东方网企业精神表述语解读

pxJ40-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 04:13:01

“彩民红高手水论坛”[Seelargerversion]CHAPTERXVI.THEREIGNOFGEORGEIII.(continued).

DuringtheEasterrecess,popularmeetingswereheldcondemningtheconductofMinistersandcallingforParliamentaryReform.OnthemeetingoftheHouseagain,averystrongpetition,bearingratherthecharacterofaremonstrance,waspresentedfromtheelectorsofMiddlesexbyMr.GeorgeByng,onthe2ndofMay.TheMinisterialpartydeclaredthatthepetitionwasaninsulttotheHouse;buttheReformersmaintainedthatnotonlythelanguageofthepetition,butthewholeoftheunhappyeventswhichhadtakenplace,werethedirectconsequencesofthecorruptcharacteroftherepresentation,andoftheHousescreeningfromduepunishmentsuchculpritsastheDukeofYork,LordCastlereagh,etc.Thepetitionwasrejected;buttheverynextdayapetitionofequalvigourandplainnesswasvotedbytheLiveryofLondon,andwaspresentedonthe8th,andrejectedtoo.TheHousehadgrownsooldincorruption,thatitfeltitselfstrongenoughtorejectthepetitionsofthepeople.AmemorialwaspresentedalsoonthesamesubjectfromMajorCartwright,oneofthemostindefatigableapostlesofReform,byWhitbread,andthiswasrejectedtoo,forthemajorpronouncedthecommittalofSirFrancisaflagrantlyillegalact.DuringtheexcitementthatfollowedthepassingoftheEmancipationActincessantattacksweremadeuponthecharacteroftheDukeofWellington.PerhapsthemostviolentofthesewaspublishedintheStandardbytheEarlofWinchilsea,oneofthemostardentoftheanti-Catholicpeers,whochargedthePremierwithdisgracefulconduct.TheoffencewascontainedinaletteraddressedbyLordWinchilseatoMr.Coleridge,secretarytothecommitteeforestablishingtheKing'sCollege,London.Hesaidhefeltratherdoubtfulastothesincerityofthemotiveswhichhadactuatedsomeoftheprimemoversinthatundertaking,"whenheconsideredthatthenobledukeattheheadofhisMajesty'sGovernmenthadbeeninducedonthisoccasiontoassumeanewcharacter,andtostepforwardhimselfasthepublicadvocateofreligionandmorality."Hethenproceeded:—"LatepoliticaleventshaveconvincedmethatthewholetransactionwasintendedasablindtotheProtestantandHighChurchparty;thatthe[300]nobleduke,whohad,forsometimeprevioustothatperiod,determineduponbreakinginupontheConstitutionof1688,mightthemoreeffectually,underthecloakofsomeoutwardshowofzealfortheProtestantreligion,carryonhisinsidiousdesignsfortheinfringementofourliberties,andtheintroductionofPoperyintoeverydepartmentoftheState."TheDukehavingobtainedfromLordWinchilseaanavowaloftheauthorship,demandedaretractationorapology,whichwasrefused.Thematterwasthenreferredtofriends,andahostilemeetingwasagreedupon."Itis,"saysMr.Gleig,"acuriousfeatureinthissomewhatunfortunateoccurrence,thatwhenthemomentforactionarriveditwasfoundthattheDukedidnotpossessapairofduelling-pistols.Consideringthelengthoftimehehadspentinthearmy,andthehabitsofmilitarysocietytowardsthecloseofthelastcentury,thatfactboreincontestableevidencetotheconciliatorytemperandgreatdiscretionoftheDuke.SirHenryHardinge,therefore,whoactedashisfriend,wasforcedtolookforpistolselsewhere,andborrowedthematlast—hehimselfbeingasunprovidedashisprincipal—fromDr.Hume,themedicalmanwhoaccompaniedthemtotheground.ThecombatantsmetinBatterseaFields,nowBatterseaPark.LordWinchilsea,attendedbytheEarlofFalmouth,havingreceivedtheDuke'sfire,dischargedhispistolintheair.Awrittenexplanationwasthenproduced,whichtheDukedeclinedtoreceiveunlesstheword'apology'wasinserted;andthispointbeingyielded,theyseparatedastheyhadmet,withcoldcivility."

