeenstillmorethoroughgoing,allpossiblequalitiesbeingsimultaneouslypresentinthesmallestparticlesofmatter.TheresultingstateofchaoticconfusionlasteduntilNous,orReason,cameandsegregatedtheheterogeneouselementsbyaprocessofcontinuousdifferentiationleadinguptothepresentarrangementofthings.BothPlatoandAristotlehavecommendedAnaxagorasforintroducingintospeculationtheconceptionofReasonasacosmicworld-orderingpower;bothhavecensuredhimformakingsolittleuseofhisowngreatthought,forattributingalmosteverythingtosecondary,material,mechanicalcauses;fornoteverywhereapplyingtheteleologicalmethod;infact,fornotanticipatingtheBridgewaterTreatisesandprovingthattheworldisconstructedonaplanofperfectwisdomandgoodness.LessfortunatethantheAthenians,wecannotpurchasetheworkofAnaxagorasonNatureatanorchestralbook-stallforthemoderatepriceofadrachma;butweknowenoughaboutitscontentstocorrectthesomewhatpetulantandsuperficialcriticismofaschoolperhapslessinsympathythanwearewithitsauthor’smethodofresearch.EvidentlytheClazomenianphilosopherdidnotmeanbyReasonanethicalforce,apowerwhichmakesforhumanhappinessorvirtue,noryetareflectingintelligence,adesigneradaptingmeanstoends.ToallappearancestheNouswasnotaspiritinthesensewhichweattach,orwhichAristotleattachedtotheterm.Itwas,accordingtoAnaxagoras,thesubtlestandpurestofallthings,totallyunmixedwithothersubstances,andthereforeabletocontrolandbringthemintoorder.Thisisnothowmenspeakofanimmaterialinextendedconsciousness.Thetruthisthatno40amountofphysicalsciencecouldcreate,althoughitmightleadtowardsaspiritualisticphilosophy.Spiritualismfirstarosefromthesophisticnegationofanexternalworld,fromtheexclusivestudyofman,fromtheSocraticsearchaftergeneraldefinitions.Yet,ifNousoriginallymeantintelligence,howcoulditlosethisprimarysignificationandbecomeidentifiedwithameremodeofmatter?Theansweris,thatAnaxagoras,whosewholelifewasspentintracingouttheorderofNature,wouldinstinctivelythinkofhisownintelligenceasadiscriminating,identifyingfaculty;would,consequently,conceiveitsobjectivecounterpartundertheformofadifferentiatingandintegratingpower.Allprecedingthinkershadrepresentedtheirsupremebeingundermaterialconditions,eitherasoneelementsinglyorasasumtotalwhereelementaldifferencesweremerged.AnaxagorasdifferedfromthemchieflybytheverysharpdistinctiondrawnbetweenhisinformingprincipleandtherestofNature.TheabsoluteintermixtureofqualitieswhichhepresupposesbearsaverystrongresemblancebothtotheSphairosofEmpedoclesandtothefieryconsummationofHeracleitus,itmayevenhavebeensuggestedbythem.Only,whatwiththemwasthehighestformofexistencebecomeswithhimthelowest;thoughtisassertingitselfmoreandmore,andinterpretingthelawofevolutioninaccordancewithitsownimperiousdemands.Aristotlehassometimesbeenrepresentedasanadvocateoffree-willagainstnecessity.Butthequestionhadnotreallybeenopenedinhistime.Herejectedfatalism;butithadnotoccurredtohimthatinternalmotivesmightexerciseaconstrainingpoweroveraction.Norhashisfreedomanythingtodowiththeself-assertionofmind,itsextricationfromthechainofphysicalantecedents.Itissimplytheelementof397arbitrarinessanduncertaintysupposedtocharacterisetheregionofchangeandopposition,asdistinguishedfromthehigherregionofundeviatingregularity.

