A股不欢迎亚太实业一样的铁公鸡

rnVV2-news 发布时间: 2020-07-13 10:37:05

“百分百微信营销官网【注册大礼】”Andnow,lookingbackonhiscosmology,wecanseethatAristotlewasneversonearthetruthaswhenhetriedtobridgeoverthegulfbetweenhistwospheres,theonecorruptibleandtheothereternal,bytheideaofmotionconsideredasaspecificpropertyofallmatter,andpersistingthroughall364time;asalinkbetweenthecelestialrevolutionsandthechangesoccurringonorneartheearth’ssurface;and,finally,asthedirectcauseofheat,thegreatagentactinginoppositiontogravity—whichlastviewmayhavesuggestedBacon’scapitaldiscovery,thatheatisitselfamodeofmotion.

II.Logicaldivisionis,however,aprocessnotfullyrepresentedbyanyfixedandformaldistributionoftopics,noryetisitequivalenttothearrangementofgeneraandspeciesaccordingtotheirnaturalaffinities,asintheadmirablesystemsofJussieuandCuvier.Itissomethingmuchmoreflexibleandsubtle,acarryingdownintotheminutestdetail,ofthatpsychologicallawwhichrequires,asaconditionofperfectconsciousness,thatfeelings,conceptions,judgments,and,generallyspeaking,allmentalmodesshouldbeapprehendedtogetherwiththeircontradictoryopposites.Heracleitushadadimperceptionofthistruthwhenhetaughttheidentityofantitheticalcouples,anditismoreorlessvividlyillustratedbyallGreekclassicliteratureafterhim;butSocratesseemstohavebeenthefirstwhotransformeditfromalawofexistenceintoalawofcognition;withhimknowledgeandignorance,reasonandpassion,freedomandslavery,virtue,andvice,rightandwrong(πολλ?ν?νομ?τωνμορφ?μ?α)wereapprehendedininseparableconnexion,andwereemployedformutualelucidation,notonlyinbroadmasses,butalsothroughtheirlastsubdivisions,likethedelicateadjustmentsoflightandshadeonaVenetiancanvas.Thismethodofclassificationbygraduateddescentandsymmetricalcontrast,likethewholedialecticsystemofwhichitformsabranch,isonlysuitedtothementalphenomenaforwhichitwasoriginallydevised;andHegelcommittedafatalerrorwhenheappliedittoexplaintheorderofexternalcoexistenceandsuccession.WehavealreadytouchedontheessentiallysubjectivecharacteroftheSocraticdefinition,and148weshallpresentlyhavetomakeasimilarrestrictionindealingwithSocraticinduction.Withregardtothequestionlastconsidered,ourlimitswillnotpermitus,nor,indeed,doesitfallwithinthescopeofourpresentstudy,topursueaveinofreflectionwhichwasneverfullyworkedouteitherbytheAthenianphilosophersorbytheirmodernsuccessors,atleastnotinitsonlylegitimatedirection.

Evenasregardsphysicalphenomena,Socrates,sofarfromprofessingcompleteignorance,heldaverypositivetheorywhichhewasquitereadytosharewithhisfriends.Hetaughtwhatiscalledthedoctrineoffinalcauses;and,sofarasourknowledgegoes,hewaseitherthefirsttoteachit,or,atanyrate,thefirsttoprovetheexistenceofdivineagenciesbyitsmeans.Theoldpoetshadoccasionallyattributedtheoriginofmanandotheranimalstosupernaturalintelligence,but,apparently,withoutbeingledtotheirconvictionbyanyevidenceofdesigndisplayedinthestructureoforganisedcreatures.Socrates,ontheotherhand,wentthroughthevariousexternalorgansofthehumanbodywithgreatminuteness,andshowed,tohisownsatisfaction,thattheyevincedtheworkingsofawiseandbeneficentArtist.Weshallhavemoretosayfurtheronaboutthiswholeargument;hereweonlywishtoobservethat,intrinsically,itdoesnotdifferverymuchfromthespeculationswhichitsauthorderidedasthefruitofanimpertinentcuriosity;andthatnoonewhonowemployeditwould,forasinglemoment,becalledanagnosticorasceptic.