Whilethelandedinterestwerethusshowingtheirdeterminationtomaintain,atallhazards,thelawsforpreventingtheimportationofforeigncorn,aspiritofoppositionhadbeengrowingupinthelargemanufacturingtownsofLancashireandYorkshire,which,thoughonlypartiallysharedinbytheworkingclasses,wasalreadysignificantoftheapproachingdownfallofthesystemofmonopoly.ThefirstusemadebyManchesterofitsconstitutionasapoliticalboroughbytheReformActwastosendtoParliamentMr.PoulettThomsonandMr.MarkPhilips,twomemberslongconspicuousintheHouseforthezealandabilitywithwhichtheysupportedtheprinciplesofFreeTrade.TheManchesternewspapersgenerallyadvocatedthesameviews;andManchesterbecameregardedasthecentreoftheAnti-CornLawagitation.Noorganisedmovement,however,hadyetbeenattempted.Aseriesofgoodharvestsfrom1832to1835rendereditextremelydifficulttoarousepublicattentiontotheinjusticewhichthebreadlawinvariablyinflictedinlessfavourablecircumstances.Nevertheless,theeffortwasmade.InJanuary,1834,ameetingofmerchantsandmanufacturerswasheldintheManchesterExchangeCommittee-room,toconsiderhowthecauseofCornLawRepealwastobeforwarded,atwhichsomepowerfulspeechesweredeliveredbythemembersfortheboroughandotherspeakersofinfluence.Acommitteewasappointed,whichtimidlyendeavouredtoavoidtheappearanceofapoliticalagitationandfinallyendedbydoingnothing.ButsoonthedesultoryoppositiontothebreadtaxoftheManchesterChamberofCommerce—abodywhichhadonlypresentedonepetitiononthesubjectinsevenyears—wasnolongersufficienttorepresentthefeelingofthatgreatcentreofindustry.SevenmenunitedthemselvesinthemonthofOctober,1838,toadvocatethefreedomoftrade.ThenamesofthosesevenmembersarenowscarcelyrememberedoutofManchester,withtheexceptionofMr.ArchibaldPrentice,thehistorianoftheLeague,whosenewspaper,theManchesterTimes,hadfoughtwithconsiderabletalent,andwithinexhaustibleenergyonthesideofallthegreatreformsofthisimportantperiodinourhistory.Inthatnewspaperforthe13thofOctoberalistoftheProvisionalCommitteeofanewAnti-CornLawAssociationwasforthefirsttimepublished.Itcomprisedthirty-sevennames,chieflyofManchestermanufacturers,andendedwiththemodest[482]notethat"Subscriptions,5s.each,wouldbereceivedbythemembersofthatcommittee."Suchwasthesimpleoriginofthatvastmovementwhich,afewyearslater,compelledtheverychiefsofthelandowners'partyinParliamenttobecometheinstrumentsforcarryingoutmeasuresmoresweepingthaneventhemostardentFreeTradershadregardedaspossible.Butmenofinfluencewerebeginningtojointhemovement.ThelistoftheProvisionalCommitteecontainedatleastonenamewhichafterwardsbecamefamous—thatofMr.JohnBright.ThreeofthembecamemembersofParliamentatalaterdate,andanother,Mr.GeorgeWilson,wasafterwardsknownasthepermanentchairmanoftheLeague.

