中医药助力各国抗疫(患难见真情 共同抗疫情)

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“8k彩票大发快3”WiththeEpicureantheoryofJustice,thedistortion,alreadysufficientlyobvious,iscarriedstillfurther;althoughwemustfranklyadmitthatitincludessomeaper?usstrikinglyinadvanceofallthathadhithertobeenwrittenonthesubject.Justice,accordingtoourphilosopher,isneitheraninternalbalanceofthesoul’sfaculties,noraruleimposedbythewill70ofthestronger,butamutualagreementtoabstainfromaggressions,varyingfromtimetotimewiththevaryinginterestsofsociety,andalwaysdeterminedbyconsiderationsofgeneralutility.141Thisisexcellent:wemiss,indeed,theStoicideaofacommonhumanity,embracing,underlying,andtranscendingallparticularcontracts;butwehave,inexchange,theideaofageneralinterestequivalenttothesumofprivateinterests,togetherwiththemeansnecessaryfortheirjointpreservation;andwehavealsotheformunderwhichthenotionofjusticeoriginates,thoughnotthemeasureofitsultimateexpansion,whichisregardforthegeneralinterest,evenwhenwearenotboundbyanycontracttoobserveit.Butwhenwegoontoaskwhycontractsshouldbeadheredto,Epicurushasnoreasontoofferbeyonddreadofpunishment.Hiswords,astranslatedbyMr.Wallace,are:— ‘Injusticeisnotinitselfabadthing,butonlyinthefeararisingfromanxietyonthepartofthewrong-doerthathewillnotalwaysescapepunishment.’142ThiswasevidentlymeantforadirectcontradictionofPlato’sassertion,that,apartfromitspenalconsequences,injusticeisadiseaseofthesoul,involvingmoremischieftotheperpetratorthantothevictim.Mr.Wallace,however,takesadifferentviewofhisauthor’smeaning.Accordingtohim,

TheGreekloveofbalancedantithesisandcircumscribingformtriumphedovertheinfiniteinbothfields.Whilethetwogreatmastersofidealismimprisonedtheformlessandturbulentterrestrialelementswithinauniformandeternalsphereofcrystal,theyimposedasimilarrestraintonthedesiresandemotions,confiningthemwithinabarrierofreasonwhich,whenonceerected,couldneverbebrokenthrough.Andalthoughthegroundwoninphysicswaslostagainforatimethrougharevivalofoldtheories,thiswasbecausetrueHellenismfounditsonlycongenialspherein399ethics,andtherethephilosophyofthefinitecontinuedtoreignsupreme.IfthesuccessorsofAristotlefellbackoncosmologiesofamplerscopethanhis,theyretainedhislimitingmethodintheirspeculationsonman.