Variousotheranecdotesofmoreorlessdoubtfulauthenticityarerelated,showingthatthephilosophercouldgenerally,thoughnotalways,actuptohisownidealofindifference.Helivedwithhissister,whowasamidwifebyprofession,andpatientlysubmittedtothehouseholddrudgerywhichsheunsparinglyimposedonhim.Once,however,shesucceededingoadinghimintoapassion;andonbeingratherinoppor141tunelyremindedofhisprofessedprinciplesbyabystander,thesceptictartlyrepliedthatawretchedwomanlikethatwasnofitsubjectforadisplayofphilosophicalindifference.Onanotheroccasion,whentauntedforlosinghisself-possessionattheattackofafuriousdog,heobserved,withtruth,that,afterall,philosophersarehumanbeings.228

Plotinuspassesbyanalmostinsensibletransitionfromthemoreelementaryandanalyticaltothemoreconstructiveportionofhisphilosophy.Thisnaturallyfallsintotwogreatdivisions,theonespeculativeandtheotherpractical.Ithastobeshownbywhatnecessityandinwhatorderthegreatcosmicprinciplesareevolvedfromtheirsupremesource;andithasalsotobeshowninwhatwaythisknowledgeisconnectedwiththesupremeinterestsofthehumansoul.ThemoralaspectofNeo-Platonismisnotatfirstveryclearlydistinguishedfromitsmetaphysicalaspect;andbothfindtheirmostgeneralsolutioninthesamelineofthoughtthathasledusuptoacontemplationoftheultimateOne.Forthesuccessivegradationsofourascentrepresent,inaninvertedorder,thestepsofcreativeenergybywhichallthingsareevolvedfromtheirprimalsource;whiletheydirectlycorrespondtotheprocessofpurificationthroughwhicheverysoulmustpassinreturningfromtheexileofherseparateandmaterialexistencetothehappinessofidentificationwithGod.Andhereweatoncecomeonthefundamentalcontradictionofthesystem.Whatweweresocarefullytaughttoconsiderasoneandnothingmore,mustnowbeconceivedasthefirstcauseandthesupremegood.Plotinusdoes,indeed,trytoevadethedifficultybysayingthathisabsoluteisonly318acauseinrelationtootherthings,thatitisnotsomuchgoodasthegiverofgood,thatitisonlyoneinthesenseofnotbeingmany.468Butaftermakingthesereservations,hecontinuestousetheoldtermsasconfidentlyasiftheystoodfortheideasusuallyassociatedwiththem.Hisfundamentalerrorwastoidentifythreedistinctmethodsofconnectingphenomena,inthought,witheachotherorwithourselves.Wemayviewthingsinrelationtotheirgeneratingantecedents,inrelationtootherthingswithwhichtheyareassociatedbyresemblanceorjuxtaposition,orinrelationtothesatisfactionofourownwants.ThesethreemodesofreferencecorrespondtoAristotle’sefficient,formal,andfinalcauses;butthewordcausationshouldbeappliedonlytothefirst.WhethertheirunfortunateconfusionbothbyAristotleandbyhissuccessorswasinanyappreciabledegreeduetotheirhavingbeenassociatedbyhimunderacommondenomination,mayreasonablybedoubted.Itisrathermoreprobablethatthesamenamewasgiventothesedifferentconceptionsinconsequenceoftheirhavingfirstbecomepartiallyidentifiedinthought.Socialarrangements,whichhaveagreatdealtodowithprimitivespeculation,wouldnaturallyleadtosuchanidentification.Thekingorotherchiefmagistratestandsattheheadofthesocialhierarchyandformsthebondofunionamongitsmembers;heisthesourceofallauthority;andhisposition,or,failingthat,hisfavour,isregardedasthesupremegood.ReligionextendsthesamecombinationofattributestoherchiefGod;andphilosophy,followingonthelinesofreligion,employsittounifythemethodsofscienceandmorality.Withinthelasttwelveyearsseveralbooks,bothlargeandsmall,haveappeared,dealingeitherwiththephilosophyofAristotleasawhole,orwiththegeneralprinciplesonwhichitisconstructed.TheBerlineditionofAristotle’scollectedworkswassupplementedin1870bythepublicationofamagnificentindex,fillingnearlyninehundredquartopages,forwhichwehavetothankthelearningandindustryofBonitz.161ThencametheunfinishedtreatiseofGeorgeGrote,plannedonsovastascalethatitwould,ifcompletelycarriedout,haverivalledtheauthor’sHistoryofGreeceinbulk,andperhapsexceededtheauthenticremainsoftheStagiritehimself.Asitis,wehaveafullaccount,expositoryandcritical,oftheOrganon,achapterontheDeAnima,andsomefragmentsonotherAristotelianwritings,allmarkedbyGrote’swonderfulsagacityandgoodsense.In1879anewandgreatlyenlargededitionbroughtthatportionofZeller’sworkonGreekPhilosophywhichdealswithAristotleandthePeripatetics162fullyuptothelevelofitscompanionvolumes;andwearegladtoseethat,likethem,itisshortlytoappearinanEnglishdress.TheolderworkofBrandis163goesoverthesameground,and,thoughmuchbehindthepresentstateofknowledge,maystillbeconsultedwithadvantage,onaccountofitscopiousandclearanalysesoftheAristoteliantexts.276Togetherwiththeseponderoustomes,wehavetomentionthelittleworkofSirAlexanderGrant,164which,althoughintendedprimarilyfortheunlearned,isarealcontributiontoAristotelianscholarship,and,probablyassuch,receivedthehonoursofaGermantranslationalmostimmediatelyafteritsfirstpublication.Mr.EdwinWallace’sOutlinesofthePhilosophyofAristotle165isofadifferentandmuchlesspopularcharacter.Originallydesignedfortheuseoftheauthor’sownpupils,itdoesforAristotle’sentiresystemwhatTrendelenburghasdoneforhislogic,andRitterandPrellerforallGreekphilosophy—thatistosay,itbringstogetherthemostimportanttexts,andaccompaniesthemwitharemarkablylucidandinterestinginterpretation.FinallywehaveM.BarthélemySaint-Hilaire’sIntroductiontohistranslationofAristotle’sMetaphysics,republishedinapocketvolume.166Wecansafelyrecommendittothosewhowishtoacquireaknowledgeofthesubjectwiththeleastpossibleexpenditureoftrouble.Thestyleisdelightfullysimple,andthattheauthorshouldwritefromthestandpointoftheFrenchspiritualisticschoolisnotaltogetheradisadvantage,forthatschoolispartlyofAristotelianorigin,anditsadherentsare,therefore,mostlikelytoreproducethemaster’stheorieswithsympatheticappreciation.