EDMUNDBURKE.(AftertheportraitbyGeorgeRomney.)EncouragedbylanguagelikethisfromMinistersoftheCrown,thevoiceofthenationbecamelouderandmoremenacingeveryday.Meetings,attendedbyvastmultitudesofangryanddeterminedmen,wereheldinLiverpool,Glasgow,Edinburgh,andmostofthelargetowns,especiallywherethedemocraticelementwaspredominant.TheworstandmostdestructiveoftheriotswasatBristol.TherecorderofBristolwasSirCharlesWetherell,notedforhisvehemenceinopposingReform.Consideringtheexcitementanddesperationthathadbeenrecentlyexhibitedthroughoutthekingdom,itwasscarcelyprudentforSirCharlesWetherelltoappearinBristolatallonthatoccasion.Atallevents,heshouldhaveenteredthecityprivately,anddischargedthedutiesofhisofficeasquietlyaspossible.Insteadofthat,hemadeapublicandpompousentryintothecityonthe20thofOctober,accompaniedbythemagistratesandacavalcadeoftheTorygentry.Thisoffensivepageantwasnaturallyfollowedbyamobofdisorderlycharacters,hissingandgroaning.Theysoonbegantothrowstonesandbrickbats,especiallywhentherespectablecitizensatthecommercialroomsreceivedtheirpolemicalrecorderwiththreecheers.Themansion-housewasassailedwithashowerofmissiles.Themayorhavingcalledupontheminvaintoretire,theRiotActwasread,butthemilitarywerenotcalledouttoenforceit.Insteadofdispersing,themoboverpoweredtheconstablesanddrovethemback,forcedopenthedoorsofthemansion-house,smashedthefurniture,andarmedthemselveswiththeironrailswhichtheytoreupfromthefrontofthebuilding.SirCharlesWetherellandthemagistratesprovidentiallyescapedbyabackdoor,andtherecordermadeanundignifiedretreatfromthecity.Themilitarywereatlengthcalledout,andaftersometimethedisturbanceseemedtobequelled,andthedragoons,whohadbeenmuchfatigued,retiredforthenight.Bristol,itissaid,hasalwaysbeendistinguishedforabadmob.Onthenextdaytheriotersproceededtothemansion-house,brokeopenitscellars,andregaledthemselveswiththecontents.Themilitarywereagainbroughtouttoquellthenowintoxicatedrioters;buttherewasnomagistratetheretogiveorders,andthetroopsweremarchedbacktothe[341]barracks.Themobthenproceededindetachedparties,eachhavingaworkofdestructionassignedtoit.Onepartywenttothebridewell,brokeopenthedoors,liberatedtheprisoners,andthensetthebuildingonfire.Anotherwenttothenewgaolandperformedasimilaroperationthere.TheGloucestercountyprisonwasnextbrokenopenandconsignedtotheflames.Theprincipaltoll-housesaboutthecitysharedthesamefate.Thebishop'spalacewaspillagedandburnedtotheground.Becomingmoremaddenedastheyproceeded,theirpassionsragingmorefuriouslyatthesightoftheconflagrationasitspread,themobresolvedthatnopublicbuildingshouldbeleftstanding.Themansion-house,thecustom-house,theexciseoffice,andotherpublicbuildingswerewraptinflames,whichwereseenburstingforthwithawfulrapidityoneveryside.Theblackenedandsmokingwallsofbuildingsalreadyburnedwerefallingfrequentlywithterrificcrashing,whileQueen'sSquareandtheadjoiningstreetswerefilledwithamaniacalmultitude,yellingintriumphandreelingwithintoxication;manyofthemlyingsenselessonthepavement,andnotafewconsumedinthefireswhichtheyhadraised.Inadditiontothepublicbuildings,forty-twodwelling-housesandwarehouseswereburned.Thelossofpropertywasestimatedathalfamillionsterling.ThisworkofdestructionwascommencedonSunday,andcarriedonduringthenight.Theskywasreddenedwiththeconflagration,whilethemilitary(whohadbeensentintothecountrytoavoidirritatingthepeople)andtheparalysedauthoritieslookedonhelplesslyfromadistanceattheprogressofdestruction.OnMondaymorning,however,theyrecoveredfromtheirconsternation,andresolvedtomakeanefforttosavethecity.Themagistratesorderedthemilitarytoact,andunderthecommandofanofficerofthe14th,thedragoonschargedtheriotersinearnest.Apanicnowseizedthemob,whofledinterrorbeforetheflashingswordsofthetroopsandthetramplinghoofsoftheirhorses,someofthemsoterror-strickenthattheyrushedforsafetyintoburninghouses.Thenumberofpersonskilledandwoundedduringthisterrible[342]businesswasascertainedtobe110,anditissupposedthatmanymorethatwereneverheardoflosttheirlivesintheburninghouses.TheringleadersweretriedinDecember,whenmanypersonswereconvicted,ofwhomthreeunderwentthepunishmentofdeath.