Besidestransformingartandliterature,thedialecticmethodhelpedtorevolutionisesociallife,andtheimpulsecommunicatedinthisdirectionisstillveryfarfrombeingexhausted.Wealludetoitsinfluenceonfemaleeducation.TheintellectualblossomingofAthenswasaided,initsfirstdevelopment,byacompleteseparationofthesexes.TherewereveryfewofhisfriendstowhomanAtheniangentlemantalkedsolittleastohiswife.104ColonelMureaptlycomparesherpositiontothatofanEnglishhousekeeper,withconsiderablylesslibertythanisenjoyedbythelatter.YettheunionoftenderadmirationwiththeneedforintelligentsympathyandthedesiretoawakeninterestinnoblepursuitsexistedatAthensinfullforce,andcreatedafieldforitsexercise.WilhelmvonHumboldthasobservedthatatthistimechivalrouslovewaskeptalivebycustomswhich,tous,areintenselyrepellent.Thatsovaluableasentimentshouldbepreservedanddivertedintoamorelegitimatechannelwasanobjectofthehighestimportance.Thenaturalisticmethodofethicsdidmuch,butitcouldnotdoall,formorewasrequiredthanareturntoprimitivesimplicity.Herethemethodofmindsteppedinandsuppliedthedeficiency.ReciprocitywasthesoulofdialecticaspractisedbySocrates,andthedialecticoflovedemandsareciprocityofpassionwhichcanonlyexistbetweenthesexes.ButinasocietywherethefreeintercourseofmodernEuropewasnotpermitted,themodernsentimentcouldnotbereachedatasinglebound;andthosewhosoughtfortheconversationofintelligentwomenhadtoseekforitamongaclassofwhichAspasiawasthehighestrepresentative.SuchwomenplayedagreatpartinlaterAtheniansociety;theyattendedphilosophicallectures,furnishedheroinestotheNewComedy,andonthewholegaveahealthiertonetoliterature.Theirsuccessors,theDeliasandCynthiasof159Romanelegiacpoetry,calledforthstrainsofexaltedaffectionwhichneednothingbutaworthierobjecttoplacethemonalevelwiththenoblestexpressionsoftendernessthathavesincebeenheard.Hereatleast,tounderstandistoforgive;andweshallbelessscandalisedthancertaincritics,105weshallevenrefusetoadmitthatSocratesfellbelowthedignityofamoralist,whenwehearthatheoncevisitedacelebratedbeautyofthisclass,Theodotêbyname;106thatheengagedherinaplayfulconversation;andthathetaughthertoputmoremindintoherprofession;toattractbysomethingdeeperthanpersonalcharms;toshowatleastanappearanceofinterestinthewelfareofherlovers;andtostimulatetheirardourbyastudiedreserve,grantingnofavourthathadnotbeenrepeatedlyandpassionatelysoughtafter.

Theultimatestageofperfectionis,ofcourse,theidentificationofsubjectandobject,theascentfromtheNoustotheOne.But,onthispoint,Plotinusneveraddedanythingessentialtowhathasalreadybeenquotedfromtheanalyticalportionofhisenquiry,andtheessaycontainingthatpassageisaccordinglyplacedlastinPorphyry’sarrangementofhisworks.Epicuruswasborn341B.C.,aboutthesametimeasZenotheStoic.Unlikealltheotherphilosophersofhisage,hewasofAthenianparentage;thatistosay,hebelongedtoaraceofexclusivelypracticaltendencies,andmarkedbyasingularinaptitudeordistasteforphysicalenquiries.Hisfather,apoorcolonistinSamos,was,apparently,notabletogivehimaveryregulareducation.AteighteenhewassenttoAthens,butwasshortlyafterwardsobligedtorejoinhisfamily,whoweredrivenfromSamosin322,alongwiththeotherAtheniansettlers,byapoliticalrevolution,andhadtakenrefugeinColophon,ontheAsiaticcoast.Inthecourseofhiswanderings,thefuturephilosophercameacrosssomepubliclecturers,whoseemtohaveinstructedhiminthephysicsofDemocritus,andperhapsalsointhescepticismofPyrrho;butofsuchasteadydisciplineasPlatopassedthroughduringhistenyears’intercoursewithSocrates,Aristotleduringhistwentyyears’studiesunderPlato,andZenoduringhissimilarlyprotractedattendanceatthevariousschoolsofAthens,thereisnotracewhatever.Epicurusalwaysdescribedhimselfasself-taught,meaningthathisknowledgehadbeenacquiredbyreadinginsteadofbylistening;andwefindinhimtheadvantagesaswellasthedefectscommontoself-taughtmeninallages—considerablefreshnessandfreedomfromscholasticprejudices,alongwitha59certainnarrownessofsympathies,incompletenessofinformation,inaptitudeforabstractreasoning,andlast,butnotleast,anenormousopinionofhisownabilities,joinedtoanoverweeningcontemptforthosewithwhoseopinionshedidnotagree.AfterteachingforsometimeinMitylênê,EpicurusestablishedhimselfastheheadofaschoolinAthens,whereheboughtahouseandgarden.Inthelatterhelecturedandgatheredroundhimabandofdevotedfriends,amongwhomwomenwereincluded,andwhowerewonttoassembleforpurposesofsocialrecreationnotlessthanofphilosophicdiscipline.Justbeforehisdeath,whichoccurredintheyear270,hedeclaredinalettertohisfriendanddestinedsuccessorHermarchus,thattherecollectionofhisphilosophicalachievementshadbeensuchasourceofpleasureastoovercometheagoniesofdisease,andtomakethelastdaythehappiestofhislife.121Fortherest,Epicurussecludedhimself,onprinciple,fromtheworld,andfewechoesofhisteachingseemtohavepassedbeyondthecircleofhisimmediateadherents.Thus,whateveropportunitiesmightotherwisehaveofferedthemselvesofprofitingbyadversecriticismwerecompletelylost.122