Epicuruswasassuredlynotamasteroflanguage,buthadhemeantallthatishereputintohismouth,hewouldhardlyhavebeenatalossforwordstosayit.RememberingthattheΚ?ριαιδ?ξαιconstitutedasortofcreeddrawnupbythemasterhimselfforhisdisciplestolearnbyheart,144andthattheincriminatedpassageisoneofthearticlesinthatcreed,weneedonlylookatthecontexttomakecertainthatithasbeenentirelymisreadbyhisapologist.145Inthethreeprecedingarticles,wearetoldthatjusticeisbynatureacontractforthepreventionofaggressions,thatitdoesnotexistamonganimalswhichareunable,noramongtribesofmenwhichareeitherunableorunwillingtoenterintosuchanagreement,and—withreiteratedemphasis—that,apartfromcontracts,ithasnooriginalexistence(o?κ?ντ?καθ’?αυτ?δικαιοσ?νη).Thereisnothingatallaboutatrueasdistinguishedfromafalsejustice;thereisnoallusionwhatevertothetheoriesofany‘contemporariesofSocrates;’thepolemicreference,ifany,istoPlato,andtoPlatoalone.Thencomesthedeclarationquotedabove,totheeffectthatinjusticeisnotanevilinitself,butonlyanevilthroughthedreadofpunishmentwhichitproduces.Now,byinjustice,Epicurusmustsimplymeantheoppositeofwhathedefinedjusticetobeintheprecedingparagraph—thatis,abreachoftheagreementnottohurtoneanother(μ?βλ?πτειν?λλ?λου?).TheauthorityoftheStateisevidentlyconceived,notassuperseding,butasenforcingagreements.ThesucceedingarticlestillfurtherconfirmstheviewrejectedbyMr.Wallace.Epicurustellsusthatnomanwhostealthilyevadesthecontracttoabstainfrommutualaggressionscanbesureofescapingdetection.Thisis72evidentlyaddedtoshowthat,apartfromanymysticalsanctions,fearofpunishmentisquiteenoughtodeteraprudentmanfromcommittingcrimes.AndwecanseethatnootherdeterrentwasrecognisedbyLucretius,when,inevidentreferencetohismaster’swords,hementionsthefearsofthosewhooffend—notagainstmereconventionalrules,butagainsthumanrightsingeneral—asthegreatsafeguardofjustice.146Apart,however,fromabstractspeculation,theideal156methodseemstohaveexercisedanimmediateandpowerfulinfluenceonArt,aninfluencewhichwasanticipatedbySocrateshimself.IntwoconversationsreportedbyXenophon,102heimpressesonParrhasius,thepainter,andCleito,thesculptor,theimportanceofsoanimatingthefacesandfigureswhichtheyrepresentedastomakethemexpresshumanfeelings,energies,anddispositions,particularlythoseofthemostinterestingandelevatedtype.Andsuch,infact,wasthedirectionfollowedbyimitativeartafterPheidias,thoughnotwithoutdegeneratingintoasensationalismwhichSocrateswouldhaveseverelycondemned.Anotherandstillmoreremarkableproofoftheinfluenceexercisedonplasticrepresentationbyidealphilosophywas,perhaps,notforeseenbyitsfounder.WealludetothesubstitutionofabstractandgenericforhistoricalsubjectsbyGreeksculptureinitslaterstages,andnotbysculptureonly,butbydramaticpoetryaswell.Forearlyart,whetheritaddresseditselftotheeyeortotheimagination,andwhetheritssubjectsweretakenfromhistoryorfromfiction,hadalwaysbeenhistoricalinthissense,thatitexhibitedtheperformanceofparticularactionsbyparticularpersonsinagivenplaceandatagiventime;themodeofpresentmentmostnaturaltothosewhoseideasaremainlydeterminedbycontiguousassociation.TheschoolswhichcameafterSocratesletfallthelimitationsofconcretereality,andfoundtheunifyingprincipleoftheirworksinassociationbyresemblance,makingtheirfiguresthepersonificationofasingleattributeorgroupofattributes,andbringingtogetherformsdistinguishedbythecommunityoftheircharacteristicsortheconvergenceoftheirfunctions.ThusAphroditênolongerfiguredastheloverofArêsorAnchisês,butasthepersonificationoffemalebeauty;whileherstatuesweregroupedtogetherwithimagesofthestillmoretransparentabstractions,Love,Longing,andDesire.SimilarlyApollobecameapersonificationofmusicalenthusiasm,andDionysus157ofBacchicinspiration.Soalsodramaticart,oncecompletelyhistorical,evenwithAristophanes,nowchoseforitssubjectssuchconstantly-recurringtypesastheardentlover,thesternfather,theartfulslave,theboastfulsoldier,andthefawningparasite.103