MeanwhiletheparallelismbetweenThoughtandExtensionwasnotexhaustedbytheidentificationjustanalysed.Extensionwasnotonlyaseriesofmovements;itstillremainedanexpressionforco-existenceandadjacency.412Spinoza,therefore,felthimselfobligedtosupplyThoughtwithacorrespondinglycontinuousquality.Itisherethathischieforiginalitylies,herethathehasbeenmostcloselyfollowedbythephilosophyofourowntime.Mind,hedeclares,isanattributeeverywhereaccompanyingmatter,co-extensiveandco-infinitewithspace.Ourownanimationisthesumortheresultantofananimationclingingtoeveryparticlethatentersintothecompositionofourbodies.Whenourthoughtsareaffectedbyanexternalimpulse,tosupposethatthisimpulseproceedsfromanythingmaterialisadelusion;itisproducedbythemindbelongingtothebodywhichactsonourbody;althoughinwhatsensethisprocessistobeunderstoodremainsamystery.Spinozahasclearlyexplainedthedoctrineofanimalautomatism,andshownittobeperfectlyconceivable;569buthehasentirelyomittedtoexplainhowtheparallelinfluenceofonethought(orfeeling)onanotheristobeunderstood;foralthoughthistooisspokenofasacausalrelation,itseemstobequitedifferentfromthelogicalconcatenationdescribedastheinfiniteintellectofGod;andtosupposethatideafollowsfromidealikemovementfrommovementwouldamounttoacompletematerialisationofmind;whileourphilosopherwouldcertainlyhaverepudiatedMr.ShadworthHodgson’stheory,thatstatesofconsciousnessareonlyconnectedthroughtheirextendedsubstratum,asthesegmentsofamosaicpictureareheldtogetherbytheunderlyingsurfaceofmasonry.NorcanweadmitthatSpinozaentertainedthetheory,nowsopopular,accordingtowhichextensionandconsciousnessaremerelydifferentaspectsofasinglereality.Forthiswouldimplythatthesubstancewhichtheymanifesthadanexistenceofitsownapartfromitsattributes;whereasSpinozamakesitconsistoftheattributes,thatistosay,identifiesitwiththeirtotality.Weareforced,then,toconcludethatthepropositiondeclaringthoughtandextensiontobethesamething570hasno413othermeaningthanthattheyareconnectedbythedoubleanalogywhichwehaveendeavouredtoexplain.

ThereisnoreasontobelievethatHippiasusedhisdistinctionbetweenNatureandconventionasanargumentfordespotism.Itwouldratherappearthat,ifanything,heandhisschooldesiredtoestablishamorecompleteequalityamongmen.Others,however,bothrhetoriciansandpracticalstatesmen,werenotslowtodrawanoppositeconclusion.Theysawthatwherenolawwasrecognised,asbetweendifferentnations,nothingbutviolenceandtherightofthestrongerprevailed.Itwasoncebelievedthataggressionswhichhumanlawcouldnotreachfoundnofavourwiththegods,anddreadofthedivinedispleasuremayhavedonesomethingtowardsrestrainingthem.Butreligionhadpartlybeendestroyedbythenewculture,partlypervertedintoasanctionforwrong-doing.Bywhatright,itwasasked,didZeushimselfreign?Hadhenotunlawfullydethronedhisfather,Cronos,anddidhenotnowholdpowersimplybyvirtueofsuperiorstrength?Similarreasoningsweresoonappliedtotheinternalgovernmentofeachstate.Itwasallegedthattheablestcitizenscouldlayclaimtouncontrolledsupremacybyatitleolderthananysocialfiction.Rulesofrightmeantnothingbutapermanentconspiracyoftheweaktowithdrawthemselvesfromthelegitimatedominionoftheirbornmaster,andtobamboozlehimintoavoluntarysurrenderofhisnaturalprivileges.Sentimentsbearingasuperficialresemblancetothesehaveoccasionallyfoundutteranceamongourselves.Nevertheless,itwouldbemostunjusttocompareCarlyleandMr.FroudewithCritiasandCalliclês.Webelievethattheirpreferenceofdespotismtorepresentativegovernmentisanentiremistake.Butweknowthatwiththemaswithusthegoodofthegovernedisthesoleenddesired.ThegentlemenofAthenssoughtaftersupremepoweronlyasameansforgratifyingtheirworstpassionswithoutletorhindrance;andforthatpurposetheywerereadytoallythemselveswitheveryforeignenemyinturn,ortoflatterthecapricesoftheDêmos,ifthatpolicy85promisedtoanswerequallywell.Theantisocialtheoriesofthese‘younglions,’astheywerecalledbytheirenemiesandsometimesbythemselvesalso,donotseemtohavebeensupportedbyanypublicteacher.IfwearetobelievePlato,P?lus,aSicilianrhetor,didindeedregardArchelaus,theablerLouisNapoleonofhistime,withsympathyandenviousadmiration,butwithoutattemptingtojustifythecrimesofhisherobyanappealtonaturallaw.Thecorruptionoftheoreticalmoralityamongthepaidteacherstookamoresubtleform.Insteadofopposingoneprincipletoanother,theyheldthatalllawhadthesamesource,beinganemanationfromthewillofthestronger,andexclusivelydesignedtopromotehisinterest.Justice,accordingtoThrasymachusintheRepublic,isanother’sgood,whichistrueenough,andtopractiseitexceptundercompulsionisfoolish,which,whateverGrotemaysay,isagrosslyimmoraldoctrine.