Thenasnow,Judaismseemstohavehadamuchgreaterattractionforwomenthanformen;andthismaybeaccounted218fornotonlybythegreatercredulityofthefemalesex,whichwouldequallypredisposetheminfavourofeveryothernewreligion,butalsobytheirnaturalsympathywiththedomesticvirtueswhicharesuchanamiableandinterestingfeatureintheJewishcharacter.JosephustellsusthattowardsthebeginningofNero’sreignnearlyallthewomenofDamascuswereattachedtoJudaism;336andhealsomentionsthatPoppaea,themistressandafterwardsthewifeofNero,usedherpowerfulinfluencefortheprotectionofhiscompatriots,thoughwhethersheactuallybecameaproselyte,assomehavesupposed,isdoubtful.337AccordingtoOvid,thesynagoguesweremuchvisitedbyRomanwomen,amongothers,apparently,bythoseofeasyvirtue,forhealludestothemasresortswhichthemanofpleasureinsearchofaconquestwillfinditadvantageoustofrequent.338

Theothergreatethicalmethodoftheeighteenthcentury,itshedonism,wascloselyconnectedwiththescepticalmovementinspeculativephilosophy,and,likethat,receivedanentirelynewsignificancebybecomingassociatedwiththeideaoflaw.Thosewhoisolatemanfromtheuniversearenecessarilyledtoseekinhisinterestsassuchthesoleregulatorofhisactions,andtheirsolesanctionintheopinionofhisfellows.Protagoraswentalreadysofar,notwithstandinghisunwillingnesstorecognisepleasureasthesupremeend;andinthesystemofhistruesuccessor,Aristippus,themostextremehedonismgoeshandinhandwiththemostextremeidealism;whilewithEpicurus,again,botharetemperedbytheinfluenceofnaturalism,imposingonhimitsconceptionsofobjectivelawalikeinscienceandinpractice.Stillhissystemleanedheavilytothesideofself-gratificationpureandsimple;anditwasreservedformodernthoughttoestablishacompleteequilibriumbetweenthetwocompetingtendenciesofGreekethics.ThishasbeeneffectedinUtilitarianism;andthosecriticsareentirelymistakenwho,likeM.Guyau,regardthatsystemasamerereproductionofEpicureanism.ItmightwithfullasmuchreasonbecalledamodernversionofStoicism.TheideaofhumanityisessentiallyStoic;toworkforthegoodofhumanitywasa424Stoicprecept;andtosacrificeone’sownpleasureforthathighergoodisavirtuewhichwouldhavesatisfiedthemostrigorousdemandsofaCleanthes,anEpictêtus,oranAurelius.