Wroughtoutanotherchangeinhumanlife,

Subjecttotheconstraintofmightylaws;ItremainsforustoglanceatthecontroversywhichhaslongbeencarriedonrespectingthetruepositionoftheSophistsinGreeklifeandthought.Wehavealreadyalludedtothebynomeansfavourablejudgmentpassedonthembysomeamongtheircontemporaries.Socratescondemnedthemseverely,Hbutonlybecausetheyreceivedpaymentfortheirlessons;andthesentimentwasprobablyechoedbymanywhohadneitherhisdisinterestednessnorhisfrugality.TomakeprofitbyintellectualworkwasnotunusualinGreece.Pheidiassoldhisstatues;Pindarspenthislifewritingformoney;SimonidesandSophocleswerechargedwithshowingtoogreateagernessinthepursuitofgain.75Butaman’sconversationwithhisfriendshadalwaysbeengratuitous,andthenovelideaofchargingahighfeeforitexcitedconsiderableoffence.Socratescalleditprostitution—thesaleofthatwhichshouldbethefreegiftoflove—withoutperhapssufficientlyconsideringthatthesameprivilegehadformerlybeenpurchasedwithamoredishonourableprice.Healsoconsideredthatafreemanwasdegradedbyplacinghimselfatthebeckandcallofanother,althoughitwouldappearthattheSophistschosetheirowntimeforlecturing,andwerecertainlynotmoreslavesthanasculptororpoetwhohadreceivedanordertoexecute.Itwasalsoarguedthatanyonewhoreallysucceededinimprovingthe104communitybenefitedsomuchbytheresultthatitwasunfaironhisparttodemandanyadditionalremuneration.SupposeapopularpreacherweretocomeoverfromNewYorktoEngland,staraboutamongtheprincipalcities,chargingahighpriceforadmissiontohissermons,andfinallyreturnhomeinpossessionofahandsomefortune,wecanwellimaginethatsarcasmsattheexpenseofsuchprofitablepietywouldnotbewanting.ThishypotheticalcasewillhelpustounderstandhowmanyanhonestAthenianmusthavefelttowardstheshowycolonialstrangerswhoweremakingsuchalucrativebusinessofteachingmoderationandjustice.Plato,speakingforhismasterbutnotfromhismaster’sstandpoint,raisedanentirelydifferentobjection.HesawnoreasonwhytheSophistsshouldnotselltheirwisdomiftheyhadanywisdomtosell.Butthiswaspreciselywhathedenied.Hesubmittedtheirpretensionstoasearchingcross-examination,and,asheconsidered,convictedthemofbeingworthlesspretenders.Therewasacertainunfairnessaboutthismethod,forneitherhisownpositiveteachingnorthatofSocratescouldhavestoodbeforeasimilartest,asAristotlespeedilydemonstratedinthenextgeneration.Hewas,infact,onlydoingforProtagorasandGorgiaswhattheyhaddoneforearlyGreekspeculation,andwhateveryschoolhabituallydoesforitspredecessors.Ithadyettobelearnedthatthisdissolvingdialecticconstitutestheverylawofphilosophicalprogress.ThediscoverywasmadebyHegel,anditistohimthattheSophistsowetheirrehabilitationinmoderntimes.HislecturesontheHistoryofPhilosophycontainmuchthatwasafterwardsurgedbyGroteonthesameside.FiveyearsbeforetheappearanceofGrote’sfamoussixty-seventhchapter,LeweshadalsopublishedavindicationoftheSophists,possiblysuggestedbyHegel’swork,whichhehadcertainlyconsultedwhenpreparinghisownHistory.Thereis,however,thisgreatdifference,thatwhilethetwoEnglishcriticsendeavourtominimisethe105sceptical,innovatingtendencyoftheSophists,itis,contrariwise,broughtintoexaggeratedprominencebytheGermanphilosopher.WehavejustremarkedthatthefinaldissolutionofSophisticismwasbroughtaboutbytheseparatedevelopmentgiventoeachofthevarioustendencieswhichittemporarilycombined.Now,eachofourthreeapologistshastakenuponeofthesetendencies,andtreateditasconstitutingthewholemovementunderdiscussion.ToHegel,theSophistsarechieflysubjectiveidealists.ToLewes,theyarerhetoricianslikeIsocrates.ToGrote,theyare,whatintruththeSophistsoftheRomanempirewere,teachersrepresentingthestandardopinionsoftheirage.LewesandGrotearebothparticularlyanxioustoprovethattheoriginalSophistsdidnotcorruptGreekmorality.ThusmuchhasbeenconcededbycontemporaryGermancriticism,andisnomorethanwasobservedbyPlatolongago.Grotefurtherassertsthattheimpliedcorruptionofmoralityisanillusion,andthatattheendofthePeloponnesianwartheAthenianswerenoworsethantheirforefatherswhofoughtatMarathon.HisopinionissharedbysoaccomplishedascholarasProf.Jowett;76butherehehasthecombinedauthorityofThucydides,Aristophanes,andPlatoagainsthim.Wehave,however,examinedthisquestionalready,andneednotreturntoit.WhetheranyoftheSophiststhemselvescanbeprovedtohavetaughtimmoraldoctrinesisanothermootpoint.Grotedefendsthemall,PolusandThrasymachusincluded.Here,also,wehaveexpressedourdissentfromtheeminenthistorian,whomwecanonlysupposetohavemissedthewholepointofPlato’sargument.Lewestakesdifferent106groundwhenheaccusesPlatoofmisrepresentinghisopponents.ItistruethattheSophistscannotbeheardinself-defence,butthereisnointernalimprobabilityaboutthechargesbroughtagainstthem.TheGreekrhetoriciansarenotaccusedofsayinganythingthathasnotbeensaidagainandagainbytheirmodernrepresentatives.WhethertheodiumofsuchsentimentsshouldattachitselftothewholeclassofSophistsisquiteanotherquestion.Grotedeniesthattheyheldanydoctrineincommon.TheGermancritics,ontheotherhand,insistontreatingthemasaschoolwithcommonprinciplesandtendencies.Brandiscallsthem‘anumberofmen,giftedindeed,butnotseekersafterknowledgeforitsownsake,whomadeatradeofgivinginstructionasameansfortheattainmentofexternalandselfishends,andofsubstitutingmeretechnicalproficiencyforrealscience.’77Ifouraccountbethetrueone,thiswouldapplytoGorgiasandtheyoungerrhetoriciansalone.OnedoesnotpreciselyseewhatexternalorselfishendsweresubservedbythephysicalphilosophywhichProdicusandHippiastaught,norwhythecomprehensiveenquiriesofProtagorasintotheconditionsofcivilisationandthelimitsofhumanknowledgeshouldbecontemptuouslyflungasidebecausehemadethemthebasisofanhonourableprofession.Zeller,inmuchthesamestrain,definesaSophistasonewhoprofessestobeateacherofwisdom,whilehisobjectisindividualculture(dieformelleundpraktischeBildungdesSubjekts)andnotthescientificinvestigationoftruth.78WedonotknowwhetherGrotewascontentwithanexplanationwhichwouldonlyhaverequiredanunimportantmodificationofhisownstatementstoagreepreciselywiththem.ItoughtamplytohavesatisfiedLewes.Forourselves,wemustconfesstocaringverylittlewhethertheSophistsinvestigatedtruthforitsownsakeorasameanstoself-culture.Webelieve,andinthenextchapterwehope107toshow,thatSocrates,atanyrate,didnottreatknowledgeapartfrompracticeasanendinitself.Butthehistoryofphilosophyisnotconcernedwithsuchsubtletiesasthese.OurcontentionisthattheStoic,Epicurean,andScepticalschoolsmaybetracedbackthroughAntisthenesandAristippustoHippiasandProtagorasmuchmoredirectlythantoSocrates.IfZellerwillgrantthis,thenhecannolongertreatSophisticismasameresolventoftheoldphysicalphilosophy.Ifhedeniesit,wecanonlyappealtohisownhistory,whichhere,aswellasinourdiscussionsofearlyGreekthought,wehavefoundmoreusefulthananyotherworkonthesubject.OurobligationstoGroteareofamoregeneralcharacter.WehavelearnedfromhimtolookattheSophistswithoutprejudice.Butwethinkthathe,too,underratestheirfar-reachingintellectualsignificance,whilehisdefenceoftheirmoralorthodoxyseems,sofarascertainmembersoftheclassareconcerned,inconsistentwithanybeliefinPlato’shistoricalfidelity.ThatthemosteminentSophistsdidnothingtocorruptGreekmoralityisnowalmostuniversallyadmitted.IfwehavesucceededinshowingthattheydidnotcorruptbutfruitfullydevelopGreekphilosophy,thepurposeofthisstudywillhavebeensufficientlyfulfilled.