VII.Ontheotherhand,Aristotle’sowntheisticargumentscannotstandforamomentinthefaceofmodernscience.Weknowbythelawofinertiathatitisnotthecontinuance,butthearrestorthebeginningofmotionwhichrequirestobeaccountedfor.WeknowbytheCopernicansystemthatthereisnosolidsiderealspheregoverningtherevolutionsofallNature.AndweknowbytheNewtonianphysicsthat354gravitationisnotdependentonfixedpointsinspaceforitsoperation.ThePhilosophyofthePhilosopherAristotleisasinconsistentwiththedemonstrationsofmodernastronomyasitiswiththefaithofmediaevalCatholicism.

Still,takingitaltogether,thelifeofAristotlegivesonetheimpressionofsomethingratherdesultoryanddependent,notproudlyself-determined,likethelivesofthethinkerswhowentbeforehim.Weareremindedofthefreshstartsandtheappealstoauthoritysofrequentinhiswritings.HeisfirstdetainedatAthenstwentyyearsbytheattractionofPlato;andnosoonerisPlatogone,thanhefallsundertheinfluenceofanentirelydifferentcharacter—Hermeias.EvenwhenhisservicesarenolongerneededhelingersneartheMacedonianCourt,untilAlexander’sdepartureleaveshimoncemorewithoutapatron.Themostdignifiedperiodof291hiswholecareeristhatduringwhichhepresidedoverthePeripateticSchool;butheowesthispositiontoforeigninfluence,andlosesitwiththetemporaryrevivalofGreekliberty.AlongerlifewouldprobablyhaveseenhimreturntoAthensinthetrainofhislastpatronAntipater,whom,asitwas,heappointedexecutortohiswill.Thiswasjustthesortofcharactertolaygreatstressontheevidentiaryvalueofsensationandpopularopinion.Itwasalsothecharacterofaconservativewhowaslikelytobelievethatthingshadalwaysbeenverymuchwhattheywereinhistime,andwouldcontinuetoremainsoeverafterwards.Aristotlewasnotthemantoimaginethatthepresentorderofnaturehadsprungoutofawidelydifferentorderintheremotepast,nortoencouragesuchspeculationswhentheywereofferedtohimbyothers.Hewouldnotreadilybelievethatphenomena,asheknewthem,restedonarealitywhichcouldneitherbeseennorfelt.Nor,finally,couldhedivinethemovementswhichwereslowlyunderminingthesocietyinwhichhelived,stilllessconstructanidealpolityforitsreorganisationonahigherandbroaderbasis.Andhereweatoncebecomeconsciousofthechiefdifferenceseparatinghimfromhismaster,Plato.

