《王者荣耀》6月29日每日一题答案

97zNM-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 06:54:41

“高频彩幸运飞艇开奖官网”Agreatreformerofthelastgeneration,findingthattheideaofNaturewasconstantlyputforwardtothwarthismostcherishedschemes,preparedamineforitsdestructionwhichwasonlyexplodedafterhisdeath.SeldomhassopowerfulachargeoflogicaldynamitebeencollectedwithinsosmallaspaceasinMill’sfamousEssayonNature.Buttheimmediateeffectwaslessthanmighthavebeenanticipated,becausetheattackwassupposedtobedirectedagainstreligion,whereasitwasonlyaimedatanabstractmetaphysicaldogma,notnecessarilyconnectedwithanytheologicalbeliefs,andheldbymanywhohavediscardedallsuchbeliefs.Astrongerimpressionwas,perhaps,producedbythenearlysimultaneousdeclarationofSirW.Gull—inreferencetothesupposedvismedicatrixnaturae—that,incasesofdisease,‘whatNaturewantsistoputthemaninhiscoffin.’Thenewschoolofpoliticaleconomistshavealsodonemuchtoshowthatlegislativeinterferencewiththe‘naturallaws’ofwealthneedbynomeansbesogenerallymischievousaswasoncesupposed.AndthedoctrineofEvolution,besidesbreakingdowntheolddistinctionsbetweenNatureandMan,hasrepresentedtheformerasessentiallyvariable,andtherefore,tothatextent,incapableofaffordingafixedstandardformoralaction.Itis,however,fromthisschoolthatanew49attempttorehabilitatetheoldphysicalethicshaslatelyproceeded.TheobjectofMr.HerbertSpencer’sDataofEthicsis,amongotherpoints,toprovethatatruemoralityrepresentstheultimatestageofevolution,andreproducesinsociallifethatpermanentequilibrationtowardswhicheveryformofevolutionconstantlytends.AndMr.Spenceralsoshowshowevolutionisbringingaboutastateofthingsinwhichtheself-regardingshallbefinallyharmonisedwiththesocialimpulses.Now,itwillbereadilyadmittedthatmoralityisaproductofevolutioninthissensethatitisagradualformation,thatitistheproductofmanyconvergingconditions,andthatitprogressesaccordingtoacertainmethod.Butthatthesamemethodisobservedthroughallordersofevolutionseemslessevident.Forinstance,intheformation,firstofthesolarsystem,andthenoftheearth’scrust,thereisacontinuallossofforce,whileinthedevelopmentoforganiclifethereisascontinualagain;andonarrivingatsubjectivephenomena,wearemetbyfactswhich,inthepresentstateofourknowledge,cannotadvantageouslybeexpressedintermsofforceandmatteratall.EvenifwedonotagreewithGeorgeSandinthinkingthatself-sacrificeistheonlyvirtue,wemustadmitthatthepossibility,atleast,ofitsbeingsometimesdemandedisinseparablefromtheideaofduty.Butself-sacrificecannotbeconceivedwithoutconsciousness;whichisequivalenttosayingthatitinvolvesotherthanmechanicalnotions.Thusweareconfrontedbythestandingdifficultyofallevolutionarytheories,andonapointwherethatdifficultyispeculiarlysensible.Noristhisanobjectiontobegotridofbytheargumentthatitappliestoallphilosophicalsystemsalike.Toanidealist,thedependenceofmoralityonconsciousnessisapracticalconfirmationofhisprofessedprinciples.Holdingthattheuniversalformsofexperiencearetheconditionsunderwhichanobjectisapprehended,ratherthanmodificationsimposedbyanunknowableobjectonanunknowablesubject,andthatthese50formsarecommontoallintelligentbeings,heholdsalsothattheperceptionofdutyisthewideningofourindividualselvesintothatuniversalselfwhichisthesubjectivesideofallexperience.Buttheenthusiasmforscience,howevernobleinitself,wouldnotalonehavesufficedtomouldtheEpicureanphilosophyintoatrueworkofart.TheDeRerumNaturaisthegreatestofalldidacticpoems,becauseitissomethingmorethandidactic.FarmoretrulythananyofitsLatinsuccessors,itmayclaimcomparisonwiththeepicanddramaticmasterpiecesofGreeceandChristianEurope;andthattoonotbyvirtueofanydetachedpassages,howeversplendid,butbyvirtueofitscompositionasawhole.TheexplanationofthisextraordinarysuccessistobesoughtinthecircumstancethatthecentralinterestwhenceLucretiusworksoutinalldirectionsisvitalratherthanmerelyscientific.ThetrueheroineofhisepicisnotNaturebutuniversallife—humanlifeinthefirstinstance,thenthelifeofalltheloweranimals,andevenofplantsaswell.Notonlydoeshebringbeforeuseverystageofman’sexistencefromitsfirsttoitslasthour106withacomprehensiveness,afidelity,andadaringunparalleledinliterature;butheexhibitswithequalpowerofportrayalthetoweredelephantscarryingconfusionintotheranksofwar,orgirdlingtheirownnativeIndiawitharampartofivorytusks;thehorsewithaneagernessfortheracethatoutrunseventheimpulseofhisownswiftlimbs,orfiercelyneighingwithdistendednostrilsonthebattlefield;thedogsnuffinganimaginaryscent,orbarkingatstrangefacesinhisdreams;thecowsorrowingafterherlostheifer;theplacidandlaboriousox;theflockofpasturingsheepseenfaroff,likeawhitespotonsomegreenhill;thetremulouskidsandsportivelambs;thenew-fledgedbirdsfillingallthegrovewiththeirfreshsongs;thedovewithherneck-feathersshiftingfromruby-redtosky-blueandemerald-green;therookeryclamouringforwindorrain;theseabirdsscreamingoverthesaltwavesinsearchofprey;thesnakesloughingitsskin;thescalyfishescleavingtheirwaythroughtheyieldingstream;thebeewingingitsflightfromflowertoflower;thegnatwhoselighttouchonourfacespassesunperceived;thegrassrefreshedwithdew;thetreesburstingintosuddenlifefromtheyoungearth,orgrowing,flourishing,andcoveringthemselveswithfruit,dependent,likeanimals,onheatandmoisturefortheirincrease,andgladlikethem:—allthesehelpingtoillustratewithunequalledvariety,movement,andpicturesquenessthecentralideawhichLucretiuscarriesalwaysinhismind.