Wefindthesametheoryreproducedandenforcedwithweightyillustrationsbythegreathistorianofthatage.ItisnotknownwhetherThucydidesowedanypartofhisculturetoProtagoras,buttheintroductiontohishistorybreathesthesamespiritastheobservationswhichwehavejusttranscribed.He,too,characterisesantiquityasasceneofbarbarism,isolation,andlawlessviolence,particularlyremarkingthatpiracywasnotthencountedadishonourableprofession.HepointstothetribesoutsideGreece,togetherwiththemostbackwardamongtheGreeksthemselves,asrepresentingthelowconditionfromwhichAthensandhersisterstateshadonlyemergedwithinacomparativelyrecentperiod.AndinthefuneralorationwhichheputsintothemouthofPericles,thelegendarygloriesofAthensarepassedoverwithouttheslightestallusion,69whileexclusiveprominenceisgiventoherproudpositionastheintellectualcentreofGreece.Evidentlyaradicalchangehadtakenplaceinmen’sconceptionssinceHerodotuswrote.Theywerelearningtodespisethemythicalgloriesoftheirancestors,toexaltthepresentattheexpenseofthepast,tofixtheirattentionexclusivelyonimmediatehumaninterests,and,possibly,toanticipatethecomingofaloftiercivilisationthanhadasyetbeenseen.