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  • 雨花郡主A4PS5

     Astrongdesireforreformmustalwaysbeprecededbyadeepdissatisfactionwiththingsastheyare;andifthereformistobeverysweepingthediscontentmustbeequallycomprehensive.Hencethegreatrenovatorsofhumanlifehavebeenremarkablefortheseveritywithwhichtheyhavedenouncedthefailingsoftheworldwheretheywereplaced,whetherasregardspersons,habits,institutions,orbeliefs.Yettospeakoftheirattitudeaspessimisticwouldeitherbeunfair,orwouldbetrayanunpardonableinabilitytodiscriminatebetweentwoutterlydifferenttheoriesofexistence.Nothingcanwellbemoreunlikethesystematisedpusillanimityofthoselostsouls,withoutcourageandwithouthope,whofindaconsolationfortheirownfailureinthebeliefthateverything193isafailure,thanthefieryenergywhichisdrawnintoaperpetualtensionbythecontrastofwhatiswiththevisionofwhatyetmaybe.Butifpessimismparalyseseverygenerouseffortandaspirationbyteachingthatmiseryistheirremediablelotofanimatedbeings,oreven,inthelastanalysis,ofallbeing,theopposingtheoryofoptimismexercisesasdeadlyaninfluencewhenitinducesmentobelievethattheirpresentconditionis,onthewhole,asatisfactoryone,orthatatworstwrongwillberightedwithoutanycriticismorinterferenceontheirpart.Eventhosewhobelieveprogresstohavebeen,sofar,themostcertainfactinhumanhistory,cannotblindthemselvestotheexistenceofenormousforcesevertendingtodrawsocietybackintothebarbarismandbrutalityofitsprimitivecondition;andtheyknowalso,thatwhatevergroundwehavewonisduetotheeffortsofasmallminority,whowereneverwearyofurgingforwardtheirmoresluggishcompanions,withoutcaringwhatangrysusceptibilitiestheymightarouse—riskingrecrimination,insult,andoutrage,sothatonly,underwhateverform,whetherofdivinemandateorofscientificdemonstration,themessageofhumanitytoherchildrenmightbedeliveredintime.Norisitonlywithimmobilitythattheyhavehadtocontend.Gainsinonedirectionarefrequentlybalancedbylossesinanother;whileatcertainperiodsthereisadistinctretrogressionalongthewholeline.Anditiswellif,amidthegeneraldeclinetoalowerlevel,sinistervoicesarenotheardproclaimingthatthemultitudemaysafelytrusttotheirownpromptings,andthatself-indulgenceorself-willshouldbetheonlylawoflife.Itisalsoonsuchoccasionsthattherallyingcryismostneeded,andthatthebornleadersofcivilisationmustputforththeirmoststrenuouseffortstoarrestthedisheartenedfugitivesandtodenouncethetreacherousguides.ItwasinthisaspectthatPlatoviewedhisage;andhesethimselftocontinuethetaskwhichSocrateshadattempted,buthadbeentrampleddowninendeavouringtoachieve.

  • 雪灵芝ZMe2h

    V.

  • 如萱紫儿FyRdz

  • 但法国6miRo

    Havingproved,tohissatisfaction,thatthenatureofthingsisunknowable,Pyrrhoproceedstodealwiththetworemainingheadsofthephilosophicproblem.Tothequestionwhatshouldbeourrelationtoauniversewhichwecannotreach,theansweris,naturally,oneoftotalindifference.Andtheadvantagetobederivedfromthisattitudeis,hetellsus,thatweshallsecurethecompleteimperturbabilitywhereintruehappinessconsists.ThescepticalphilosophydoesnotagreewithStilpoindenyingtherealityofactualandimmediateannoyances,foritdeniesnothing;butitprofessestodispelthatverylargeamountofunhappinesswhicharisesfromthepursuitoffanciedgoodsandtheexpectationoffuturecalamities.Inrespecttothelatter,whatPyrrhosoughtwastoarrivebytheexerciseofreasoningatthetranquillitywhichunreasoninganimalsnaturallyenjoy.Thus,wearetoldthat,whenoutatseainastorm,hecalledtheattentionoftheterrifiedpassengerstoalittlepigwhichwasquietlyfeedinginspiteofthedanger,andtaughtthemthatthewisemanshouldattaintoasimilarkindofcomposure.