Thus,whileSpinozadrawstoaheadallthetendenciesinheritedfromGreekphilosophy,borrowingfromtheearlyphysiciststheirnecessarianism;fromtheAtomists,theirexclusionoffinalcauses,theirdenialofthesupernatural,andtheirinfiniteworlds;fromtheAthenianschool,theirdistinctionbetweenmindandbodyandbetweenreasonandsense;fromAristotle,hisparallelismbetweencausationandsyllogism;fromtheEpicureans,theirvindicationofpleasure;andfromtheStoics,theiridentificationofbeliefwithaction,theirconquestofpassionandtheirdevotiontohumanity;—itistothedominantPlatonismoftheseventeenthcenturythathissystemowesitsfoundation,itsdevelopment,anditscrown;forhebeginsbyrealisingtheabstractconceptionofbeing,andinfersitsabsoluteinfinityfromthemisleadinganalogyofspace,whichisnotanabstractionatall;deduceshisconclusionsaccordingtothegeometricalmethodrecommendedbyPlato;andends,likePlato,bytranslatingdialecticformulasintotheemotionallanguageofreligiousfaith.573

‘HappyishewhohaslearnedAnenergycontinuallyadvancingthroughsuccessivegradations,anddiminishingasitadvances—such,aswehaveseen,istheconceptionofexistenceofferedbyPlotinus.Wehaveseen,also,howtoexplainthegenesisofoneprinciplefromanotherwithouttheaidofsupernaturalvolitionorofmechanicalcausation,heiscompelledtopressintotheserviceeverysortofrelationshipbywhichtwoobjectscanbeconnected,andtoinvestitwithadynamicalsignificancewhichonlythephenomenaofmatterandmotioncanpossess.Butwhathechieflyreliesonforguidanceinthistortuouslabyrinthoftimelessevolution,istheoldGreekprinciplethatcontrariesaregeneratedfromoneanother.Andwithhim,aswiththeearlierthinkers,allcontrariesreducethemselves,inthelastanalysis,tothefourgreatantithesesoftheOneandtheMany,Beingandnot-Being,theSameandtheOther,RestandMotion.ItmattersnothingthatheshouldhavefollowedPlatototheextentofco-ordinatingfiveofthesetermsassupremearchetypalIdeas,immediatelyresultingfromtheself-consciousnessofNous,andthemselvesproducingallotherformsofexistence.Theyareused,quiteindependentlyofthatderivation,toexplaintheconnexionofthevarious323creativeprincipleswithoneanother.NousisdeducedfromitsfirstcauseasBeingfromnot-Being,astheManyfromtheOne,asDifferencefromIdentity,andasMotionfromRest.474ToexplainthegenerationofSoulfromNousisamoredifficultproblem.TheOnehadoriginallybeendefinedastheantitheticalcauseofNous,andthereforethelattercouldeasilybeaccountedforbysimplyreversingtheanalyticalprocess;whereasNoushadnotbeendefinedasthecauseofSoul,butasthemodelwhencehercreativeIdeasarederived.Soul,infact,isnotopposedtoanything;sheistheconnectinglinkbetweensenseandspirit.Inthisstrait,PlotinusseemstothinkthattheantithesisbetweenRestandMotionisthebestfittedtoexpressthenatureofherdescentfromthehigherprinciple;andononeoccasionheillustratestherelationofhisthreedivinesubstancestooneanotherbythefamousfigureofacentralpointrepresentingtheOne,afixedcircleroundthatpointrepresentingtheNous,andoutsidethat,again,arevolvingcirclerepresentingtheSoul.475Still,thedifferentpartsofthesystemareveryawkwardlypiecedtogetheratthisjuncture;forthecreativeenergyoftheNoushasalreadybeeninvokedtoaccountfortheIdeasorpartialintelligencesintowhichitspontaneouslydivides;andonedoesnotunderstandhowitcanbesimultaneouslyappliedtotheproductionofsomethingthatisnotanIdeaatall.

Notonlyoratoryandliterature,butphilosophyandsciencewerecultivatedwithrenewedvigour.Thelinebetweenphilosophyandsophisticismwasnot,indeed,verydistinctlydrawn.EpictêtusseverelycensuresthemoralteachersofhistimeforornamentingtheirlectureswithclaptraprhetoricaboutthebattleofThermopylaeorflowerydescriptionsofPanandtheNymphs.406Andtheprofesseddeclaimerssimilarlydrewonastoreofphilosophicalcommonplaces.Thissortofpopulartreatmentledtothecultivationofethicsandtheologyinpreferencetologicandmetaphysics,andtoaneclecticblendingofthechiefsystemswithoneanother.AseverermethodwasinculcatedintheschoolsofAthens,especiallyaftertheendowmentoftheirprofessorsbyMarcusAurelius;but,inpractice,thiscametomeanwhatitmeansinmodernuniversities,thesubstitutionofphilologyforindependentenquiry.ThequestionwasnotsomuchwhatistrueaswhatdidPlatoorAristotlereallythink.AlexandrianscienceshowedsomethingofthesamelearnedandtraditionalcharacterintheworksofPtolemy;butthegreatnameofGalenmarksarealprogressinphysiology,aswellasareturntotheprinciplesofHippocrates.

‘NaturundGeist,sosprichtmannichtzuChristen,

IX.

Itwasatthisjuncturethatthevoluntarywithdrawalofanolderfellow-pupilplacedArcesilausattheheadoftheAcademy.Thedateofhisaccessionisnotgiven,butwearetoldthathedied241or240B.C.intheseventy-fifthyearofhisage.Hemust,therefore,haveflourishedagenerationlaterthanZenoandEpicurus.Accomplished,witty,andgenerous,hislifeisdescribedbysomeasconsiderablylessausterethanthatoftheexcellentnonentitieswhomhesucceeded.Yetitsgeneralgoodnesswastestifiedtobynolessanauthoritythanhiscontemporary,thenobleStoic,Cleanthes.‘DonotblameArcesilaus,’exclaimedthelatter146toanunfriendlycritic;‘ifhedeniesdutyinhiswords,heaffirmsitinhisdeeds.’ ‘Youdon’tflatterme,‘observedArcesilaus.‘Itisflatteringyou,’rejoinedCleanthes,‘tosaythatyouractionsbelieyourwords.’230Itmightbeinferredfromthisanecdotethatthescepticismofthenewteacher,likethatofCarneadesafterhim,wasoccasionallyexercisedonmoraldistinctions,which,asthendefinedanddeduced,wereassuredlyopentoveryseriouscriticism.Evenso,infollowingtheconventionalstandardoftheage,hewouldhavebeenactinginperfectconsistencywiththeprinciplesofhisschool.But,asamatteroffact,hisattacksseemtohavebeenexclusivelyaimedattheStoiccriterionofcertainty.Wehavetouchedonthisdifficultsubjectinaformerchapter,butthepresentseemsamorefavourableopportunityforsettingitforthinproperdetail.