ThecausewhichfirstarrestedandfinallydestroyedthefreemovementofGreekthoughtwasnotanyintrinsiclimitationorcorruptionoftheGreekgenius,buttheever-increasingpreponderanceoftwointerests,bothtending,althoughindifferentwaysanddifferentdegrees,tostrengthentheprincipleofauthorityandtoenfeebletheprincipleofreason.Onewasthetheologicalinterest,theotherwasthescholasticinterest.Theformerwasthemoreconspicuousandthemoremischievousofthetwo.FromthepersecutionofAnaxagorastotheprohibitionofphilosophicalteachingbyJustinian,wemaytracetheriseandspreadofareactiontowardssuperstition,sometimesadvancingandsometimesreceding,but,onthewhole,gaininggroundfromagetoage,untilfromthenoontidesplendourofPericleswepasstothatlongnightwhichstretchesinalmostimpenetrabledarknessdowntotheredandstormydaybreakoftheCrusades.Anditwasareactionwhichextendedthroughallclasses,includingthephilosophersthemselves.ItseemstomethatwheretheAthenianschool,fromSocrateson,fallshortoftheirpredecessors,asinsomepointstheyunquestionablydo,theirinferiorityislargelyduetothiscause.Itsinfluenceisveryperceptibleinweakeningthespeculativeenergiesofthosexiiwhostandatthegreatestdistancefromthepopularbeliefs.ItwasbecausedislikefortheologyoccupiedsolargeaplaceinthethoughtsofEpicurusandhisdisciples,thattheyvaluedscienceonlyasarefutationofitsteaching,insteadofregardingitsimplyasanobstacletoberemovedfromthepathofenquiry.Morethanthis;theybecameinfectedwiththespiritofthatagainstwhichtheyfought,andtheirabsoluteindifferencetotruthwastheshadowwhichitcastontheirminds.

Walkequalcoursesintheiryearlyround,Descarteshadalreadyaccomplishedagreatsimplificationofthespeculativeproblembysummingupallexistenceunderthetwoheadsofextensionandthought.Itremainedtoaccountforthese,andtoreducethemtoasingleidea.Aswehaveseen,theywerederivedfromGreekphilosophy,andthebondwhichwastounitethemmustbesoughtforinthesamedirection.ItwillberememberedthatthesystemsofPlatoandAristotlewereboundedateitherextremitybyadeterminateandbyanindeterminateprinciple.Withtheone,existencerangedbetweentheIdeaofGoodattheupperendofthescaleandemptyspaceatthelower;withtheother,betweenabsoluteThoughtandFirstMatter.Itwasbycombiningthetwodefiniteterms,spaceandthought,thatDescarteshadconstructedhissystem;andaftersubtractingthesethetwoindefinitetermsremained.Inonerespecttheywereevenmoreopposedtoeachotherthanwerethetermswithwhichtheyhadbeenrespectivelyassociated.TheIdea403ofGoodrepresentedunity,identity,andconstancy,asagainstplurality,difference,andchange;whileAristotle’sMatterwas,byitsverydefinition,multiform,fluctuating,andindeterminate.Nevertheless,therewereequallyimportantanalogiestraceablebetweenthem.Noveryclearaccountcouldbegivenofeither,andbothwerecustomarilydescribedbynegatives.IfMatterfellshortofcompleteexistence,theGoodtranscendedallexistence.IftheonewasauniversalcapacityforassumingForms,theotherwasthesourcewhenceallFormsproceeded.Whenthedistinctivecharacteristicsofanindividualwerethoughtaway,thequestionmightwellbemootedintowhichprincipleitwouldreturn.TheambiguoususeofthewordPowercontributedstillfurthertotheiridentification,foritwasnotlessapplicabletothereceptivethantotheproductivefaculty.NowwehavejustseenintowhatimportancetheideaofPowersuddenlysprangattheRenaissance:withBrunoitwastheonlyabidingrealityofNature;withHobbesitwastheonlyobjectofhumandesire.

IX.

Blankmisgivingsofacreature

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  • 雨花郡主MSWUz

     WhetherSpinozaeverreadPlatoisdoubtful.Onehardlyseeswhyheshouldhaveneglectedawriterwhoseworkswereeasilyaccessible,andatthattimeverypopularwiththinkingminds.ButwhetherhewasacquaintedwiththeDialoguesatfirsthandornot,PlatowillhelpustounderstandSpinoza,foritwasthroughthedoorofgeometrythatheenteredphilosophy,andundertheguidanceofonewhowassaturatedwiththePlatonicspirit;sofarasChristianityinfluencedhim,itwasthroughelementsderivedfromPlato;andhismetaphysicalmethodwasonewhich,morethananyother,wouldhavebeenwelcomedwithdelightbytheauthoroftheMenoandtheRepublic,asanattempttorealisehisowndialecticalideal.ForSpinozismis,onthefaceofit,anapplicationofgeometricalreasoningtophilosophy,andespeciallytoethics.Itisalsoanattempttoprovetranscendentallywhatgeometriciansonlyassume—thenecessityofspace.Now,Platolookedongeometricaldemonstrationasthegreattypeofcertainty,thescientificcompletionofwhatSocrateshadbegunbyhisinterrogativemethod,theonemeansofcarryingirrefragableconvictionintoeverydepartmentofknowledge,andmoreparticularlyintothestudyofourhighestgood.Ontheotherhand,hesawthatgeometriciansassumewhatitselfrequirestobedemonstrated;andheconfidentlyexpectedthatthedeficiencywouldbesuppliedbyhisownprojectedmethodoftranscendentdialectics.Suchatleastseemstobethedriftofthefollowingpassage:

  • 雪灵芝k3kqf

  • 如萱紫儿jqCdn

    ThatAenesidêmusheldthisviewisstatedasafactbySextus,whosetestimonyisherecorroboratedbyTertullian,orratherbyTertullian’sinformant,Soranus.Wefind,however,thatZeller,whoformerlyacceptedthestatementinquestionastrue,haslatterlyseenreasontorejectit.188Aenesidêmuscannot,hethinks,havebeenguiltyofsogreataninconsistencyastobasehisScepticismonthedogmaticphysicsofHeracleitus.AndheexplainstheagreementoftheancientauthoritiesbysupposingthattheoriginalworkofAenesidêmuscontainedacriticalaccountoftheHeracleiteantheory,thatthiswasmisinterpretedintoanexpressionofhisadhesiontoitbySoranus,andthattheblunderwasadoptedatsecond-handbybothSextusandTertullian.299

  • 但法国LQOqa

    76

     

  • 大笨蛋stq4m

    v

  • 扒皮成vf4ij

    I.

     