     Besidestransformingartandliterature,thedialecticmethodhelpedtorevolutionisesociallife,andtheimpulsecommunicatedinthisdirectionisstillveryfarfrombeingexhausted.Wealludetoitsinfluenceonfemaleeducation.TheintellectualblossomingofAthenswasaided,initsfirstdevelopment,byacompleteseparationofthesexes.TherewereveryfewofhisfriendstowhomanAtheniangentlemantalkedsolittleastohiswife.104ColonelMureaptlycomparesherpositiontothatofanEnglishhousekeeper,withconsiderablylesslibertythanisenjoyedbythelatter.YettheunionoftenderadmirationwiththeneedforintelligentsympathyandthedesiretoawakeninterestinnoblepursuitsexistedatAthensinfullforce,andcreatedafieldforitsexercise.WilhelmvonHumboldthasobservedthatatthistimechivalrouslovewaskeptalivebycustomswhich,tous,areintenselyrepellent.Thatsovaluableasentimentshouldbepreservedanddivertedintoamorelegitimatechannelwasanobjectofthehighestimportance.Thenaturalisticmethodofethicsdidmuch,butitcouldnotdoall,formorewasrequiredthanareturntoprimitivesimplicity.Herethemethodofmindsteppedinandsuppliedthedeficiency.ReciprocitywasthesoulofdialecticaspractisedbySocrates,andthedialecticoflovedemandsareciprocityofpassionwhichcanonlyexistbetweenthesexes.ButinasocietywherethefreeintercourseofmodernEuropewasnotpermitted,themodernsentimentcouldnotbereachedatasinglebound;andthosewhosoughtfortheconversationofintelligentwomenhadtoseekforitamongaclassofwhichAspasiawasthehighestrepresentative.SuchwomenplayedagreatpartinlaterAtheniansociety;theyattendedphilosophicallectures,furnishedheroinestotheNewComedy,andonthewholegaveahealthiertonetoliterature.Theirsuccessors,theDeliasandCynthiasof159Romanelegiacpoetry,calledforthstrainsofexaltedaffectionwhichneednothingbutaworthierobjecttoplacethemonalevelwiththenoblestexpressionsoftendernessthathavesincebeenheard.Hereatleast,tounderstandistoforgive;andweshallbelessscandalisedthancertaincritics,105weshallevenrefusetoadmitthatSocratesfellbelowthedignityofamoralist,whenwehearthatheoncevisitedacelebratedbeautyofthisclass,Theodotêbyname;106thatheengagedherinaplayfulconversation;andthathetaughthertoputmoremindintoherprofession;toattractbysomethingdeeperthanpersonalcharms;toshowatleastanappearanceofinterestinthewelfareofherlovers;andtostimulatetheirardourbyastudiedreserve,grantingnofavourthathadnotbeenrepeatedlyandpassionatelysoughtafter.

  • 大笨蛋va0gV

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  • 扒皮成YkZOT

     ThiscodePlatosethimselftoconstructinhislastandlongestwork,theLaws.LessthanhalfofthatDialogue,however,isoccupiedwiththedetailsoflegislation.Theremainingportionsdealwiththefamiliartopicsofmorality,religion,science,andeducation.Thefirstbookpropoundsaverycurioustheoryofasceticism,whichhasnot,webelieve,beentakenupbyanysubsequentmoralist.OntheprincipleofinvinoveritasPlatoproposesthatdrunkennessshouldbesystematicallyemployedforthepurposeoftestingself-control.Truetemperanceisnotabstinence,butthepowerofresistingtemptation;andwecanbestdiscovertowhatextentanymanpossessesthatpowerbysurprisinghimwhenoffhisguard.Ifheshouldbeproofagainstseductiveinfluencesevenwheninhiscups,weshallbedoublysureofhisconstancyatothertimes.Prof.Jowettrathermaliciouslysuggeststhatapersonalproclivitymayhavesuggestedthisextraordinaryapologyforharddrinking.Wereitso,weshouldberemindedofthesuccessiverevelationsbywhichindulgencesofanotherkindwerepermittedtoMohammed,andoftheonecaseinwhichdivorcewassanctionedbyAugusteComte.WeshouldalsorememberthattheChristianPuritanismtowhichPlatoapproachedsonearhasalwaysbeensingularlylenienttothisdisgracefulvice.Butperhapsasomewhathigherorderofconsiderationswillhelpustoabetterunder270standingoftheparadox.Platowasaversefromrejectinganytendencyofhisagethatcouldpossiblybeturnedtoaccountinhisphilosophy.Hence,aswehaveseen,theusewhichhemakesoflove,evenunderitsmostunlawfulforms,intheSymposiumandthePhaedrus.Now,itwouldappear,fromourscantysourcesofinformation,thatsocialfestivities,alwaysverypopularatAthens,hadbecomethechiefinterestinlifeaboutthetimewhenPlatowascomposinghisLaws.Accordingtoonegracefullegend,thephilosopherhimselfbreathedhislastatamarriage-feast.Itmay,therefore,haveoccurredtohimthattheprevalenttendencycould,liketheamorouspassionsofaformergeneration,beutilisedformoraltrainingandmadesubservienttotheverycausewithwhich,atfirstsight,itseemedtoconflict.