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TheglowingenthusiasmofPlatois,however,notentirelyderivedfromthepoetictraditionsofhisnativecity;orperhapsweshouldrathersaythatheandthegreatwriterswhoprecededhimdrewfromacommonfountofinspiration.Mr.Emerson,inoneofthemostpenetratingcriticismseverwrittenonourphilosopher,129haspointedouttheexistenceoftwodistinctelementsinthePlatonicDialogues—onedispersive,practical,prosaic;theothermystical,absorbing,centripetal.TheAmericanscholaris,however,aswethink,quitemistakenwhenheattributesthesecondofthesetendenciestoAsiaticinfluence.ItisextremelydoubtfulwhetherPlatoevertravelledfarthereastthanEgypt;itisprobablethathisstayinthatcountrywasnotoflongduration;anditiscertainthathedidnotacquireasinglemetaphysicalideafromitsinhabitants.Helikedtheirrigidconservatism;helikedtheirinstitutionofadominantpriesthood;helikedtheirsystemofpopulareducation,andtheplacewhichitgavetomathematicsmadehimlookwithshameonthe‘swinishignorance’ofhisowncountrymeninthatrespect;130butonthewholeheclassesthemamongtheracesexclusivelydevotedtomoney-making,andinaptitudeforphilosophyheplacesthemfarbelowtheGreeks.VerydifferentweretheimpressionsbroughthomefromhisvisitstoSicilyand204SouthernItaly.Therehebecameacquaintedwithmodesofthoughtinwhichthesearchafterhiddenresemblancesandanalogieswasapredominantpassion;theretheexistenceofacentralunityunderlyingallphenomenawasmaintained,asagainstsenseandcommonopinion,withtheintensityofareligiouscreed;therealonespeculationwasclothedinpoeticlanguage;therefirsthadanattemptbeenmadetocarrythoughtintolifebyassociatingitwithareformofmannersandbeliefs.There,too,theartsofdanceandsonghadassumedamoreorderlyandsolemnaspect;thechorusreceiveditsfinalconstitutionfromaSicilianmaster;andtheloftieststrainsofGreeklyricpoetrywerecomposedforrecitationinthestreetsofSiciliancitiesoratthecourtsofSiciliankings.Then,withtheriseofrhetoric,GreekprosewaselaboratedbySicilianteachersintoasortofrhythmicalcomposition,combiningrichimagerywithstudiedharmoniesandcontrastsofsenseandsound.AndastheholdofAsiaticcivilisationoneasternHellasgrewweaker,theattentionofherforemostspiritswasmoreandmoreattractedtothisnewregionofwonderandromance.Thestreamofcolonisationsetthitherinasteadyflow;thescenesofmythicaladventurewererediscoveredinWesternwaters;anditwasimaginedthat,bygraspingtheresourcesofSicily,anempireextendingoverthewholeMediterraneanmightbewon.Perhaps,withoutbeingtoofanciful,wemaytracealikenessbetweenthedaringschemesofAlcibiadesandthemoreremotebutnotmorevisionarykingdomsuggestedbyananalogousinspirationtotheidealisingsoulofPlato.Eachhadlearnedtopractise,althoughforfardifferentpurposes,theroyalartofSocrates—themasteryovermen’smindsacquiredbyaclosestudyoftheirinterests,passions,andbeliefs.Buttheambitionoftheonedefeatedhisownaim,tothedestructionofhiscountryandofhimself;whiletheotherdrewintoAthenianthoughtwhateverofWesternforceandfervourwasneededfortheaccomplishmentofits205imperialtask.WemaysayofPlatowhathehassaidofhisownTheaetêtus,that‘hemovessurelyandsmoothlyandsuccessfullyinthepathofknowledgeandinquiry;alwaysmakingprogresslikethenoiselessflowofariverofoil’;131buteverywherebesideorbeneaththatplacidlubricatingflowwemaytracetheactionofanothercurrent,wherestillsparkles,freshandclearasatfirst,thefierySicilianwine.