  • 草莓果mCOb1

    Nowthathewasteshisnativelandwithwar,

     Thus,then,theSocraticdialoguehasadoubleaspect.Itis,likeallphilosophy,aperpetualcarryingoflifeintoideasandofideasintolife.Lifeisraisedtoahigherlevelbythought;thought,whenbroughtintocontactwithlife,gainsmovementandgrowth,assimilativeandreproductivepower.Ifactionistobeharmonised,wemustregulateitbyuniversalprinciples;ifourprinciplesaretobeefficacious,theymustbeadopted;iftheyaretobeadopted,wemustdemonstratethemtothesatisfactionofourcontemporaries.Language,consistingas143itdoesalmostentirelyofabstractterms,furnishesthematerialsoutofwhichalonesuchanidealunioncanbeframed.Butmendonotalwaysusethesamewords,leastofalliftheyareabstractwords,inthesamesense,andthereforeapreliminaryagreementmustbearrivedatinthisrespect;afactwhichSocrateswasthefirsttorecognise.Aristotletellsusthatheintroducedthecustomofconstructinggeneraldefinitionsintophilosophy.Theneedofaccurateverbalexplanationsismorefeltinthediscussionofethicalproblemsthananywhereelse,ifwetakeethicsintheonlysensethatSocrateswouldhaveaccepted,ascoveringthewholefieldofmentalactivity.Itistruethatdefinitionsarealsoemployedinthemathematicalandphysicalsciences,buttheretheyareaccompaniedbyillustrationsborrowedfromsensibleexperience,andwouldbeunintelligiblewithoutthem.Henceithasbeenpossibleforthosebranchesofknowledgetomakeenormousprogress,whiletheelementarynotionsonwhichtheyresthavenotyetbeensatisfactorilyanalysed.Thecaseisentirelyalteredwhenmentaldispositionshavetobetakenintoaccount.Here,abstracttermsplaymuchthesamepartassensibleintuitionselsewhereinsteadyingourconceptions,butwithoutpossessingthesameinvariablevalue;theexperiencesfromwhichthoseconceptionsarederivedbeingexceedinglycomplex,and,whatismore,exceedinglyliabletodisturbancefromunforeseencircumstances.Thus,byneglectingaseriesofminutechangesthesamenamemaycometodenotegroupsofphenomenanotagreeinginthequalitieswhichaloneitoriginallyconnoted.Morethanoneexampleofsuchagradualmetamorphosishasalreadypresenteditselfinthecourseofourinvestigation,andotherswilloccurinthesequel.Wheredistinctionsofrightandwrongareinvolved,itisofenormouspracticalimportancethatadefinitemeaningshouldbeattachedtowords,andthattheyshouldnotbeallowed,atleastwithoutexpressagreement,todepartfromtherecognisedacceptation:forsuchwords,connotingastheydotheapprovalordisap144provalofmankind,exerciseapowerfulinfluenceonconduct,sothattheirmisapplicationmayleadtodisastrousconsequences.Wheregovernmentbywrittenlawprevailstheimportanceofdefiningethicaltermsimmediatelybecomesobvious,for,otherwise,personalrulewouldberestoredunderthedisguiseofjudicialinterpretation.Romanjurisprudencewasthefirstattemptonagreatscaletointroducearigoroussystemofdefinitionsintolegislation.Wehaveseen,intheprecedingchapter,howittendedtoputtheconclusionsofGreeknaturalisticphilosophyintopracticalshape.Wenowseehow,ontheformalside,itsdeterminationsareconnectedwiththeprinciplesofSocrates.Andweshallnotundervaluethisobligationifwebearinmindthattheaccuratewordingoflegalenactmentsisnotlessimportantthantheessentialjusticeoftheircontents.Similarly,thedevelopmentofCatholictheologyrequiredthatitsfundamentalconceptionsshouldbeprogressivelydefined.ThisalonepreservedtheintellectualcharacterofCatholicisminagesofignoranceandsuperstition,andhelpedtokeepalivethereasonbywhichsuperstitionwaseventuallyoverthrown.MommsenhascalledtheologythebastardchildofReligionandScience.Itissomethingthat,intheabsenceoftherobusterparent,itsfeaturesshouldberecalledanditstraditionmaintainedevenbyanillegitimateoffspring.

  • 绿卡纸0i0iW

    Fromthisgrandsynthesis,however,asingleelementwasomitted;and,liketheuninvitedguestoffairytradition,itprovedstrongenoughsinglytodestroywhathadbeenconstructedbytheunitedeffortsofalltherest.Thiswasthescepticalprinciple,thecriticalanalysisofideas,firstexercisedbyProtagoras,madeanewstarting-pointbySocrates,carriedtoperfectionbyPlato,supplementingexperiencewithAristotle,andfinallyproclaimedinitspurityasthesolefunctionofphilosophybyanentireschoolofGreekthought.

     

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