VIII.

LucretiushasbeencalledRome’sonlygreatspeculativegenius.Thisis,ofcourse,absurd.Atalentforlucidex101positiondoesnotconstitutespeculativegenius,especiallywhenitisunaccompaniedbyanyabilitytocriticisetheopinionsexpounded.TheauthoroftheDeRerumNaturaprobablyhadalawyer’seducation.Hecertainlyexhibitsgreatforensicskillinspeakingfromhisbrief.ButCiceroandSenecashowedthesameskillonamuchmoreextensivescale;andtheformerinparticularwasimmenselysuperiortoLucretiusinknowledgeandargumentativepower.Besides,thepoet,whowascertainlynotdisposedtohidehislightunderabushel,andwhoexaltshisownartisticexcellencesinnomeasuredterms,neverprofessestobeanythingbutahumbleinterpreteroftruthsfirstrevealedtohisGreekinstructor’svividintellect.Ithas,indeed,beenclaimedforLucretiusthatheteachesahigherwisdomthanhisacknowledgedguide.195Thisassertionis,however,notborneoutbyacarefulcomparisonbetweenthetwo.196Inboththereisthesametheoryoftheuniverse,ofman,andoftherelationsconnectingthemwithoneanother.TheideaofNatureinLucretiusshowsnoadvanceoverthesameideainEpicurus.Toeachitexpresses,not,aswiththeStoics,aunifyingpower,adesignbywhichallthingsworktogetherforthebest,butsimplytheconditionsofapermanentmechanicalaggregation.WhenLucretiusspeaksoffoederaNaturai,hemeans,notwhatweunderstandbylawsofnature,thatis,uniformitiesofcausationunderlyingallphenomenaldifferences,tounderstandwhichisanexaltationofhumandignitythroughtheaddedpowerofprevisionandcontrolwhichitbestows,butratherthelimitingpossibilitiesofexistence,thebarriersagainstwhichhumanhopesandaspirationsdashthemselvesinvain—anobjectivelogicwhichguardsusagainstfallaciesinsteadofenablingustoarriveatpositiveconclusions.WehaveherethepervadinglynegativecharacterofEpicureanism,102thoughprobablypresentedwithsomethingofRomansolemnityandsternness.Theideaofindividuality,withwhichLucretiushasalsobeencredited,occupiesbutasmallplaceinhisexposition,andseemstohaveinterestedhimonlyasaparticularaspectoftheatomictheory.Theultimateparticlesofmattermustbedividedintounlikegroupsofunits,forotherwisewecouldnotexplaintheunlikenessesexhibitedbysensibleobjects.ThisisneithertheoriginalGreekidea,thateverymanhashisownlifetolead,irrespectiveofpublicopinionorarbitraryconvention;norisitthemoderndelightinNature’sinexhaustiblevarietyasopposedtothepovertyofhumaninvention,ortotherestrictionsoffashionabletaste.NorcanweadmitthatLucretiusdevelopedEpicureanphilosophyinthedirectionofincreasedattentiontotheexternalworld.Thepoetwas,nodoubt,aconsummateobserver,andheusedhisobservationswithwonderfulfelicityfortheelucidationandenforcementofhisphilosophicalreasoning;butinthisrespecthehasbeenequalledorsurpassedbyotherpoetswhoeitherknewnothingofsystematicphilosophy,or,likeDante,wereeducatedinasystemasunlikeaspossibletothatofEpicurus.Thereis,therefore,everyreasonforassumingthathesawanddescribedphenomenanotbyvirtueofhisscientifictraining,butbyvirtueofhisartisticendowment.Andthesamemaybesaidoftheotherpointsinwhichheiscreditedwithimprovementsonhismaster’sdoctrine.Thereis,nodoubt,astrongconsciousnessofunity,ofindividuality,andoflawrunningthroughhispoem.Butitisundertheformofintuitionsorcontemplations,notundertheformofspeculativeideasthattheyaretobefound.And,aswillbepresentlyshown,itisnotasattributesofNaturebutasattributesoflifethattheypresentthemselvestohisimagination.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主lc3et