Wenowpasstoaformofsupernaturalismmorecharacteristicthananyotherofthedirectionwhichmen’sthoughtsweretakingundertheRomanempire,andmoreorlessprofoundlyconnectedwithalltheotherreligiousmanifestationswhichhavehithertoengagedourattention.Thisisthedoctrineofimmortality,adoctrinefarmoregenerallyacceptedinthefirstcenturiesoftheChristianera,butquiteapartfromChristianinfluence,thanissupposedbymostpersons.Hereourmosttrustworthyinformationisderivedfromtheepigraphicmonuments.Butforthem,wemighthavecontinuedtobelievethatpublicopiniononthissubjectwasfaithfullyreflectedbyafewscepticalwriters,whowere,intruth,speakingonlyforthemselvesandforthenumericallyinsignificantclasstowhichtheybelonged.Notthattheinscriptionsallpointonewayandthebooksanotherway.Onthecontrary,thereareepitaphsmostdistinctlyrepudiatingthenotionofalifebeyondthegrave,justasthereareexpressionsletfallbymenoflearningwhichshowthattheyaccepteditastrue.Asmuchmightbeexpectedfromthedivisionsthenprevailinginthespeculativeworld.Ofallphilosophicalsystems,Epicureanismwas,atthistime,themostwidelydiffused:itsadherentsrejectedthebeliefinanotherworldasamischievousdelusion;andmanyofthemseemtohavecarefullyprovidedthattheirconvictionsshouldberecordedontheirtombs.Themonumentofonesuchphilosopher,dedicatedtoeternalsleep,isstillextant;othersarededicatedtosaferepose;others,again,speakoftheoppositebeliefasavainimagination.Afavouriteepitaphwithpersonsofthisschoolrunsasfollows:— ‘Iwasnothingandbecame,Iwasandamnomore,somuchistrue.Tospeakotherwiseistolie,forIshallbenomore.’358Sometimes,234fromthedepthsoftheirunconsciousness,thedeadaremadetoexpressindifferencetothelossofexistence.Sometimes,inwhatwaspopularlybelievedtobethespiritofEpicureanism,butwas,inreality,mostalientoit,theyexhortthepasser-bytoindulgehisappetitesfreely,sincedeathistheendofall.

Spottiswoode&Co.,Printers,New-streetSquare,London.Meanwhilethestrengthoftheanalyticalmethodwasdoubledbyitsextensiontothephenomenaofgrowthandchange;for,asappliedtothese,itbecamethefamoustheoryofDevelopmentorEvolution.Noideabelongssocompletelytomodernphilosophy;foreventheancientthinkerswhothrewtheircosmologyintoahistoricalformhadneverattemptedtoexplainthepresentbythepast.Ifanything,theyexplainedthepastbythepresent,assumingaroughanalogytoexistbetweentheformationoftheuniverseasawholeandthegenesisofthosenaturalorartificialbodieswhichwerecontinuallygrowingorbeingbuiltupbeforetheireyes.Theircosmologywas,infact,nothingbuttheoldmythologystrippedofitspersonalorconsciouselement;and,likeit,wasahypothesisunsupportedbyanyexternalevidence;—acriticismnotinconsistentwiththeadmissionthattoeliminatethesupernaturalelementfromspeculationwas,evenintheabsenceofanysolidadditiontohumanknowledge,anachievementofinestimablevalue.Theevolutionarymethodisalsoaneliminationofthesupernatural,butitisagreatdealmore.Bytracingthehistoryofcompoundstructurestotheirfirstorigin,andnotingthesuccessiveincrementstowhichtheirgradualgrowthisdue,itreveals,asnostaticalanalysisevercould,theactualorderofsynthesis,andthemeaningoftheseparateconstituentsbywhosejointactiontheirmovementsaredetermined;while,conversely,theirdissolutionsuppliesuswithanumberofready-madeexperimentsinwhichtheinfluenceofeachparticularfactorinthesumtotalmaybedetectedbywatchingthechangesthatensueonitsremoval.Inaword,themethodofevolutionistheatomisticmethod,extendedfrommattertomotion,andviewedundertheformofsuccessioninsteadofundertheformofco-existence.

IthasbeenalreadyshownhowExtension,havingbecomeidentifiedwithmatter,tookonitsmechanicalqualities,andwasconceivedasaconnectedseriesofcausesormodesofmotion.TheparallelfoundbySpinozaforthisseriesinThoughtisthechainofreasonsandconsequentsforminga410demonstrativeargument;andhereheisobviouslyfollowingAristotle,whoalthoughostensiblydistinguishingbetweenformalandefficientcauses,hopelesslyconfoundstheminthesecondbookofhisPosteriorAnalytics.565Wearesaidtounderstandathingwhenwebringitunderageneralrule,andalsowhenwediscoverthemechanicalagencywhichproducesit.Forinstance,wemayknowthataparticularmanwilldie,eitherfromthefactthatallmenaremortal,orfromthefactthathehasreceivedafatalwound.Thegeneralrule,however,isnotthecauseofwhatwillhappen,butonlythecauseofourknowingthatitwillhappen;andknowledgeoftherulebynomeanscarrieswithitaknowledgeoftheefficientcause;asweseeinthecaseofgravitationandothernaturalforceswhosemodusoperandiisstillacompletemystery.WhatdeceivedAristotlewaspartlyhisfalseanalysisofthesyllogism,whichheinterpretedastheconnexionoftwotermsbytheinterpositionofamiddleansweringtothecausalnexusoftwophenomena;andpartlyhisconceptionoftheuniverseasaseriesofconcentricspheres,throughwhichmovementistransmittedfromwithout,thuscombiningthetwoideasofnotionalcomprehensionandmechanicalcausation.