  • 草莓果gBuVW

     Thekeynoteofthewholepoemisstruckinitsopeninglines.WhenVenusisaddressedasNature’ssoleguideandruler,this,fromthepoet’sownpointofview,isnottrueofNatureasawhole,butitiseminentlytrueoflife,whetherweidentifyVenuswiththepassionthroughwhichlivingthingsarecontinuallyregenerated,orwiththepleasurewhichistheirperpetualmotiveandtheironlygood.Anditisequallyappropriate,equallycharacteristicofaconsummateartist,thattheinterestoftheworkshouldculminateinadescriptionof107thissamepassion,nolongerasthesourceoflife,butasitslastoutcomeandfullflower,yetalso,whenpushedtoexcess,theillusionbywhichitismostutterlydisappointedandundone;andthatthewholeshouldconcludewithadescriptionofdeath,notasexemplifiedinanyindividualtragedy,butinsuchhavocaswaswroughtbythefamousplagueatAthensonmanandbeastalike.Again,itisbytheorderlysequenceofvitalphenomenathatLucretiusproveshisfirstgreatprinciple,theeverlastingdurationandchangelessnessofmatter.Ifsomethingcancomeoutofnothing,heasksus,whyistheproductionofalllivingthingsattachedtocertainconditionsofplaceandseasonandparentage,accordingtotheirseveralkinds?Orifadecreaseinthetotalsumofexistencebepossible,whencecomestheinexhaustiblesupplyofmaterialsneededforthecontinualregeneration,growth,andnourishmentofanimallife?Itisbecauseoursensescannotdetecttheparticlesofmatterbywhosewithdrawalvisibleobjectsgraduallywasteawaythattheexistenceofextremelyminuteatomsisassumed;and,sofar,thereisalsoareferencetoinorganicbodies;buttheporosityofmatterisprovedbytheinterstitialabsorptionoffoodandthesearchingpenetrationofcold;whilethenecessityofavacuumisestablishedbytheabilityoffishtomovethroughtheopposingstream.Thegenericdifferencessupposedtoexistamongtheatomsareinferredfromthedistinctionsseparatingnotonlyoneanimalspeciesfromanother,buteachindividualfromallothersofthesamespecies.Thedeflectionoftheatomsfromthelineofperpendiculardescentisestablishedbytheexistenceofhumanfree-will.Soalso,theanalysiswhichdistinguishesthreedeterminateelementsinthecompositionofthesoulfindsitsjustificationinthediversecharactersofanimals—thefiercenessofthelion,theplacidityoftheox,andthetimorousnessofthedeer—qualitiesarisingfromthepreponderanceofafiery,ana?rial,andawindyingredientintheanimatingprincipleofeachrespectively.Finally,byanotherorganic108illustration,theatomsingeneralarespokenofasseminarerum—seedsofthings.

  • 绿卡纸08Ihi

     

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