     Protagoraswasbornabout480B.C.Hewasafellow-townsmanofDemocritus,andhasbeenrepresented,thoughnotongoodauthority,asadiscipleofthatillustriousthinker.ItwasratherbyastudyofHeracleitusthathis87philosophicalopinions,sofarastheywereborrowedfromothers,seemtohavebeenmostdecisivelydetermined.Inanycase,practice,nottheory,wastheprincipaloccupationofhislife.Hegaveinstructionforpaymentinthehigherbranchesofaliberaleducation,andadoptedthenameofSophist,whichbeforehadsimplymeantawiseman,asanhonourabletitleforhisnewcalling.Protagoraswasaverypopularteacher.Thenewsofhisarrivalinastrangecityexcitedimmenseenthusiasm,andhewasfollowedfromplacetoplacebyabandofeagerdisciples.AtAthenshewashonouredbythefriendshipofsuchmenasPericlesandEuripides.Itwasatthehouseofthegreattragicpoetthathereadoutaworkbeginningwiththeominousdeclaration,‘Icannottellwhetherthegodsexistornot;lifeistooshortforsuchdifficultinvestigations.’66Athenianbigotrytookalarmdirectly.Thebookcontainingthisfrankconfessionofagnosticismwaspubliclyburned,allpurchasersbeingcompelledtogiveupthecopiesintheirpossession.Theauthorhimselfwaseitherbanishedortookflight,andperishedbyshipwreckonthewaytoSicilybeforecompletinghisseventiethyear.

  • 雪灵芝JWhl2

    22

  • 如萱紫儿XJETF

  • 但法国dVqQb

    Again,whileattackingthebeliefinhumanimmortality,EpicurusseemstodirecthisblowsagainstthemetaphysicalreasoningsofPlato,153aswellasagainsttheindistinctforebod77ingsofprimitiveimagination.Theconsequencesofthistwo-edgedpolemicareveryremarkable.InreadingLucretius,wearesurprisedatthetotalabsenceofcriticismslikethosebroughttobearonGreekmythologywithsuchformidableeffect,firstbyPlatoand,longafterwards,byLucian.Thereisamuchmoremoderntoneabouthisinvectives,andtheyseemaimedatanenemyfamiliartoourselves.OnewouldsupposethattheadventofCatholicismhadbeenrevealedinapropheticvisiontothepoet,andthatthis,ratherthanthereligionofhisowntimes,wastheobjectofhiswrathanddread;orelsethatsomechildoftheRenaissancewasseekingforafreerutteranceofhisownrevoltagainstalltheology,underthedisguiseofadeadlanguageandofawarfarewithlong-discreditedgods.Forthisreason,Christianshavealwaysregardedhim,withperfectjustice,asadangerousenemy;whilerationalistsofthefiercertypehaveacceptedhissplendiddenunciationsastheappropriateexpressionoftheirownmostcherishedfeelings.

     ItisanotherCynictraitinEpicurusthatheshould67addresshimselftoamuchwideraudiencethantheSophists,oreventhanSocratesandhisspiritualisticsuccessors.Thiscircumstancesuggestedanewargumentinfavouroftemperance.Hisphilosophybeingintendedfortheuseofallmankindwithoutexception,wasboundtoshowthathappinessiswithinthereachofthepooraswellasoftherich;andthiscouldnotbediditdepend,toanyappreciableextent,onindulgenceswhichwealthalonecanpurchase.Andeventherichwillnotenjoycompletetranquillityunlesstheyaretaughtthatthelossoffortuneisnottobefeared,sincetheirappetitescanbeeasilysatisfiedwithoutit.Thusthepainsarisingfromexcess,thoughdoubtlessnotforgotten,seemtohavebeentheleastimportantmotivetorestraintinhisteaching.ThepreceptsofEpicurusareonlytoofaithfullyfollowedinthesoutherncountriesforwhosebenefittheywerefirstframed.Itisamatterofcommonobservation,thattheextremefrugalityoftheItalians,byleavingthemsatisfiedwiththebarestsufficiency,deprivesthemofamostvaluablespurtoexertion,andallowsavastfundofpossibleenergytomoulderawayinlistlessapathy,ortoconsumeitselfmorerapidlyinsordidvice.Moreover,aseconomistshavelongsincepointedout,wherethestandardofcomfortishigh,therewillbealargeavailablemargintofallbackuponinperiodsofdistress;whilewhereitislow,thelimitofsubsistencewillbealwaysdangerouslynear.

