温德青教授:从声学分析到音乐创作

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Reviewingthesemechanicalconditions,wemayatonceseesufficientreasonsfortheplatenmovementofplaningmachines;andthatitwouldbeobjectionable,ifnotimpossible,toaddatraversingorcuttingactiontotoolsalreadysupportedthroughthemediumofeightjoints.Totraverseforcuttingwouldrequireamovinggibjointinplaceoftheboltedone,betweenthestandardsandmainframe,leadingtoacomplicationofjointsandmovementsquiteimpracticable.

Finally,itmustconstantlybeborneinmindthatwhatwillbelearnedisnolessaquestionoffacultiesthaneffort,andthatthemeansofsucceedingareclosedtononewhoatthebeginningformproperplans,andfollowthempersistently.

Astothemannerofcuttingoutorplaningupthelumberforpatterns,andthemannerofframingthemtogether,itisuselesstodevotespacetothesubjecthere;onehour'spracticalobservationinapattern-shop,andanotherhourspentinexaminingdifferentkindsofpatterns,isworthmoretotheapprenticethanawholevolumewrittentoexplainhowtheselast-namedoperationsareperformed.Apattern,unlessfinishedwithpaintoropaquevarnish,willshowthemannerinwhichthewoodisdisposedinframingthepartstogether.

Thegeneralprinciplesofhammer-action,sofarasalreadyexplained,applyaswelltohammersoperatedbydirectsteam;andalearner,informingaconceptionofsteam-hammers,mustnotfallintothecommonerrorofregardingthemasmachinesdistinctfromotherhammers,orasoperatinguponnewprinciples.Asteam-hammerisnothingmorethanthecommonhammerdrivenbyanewmedium,ahammerreceivingpowerthroughtheagencyofsteaminsteadofbelts,shafts,andcranks.Thesteam-hammerinitsmostimprovedformissoperfectlyadaptedtofillthedifferentconditionsrequiredinpower-hammering,thatthereseemsnothinglefttobedesired.

Thesevariouslathes,althoughofawidelyvariedconstructionandadaptedtousesmoreorlessdissimilar,arestilltheenginelatheeitherwithsomeofitsfunctionsomittedtosimplifyandadaptittosomespecialwork,orwithsomeoftheoperativepartscompoundedtoattaingreatercapacity.

[29]Machineryoftransmission.Leavingoutthematterofapositiverelativemovementbetweenshafts,whichbeltsasameansoftransmittingpowercannotinsure,therearethefollowingconditionsthatmustbeconsideredindeterminingwhetherbeltsorothermeansshouldbeemployedintransmittingpowerfromonemachinetoanotherorbetweenthepartsofmachines.

CHAPTERXXXVII.STANDARDMEASURES.

Pressurewheels,likegravitywheels,should,fromtheoreticalinference,beexpectedtogiveahighpercent.ofpower.Thewaterrestingwiththewholeofitsweightagainstthevanesorabutments,andwithoutchanceofescapeexceptbyturningthewheel,seemstomeettheconditionsofrealisingthewholeeffectduetothegravityofthewater,andsuchwheelswouldnodoubtbeeconomicaliftheyhadnottocontendwithcertainmechanicaldifficultiesthatrenderthemimpracticableinmostcases.

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    Ontheotherhand,theamountthatanapprenticemayearnbyhislabourisgovernedbyhisnaturalcapacity,andbytheinteresthemayfeelinadvancing;alsofromtheviewhemaytakeoftheequityofhisengagement,andtheestimatethatheplacesupontheprivilegesandinstructionthathereceives.Inmanybranchesofbusiness,wherethenatureoftheoperationscarriedonaremeasurablyuniform,andhavenotforalongtimebeenmuchaffectedbychangesandimprovements,theconditionsofapprenticeshiparemoreeasytodefine;butmechanicalengineeringisthereverseofthis,itlacksuniformitybothastopracticeandwhatisproduced.Toestimatetheactualvalueofapprenticelabourinanengineering-workisnotonlyaverydifficultmatter,buttosomeextentimpracticableevenbythoseoflongexperienceandskilledinsuchinvestigations;anditisnottobeexpectedthatabeginnerwillundersuchcircumstancesbeabletounderstandthevalueofsuchlabour:heisgenerallyledtotheconclusionthatheisunfairlytreated,thathisservicesarenotsufficientlypaidfor,andthatheisnotadvancedrapidlyenough.

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    Apprenticelabour,asdistinguishedfromskilledlabour,hastobechargedwiththeextraattentioninmanagement,thelossthatisalwaysoccasionedbyaforcedclassificationofthework,theinfluenceinloweringboththequalityandtheamountofworkperformedbyskilledmen,theriskofdetentionbyfailureoraccident,andlossofmaterial;besides,apprenticesmustbechargedwiththesame,ifnotagreaterexpensethanskilledworkmen,forlight,room,oil,tools,andofficeservice.Attemptshavebeenmadeinsomeofthebest-regulatedengineeringestablishmentstofixsomeconstantestimateuponapprenticelabour,but,sofarasknown,withoutdefiniteresultsinanycase.Ifnotcombinedwithskilledlabour,itwouldbecomparativelyeasytodeterminethevalueofapprenticelabour;butwhenitcomesupasanitemintheaggregateoflabourchargedtoamachineorsomespecialworkconstructed,itisdifficult,ifnotimpossible,toseparateskilledfromunskilledservice.

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    Workshopprocesseswhicharecapableofbeingsystematisedarethemosteasytolearn.Whenaprocessisreducedtoasystemitisnolongerasubjectofspecialknowledge,butcomeswithingeneralrulesandprinciples,whichenablealearnertousehisreasoningpowerstoagreaterextentinmasteringit.

     

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     3.Twoelevationstakenatrightanglestoeachother,fixallpoints,andgivealldimensionsofpartsthathavetheiraxisparalleltotheplanesonwhichtheviewsaretaken;butwhenamachineiscomplex,orwhenseveralpartslieinthesameplane,threeandsometimesfourviewsarerequiredtodisplayallthepartsinacomprehensivemanner.

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