Onpassingtoterrestrialphysics,wefindthatAristotleis,asusual,thedupeofsuperficialappearances,againstwhichotherthinkerswereontheirguard.Seeingthatfirealwaysmovedup,heassumedthatitdidsobyvirtueofanaturaltendencytowardsthecircumferenceoftheuniverse,asopposedtoearth,whichalwaysmovedtowardsthecentre.Theatomistserroneouslyheldthatallmattergravitateddownwardsthroughinfinitespace,butcorrectlyexplainedtheascentofheatedparticlesbythepressureofsurroundingmatter,inaccordance,mostprobably,withtheanalogyoffloatingbodies.200Chemistryasascienceis,ofcourse,anentirelymoderncreation,butthefirstapproachtoitwasmadebyDemocritus,whilenoancientphilosopherstoodfartherfromitsessentialprinciplesthanAristotle.Heanalysesbodies,notintotheirmaterialelements,butintothesensuousqualities,hotandcold,wetanddry,betweenwhichhesupposestheunderlyingsubstancetobeperpetuallyoscillating;atheorywhich,ifitweretrue,wouldmakeanyfixedlawsofnatureimpossible.

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     LetitberememberedthatthegodsofwhomPlatoisspeakingarethesun,moon,andstars;thattheatheistswhomhedenouncesonlytaughtwhatwehavelongknowntobetrue,whichisthatthoseluminariesarenomoredivine,nomoreanimated,nomorecapableofacceptingoursacrificesorrespondingtoourcriesthanistheearthonwhichwetread;andthatheattemptstoprovethecontrarybyargumentswhich,eveniftheywerenotinconsistentwithallthatweknowaboutmechanics,wouldstillbeutterlyinadequatetothepurposeforwhichtheyareemployed.

  • 雪灵芝4mYbX

  • 如萱紫儿MVUYr

    ThescepticismofProtagoraswentbeyondtheologyandextendedtoallsciencewhatever.Such,atleast,seemstohavebeentheforceofhiscelebrateddeclarationthat‘manisthemeasureofallthings,bothasregardstheirexistenceandtheirnon-existence.’67AccordingtoPlato,thisdoctrinefollowedfromtheidentificationofknowledgewithsensibleperception,whichinitsturnwasbasedonamodifiedformoftheHeracleiteantheoryofaperpetualflux.TheseriesofexternalchangeswhichconstitutesNature,actingontheseriesofinternalchangeswhichconstituteseachman’spersonality,producesparticularsensations,andthesealonearethetruereality.Theyvarywitheveryvariationinthe88factors,andthereforearenotthesameforseparateindividuals.Eachman’sperceptionsaretrueforhimself,butforhimselfalone.Platoeasilyshowsthatsuchatheoryoftruthisatvariancewithordinaryopinion,andthatifallopinionsaretrue,itmustnecessarilystandself-condemned.Wemayalsoobservethatifnothingcanbeknownbutsensation,nothingcanbeknownofitsconditions.Itwould,however,beunfairtoconvictProtagorasoftalkingnonsenseontheunsupportedauthorityoftheTheaetêtus.Platohimselfsuggeststhatabettercasemighthavebeenmadeoutfortheincriminateddoctrinecoulditsauthorhavebeenheardinself-defence.WemayconjecturethatProtagorasdidnotdistinguishveryaccuratelybetweenexistence,knowledge,andapplicabilitytopractice.Ifweassume,whatthereseemsgoodreasontobelieve,thatinthegreatcontroversyofNatureversusLaw,Protagorassidedwiththelatter,hispositionwillatoncebecomeclear.WhenthechampionsofNaturecreditedherwithastabilityandanauthoritygreaterthancouldbeclaimedformerelyhumanarrangements,itwasajudicioussteptocarrythewarintotheirterritory,andask,onwhatfoundationthendoesNatureherselfstand?Isnotshe,too,perpetuallychanging,anddowenotbecomeacquaintedwithherentirelythroughourownfeelings?Oughtnotthosefeelingstobetakenastheultimatestandardinallquestionsofrightandwrong?Individualopinionisafactwhichmustbereckonedwith,butwhichcanbechangedbypersuasion,notbyappealstosomethingthatwenoneofusknowanythingabout.Manisthemeasureofallthings,notthewillofgodswhoseveryexistenceisuncertain,noryetapurelyhypotheticalstateofNature.Humaninterestsmusttakeprecedenceofeveryotherconsideration.Hectormeantnothingelsewhenhepreferredtheobviousdictatesofpatriotismtoinferencesdrawnfromtheflightofbirds.