  • 大笨蛋MwsIA

    v

  • 扒皮成irz7Z

    ThereisastorythatPlatousedtothankthegods,inwhatsomemightconsideraratherPharisaicspirit,forhavingmadehimahumanbeinginsteadofabrute,amaninsteadofawoman,andaGreekinsteadofabarbarian;butmorethan179anythingelseforhavingpermittedhimtobeborninthetimeofSocrates.Itwillbeobservedthatalltheseblessingstendedinonedirection,thecompletesupremacyinhischaracterofreasonoverimpulseandsense.Toassert,extend,andorganisethatsupremacywastheobjectofhiswholelife.Such,indeed,hadbeentheobjectofallhispredecessors,andsuch,statedgenerally,hasbeenalwaysandeverywheretheobjectofphilosophy;butnonehadpursueditsoconsciouslybefore,andnonehasproclaimeditsoenthusiasticallysincethen.Now,althoughPlatocouldnothavedonethiswithoutafarwiderrangeofknowledgeandexperiencethanSocrateshadpossessed,itwasonlybyvirtueoftheSocraticmethodthathisothergiftsandacquisitionscouldbeturnedtocompleteaccount;while,conversely,itwasonlywhenbroughttobearuponthesenewmaterialsthatthefullpowerofthemethoditselfcouldberevealed.Tobecontinuallyaskingandansweringquestions;toelicitinformationfromeverybodyoneverysubjectworthknowing;andtoelaboratetheresultingmassofintellectualmaterialintothemostconvenientformforpracticalapplicationorforfurthertransmission,wasthesecretoftruewisdomwiththesageofthemarket-placeandtheworkshop.Buttheprocessofdialecticinvestigationasanendinitself,theintensepersonalinterestofconversationwithlivingmenandwomenofallclasses,theimpatienceforimmediateandvisibleresults,hadgraduallyinducedSocratestorestrictwithinfartoonarrowlimitsthesourceswhencehisideaswerederivedandthepurposestowhichtheywereapplied.Andthedialecticmethoditselfcouldnotbutbecheckedinitsinternaldevelopmentbythiswantofbreadthandvarietyinthetopicssubmittedtoitsgrasp.ThereforethedeathofSocrates,howeverlamentableinitsoccasion,wasanunmixedbenefittothecauseforwhichhelaboured,byarresting(aswemustsupposeittohavearrested)thepopularandindiscriminateemploymentofhiscross-examiningmethod,180liberatinghisablestdisciplefromtheascendencyofareveredmaster,andinducinghimtoreconsiderthewholequestionofhumanknowledgeandactionfromaremoterpointofview.For,beitobservedthatPlatodidnotbeginwhereSocrateshadleftoff;hewentbacktothegerminalpointofthewholesystem,andproceededtoreconstructitonnewlinesofhisown.Thelossofthosewhomwelovehabituallyleadsourthoughtsbacktothetimeofourfirstacquaintancewiththem,or,iftheseareascertainable,tothecircumstancesoftheirearlylife.InthismannerPlatoseemstohavebeenatfirstoccupiedexclusivelywiththestarting-pointofhisfriend’sphilosophy,andweknow,fromthenarrativegivenintheApologia,underwhatformhecametoconceiveit.Wehaveattemptedtoshowthattheaccountalludedtocannotbeentirelyhistorical.NeverthelessitseemssufficientlyclearthatSocratesbeganwithaconvictionofhisownignorance,andthathiseffortstoimproveotherswereprefacedbytheextractionofasimilarconfessionofignoranceontheirpart.Itisalsocertainthatthroughlifeheregardedthecausesofphysicalphenomenaasplacedbeyondthereachofhumanreasonandreservedbythegodsfortheirownexclusivecognisance,pointing,bywayofproof,tothenotoriousdifferencesofopinionprevalentamongthosewhohadmeddledwithsuchmatters.Thus,hisscepticismworkedintwodirections,butontheonesideitwasonlyprovisionalandontheotheritwasonlypartial.Platobeganbycombiningthetwo.Hemaintainedthathumannescienceisuniversalandnecessary;thatthegodshadreservedallknowledgeforthemselves;andthattheonlywisdomleftformenisaconsciousnessoftheirabsoluteignorance.TheSocraticstarting-pointgavethecentreofhisagnosticcircle;theSocratictheologygavethedistanceatwhichitwasdescribed.Herewehavetonotetwothings—first,thebreadthofgeneralisationwhichdistinguishesthedisciplefromthemaster;and,secondly,thesymptomsofastrong181religiousreactionagainstGreekhumanism.EvenbeforetheendofthePeloponnesianWar,evidenceofthisreactionhadappeared,andtheBacchaeofEuripidesbearsstrikingtestimonytoitsgloomyandfanaticalcharacter.ThelastagonyofAthens,thecollapseofherpower,andthesubsequentperiodofoligarchicterrorism,musthavegivenastimulustosuperstitionlikethatwhichquiterecentlyafflictedFrancewithanepidemicofapparitionsandpilgrimagesalmosttoochildishforbelief.Platofollowedthegeneralmovement,althoughonamuchhigherplane.Whilelookingdownwithundisguisedcontemptontheimmoralidolatryofhiscountrymen,hewasequallyopposedtotheirreligionoftheNewLearning,and,hadanopportunitybeengivenhim,hewould,liketheReformersofthesixteenthcentury,haveputdownbothwithimpartialseverity.NorwasthistheonlyanalogybetweenhispositionandthatofaLutheroraCalvin.Likethem,andindeedlikeallgreatreligiousteachers,heexaltedtheCreatorbyenlargingonthenothingnessofthecreature;justasChristianityexhibitstheholinessofGodincontrastandcorrelationwiththesinfulnessofunregeneratehearts;justastoPindarman’slifeseemedbutthefleetingshadowinadreamwhencomparedwiththebeautyandstrengthandimmortalityoftheOlympiandivinities;soalsodidPlatodeepenthegloomofhumanignorancethathemightbringoutindazzlingreliefthefulnessofthatknowledgewhichhehadbeentaughttoprizeasasupremeideal,butwhich,forthatveryreason,seemedpropertothehighestexistencesalone.AndweshallpresentlyseehowPlatoalsodiscoveredaprincipleinmanbyvirtueofwhichhecouldclaimkindredwiththesupernatural,andelaboratedaschemeofintellectualmediationbywhichthefallenspiritcouldberegeneratedandmadeapartakerinthekingdomofspeculativetruth.

     

  • 草莓果eEAkb

     Thesereflectionsareoffered,notinexcusebutinexplanationofAthenianintolerance,aphenomenonfortherestunparalleledinancientGreece.Wecannotsaythatmenwerethen,oreverhavebeen,logicallyobligedtochoosebetweenatheismandsuperstition.IfinsteadofusingNousasahalf-contemptuousnicknamefortheClazomenianstranger,DhiscontemporarieshadtakenthetroubletounderstandwhatNousreallymeant,theymighthavefoundinitthepossibilityofadeepreligioussignificance;theymighthaveidentifieditwithallthatwasbestandpurestintheirownguardiangoddessAthênê;haverecogniseditastheveryfoundationoftheirownmostcharacteristicexcellences.Butvastspiritualrevolutionsarenotsoeasilyaccomplished;andwhen,beforethelapseofmanyyears,NouswasagainpresentedtotheAthenianpeople,thistimeactuallypersonifiedasanAtheniancitizen,itwasagainmisunderstood,againrejected,andbecametheoccasionforadisplayofthesamepersecutingspirit,unhappilypushedtoamorefatalextreme.

  • 绿卡纸ppUgt

    IV.

     

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