  • 但法国fk1cX

    TheEpicureanphilosophyofexternalNaturewasusedasaninstrumentfordestroyingtheuncomfortablebeliefinDivineProvidence.TheEpicureanphilosophyofmindwasusedtodestroythestillmoreuncomfortablebeliefinman’simmortality.Asopinionsthenstood,thetaskwasacomparativelyeasyone.InourdiscussionofStoicism,weobservedthatthespiritualismofPlatoandAristotlewasfarbeforetheirage,andwasnotacceptedorevenunderstoodbytheircountrymenforalongtimetocome.Moreover,Aristotledidnotagreewithhismasterinthinkingthatthepersonaleternityofthesoulfollowedfromitsimmateriality.ThebeliefoftheStoicsinaprolongationofindividualexistenceuntilthedestructionofallcreatedthingsbyfire,was,eveninthatverylimitedform,inconsistentwiththeiravowedmaterialism,andhadabsolutelynoinfluenceontheirpractical89convictions.ThusPlato’sargumentswerealoneworthconsidering.ForEpicurus,thewholequestionwasvirtuallysettledbytheprinciple,whichheheldincommonwiththeStoics,thatnothingexistsbutmatter,itsattributes,anditsrelations.Heaccepted,itistrue,thedualityofsoulandbody,agreeing,inthisrespectalso,withtheStoicsandtheearlierphysicists;andthefamiliarantithesisoffleshandspiritisasurvivalofhisfavouritephraseology;173butthisveryterm‘flesh’wasemployedtocovertheassumptionthatthebodytowhichheapplieditdifferednotinsubstancebutincompositionfromitsanimatingprinciple.Thelatter,arathercomplexaggregate,consistsproximatelyoffourdistinctelements,imagined,apparently,forthepurposeofexplainingitsvariousfunctions,and,inthelastanalysis,ofveryfineandmobileatoms.174Whensomuchhadbeengranted,itnaturallyfollowedthatthesoulwasonlyheldtogetherbythebody,andwasimmediatelydissolvedonbeingseparatedfromit—aconclusionstillfurtherstrengthenedbythemanifestdependenceofpsychiconcorporealactivitiesthroughouttheperiodoftheirjointexistence.Thusallterrorsarisingfromtheapprehensionoffuturetormentsweresummarilydispelled.

     

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     Ontheotherhand,ifStoicismdidnotmakemenpitiful,itmadetheminfinitelyforgiving.Variouscausesconspiredtobringaboutthisresult.Ifallaresinners,andifallsinsareequal,noonehasaright,underpretenceofsuperiorvirtue,tocastastoneathisfellows.SuchisthepointofviewinsistedonwithespecialemphasisbySeneca,who,moreperhapsthanotherphilosophers,hadreasontobeconscioushowfarhispracticefellshortofhisprofessions.94But,speakinggenerally,pridewastheverylastfaultwithwhichtheStoicscouldbecharged.Bothinancientandmoderntimes,satiristshavebeenpronetoassumethateverydiscipleofthePorch,indescribinghisidealofawiseman,wasactuallydescribinghimself.Nomisconceptioncouldbemorecomplete.Itislikesupposingthat,becauseChristcommandedhisfollowerstobeperfectevenastheirheavenlyFatherisperfect,everyChristianforthatreasonthinkshimselfequal43toGod.ThewisemanoftheStoicshad,bytheirownacknowledgment,neverbeenrealisedatall;hehadonlybeenapproachedbythreecharacters,Socrates,Antisthenes,andDiogenes.95‘Maythesagefallinlove?’askedayoungmanofPanaetius.‘Whatthesagemaydo,’repliedthemaster,‘isaquestiontobeconsideredatsomefuturetime.Meanwhile,youandI,whoareveryfarfrombeingsages,hadbettertakecarenottoletourselvesbecometheslavesofadegradingpassion.’96

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