OurnextgreatmovewasagainsttheFrenchintheCarnatic.AftervariousactionsbetweentheFrenchandEnglishinIndiaduringtheSevenYears'War,GeneralCountdeLally,anofficerofIrishextraction,arrivedatPondicherryinApril,1758,withaforceofonethousandtwohundredmen.LallyattackedandtookFortSt.David,consideredthestrongestfortbelongingtotheEastIndiaCompany,andthen,musteringallhisforces,madehisappearance,inDecemberofthatyear,beforeMadras.HehadwithhimtwothousandsevenhundredFrenchandfourthousandnatives,whilsttheEnglishhadinthetownfourthousandtroopsonly,ofwhichmorethanhalfweresepoys.ButCaptainCaillaudhadmarchedwithasmallforcefromTrichinopoly,whichharassedtherearoftheFrench.AftermakinghimselfmasteroftheBlackTown,andthreateningtoburnitdown,hefounditimpossibletocompelFortSt.Georgetosurrender,and,aftera[178]severesiegeoftwomonths,ontheappearanceofAdmiralPococke'ssquadron,whichhadsailedtoBombayformoretroops,hedecampedinthenightofthe16thofFebruary,1759,forArcot,leavingbehindhimallhisammunitionandartillery,fifty-twopieces.FreshcombatstookplacebetweenPocockeandD'Achéatsea,andtheforcesonland.ColonelBreretonattemptedtotakeWandewash,butfailed;anditremainedforColonelEyreCootetodefeatLally.CootearrivedatMadrasonthe27thofOctober,and,underhisdirection,BreretonsucceededintakingWandewashonthelastofNovember.Torecoverthisplace,Lallymarchedwithallhisforce,supportedbyBussy,butsustainedasignaldefeatonthe22ndofJanuary,1760.Arcot,Trincomalee,andotherplacesfellrapidlyintothehandsofColonelCoote.TheFrenchcalledintotheiraidtheNabobofMysore,HyderAli,buttolittlepurpose.Pondicherrywasinvestedonthe8thofDecember,and,onthe16thofJanuary,1761,itsurrendered,Lallyandhistroops,amountingtotwothousand,remainingprisoners.ThiswastheterminationoftherealpowerofFranceinIndia;forthoughPondicherrywasrestoredbythetreatyof1763,theFrenchneveragainrecoveredtheirgroundthere,andtheirEastIndiaCompanysoonafterwasbrokenup.TheunfortunateLallyonhisreturntoFrancewasthrownintotheBastille,condemnedforhightreason,andbeheadedinthePlacedeGrèveonthe9thofMay,1766.

ThecaseoftheIrishChurchwasstatedbySirRobertPeel,LordStanley,andSirJamesGraham,whoarguedthatitsrevenuesweregreatlyexaggerated,subjectedtoheavydrawbacksanddeductions.Thevestrycesshadbeenabolished.Ataxexclusivelybornebytheclergyofthreetofifteenpercent.hadbeenlaiduponalllivings,andtheChurchTemporalitiesActprovidedthatinallparishesinwhichservicehadnotbeenperformedfrom1830to1833,whenavacancyoccurred,thereshouldbenoreappointment,andtherevenuesofthatliving,afterpayingacurate,shouldbedestinedtootherparishesdifferentlysituated,butforpurposesstrictlyProtestant.Herewasaprovisionalreadymadeforthe[384]progressivediminutionorextinctionoftheEpiscopalChurchinthosedistrictswhereitwasnotcalledfor,andcouldbeofnoutility.Whence,then,theanxietytotakeawayasurplus,whichprobablywouldnotexceed£100,000ayear,fromaChurchalreadysubjectedtosuchheavyandexclusiveburdens?ItwasnotpretendedthattheobjectofthisappropriationwastoapplytheincomeseizedtothepaymentoftheNationalDebt,orthatitwasjustifiedbyStatenecessity.Theyarguedthatiftheappropriationclause,asnowshaped,oncepassedintolaw,notonlywouldtheProtestantfaithceasetobetheestablishedreligioninIreland,butthemeasurewouldbefataltotheEstablishedChurchinEnglandalso.Infact,theConservativescontendedthatthiswasonlythefirstofaseriesofmeasuresavowedlyintendedtoannihilatetheProtestantEstablishment.O'ConnellproposedtoconfiscatethepropertyoftheChurch,inordertorelievethelandfromitsappropriateburdens,andtoexemptitfromthesupportofthepoor.Theyargued,therefore,thatonnoreasonablegroundcoulditbemaintainedthatthisconcessiontoIrishagitationcouldhaveanyothereffectthanstimulatingtheagitatorstomakefreshdemands.Forashorttimequietprevailed,asifthenation,andEurope,too,werestunnedbythenewsoftheexecutionoftheking.InspiteoftheloudtalkoftheJacobinsandsansculottesthroughoutFrance,therewasastartledsenseofterror—aforebodingofcalamity.InLaVendéetherewasintensehorrorandindignation.Abroad,everymonarchyseemedthrownintoanewattitudebythedeathofLouis.SpainandEngland,whichhadmaintainedacarefulneutrality,assumedathreateningaspect.Germany,whichhadnotyetfederallyallieditselfwiththemovementsofAustriaandPrussia,becameagitatedwithresentment;andHolland,bythefearofsufferingthefateofBelgium.TheaxewhichseveredtheheadofLouisfromhisbodyseemedtosevereveryinternationalsympathywithFrance.InEngland,thesensationonthenewsoftheexecutionwasprofound.PeopleingeneralhadnotbelievedthattheFrenchwouldproceedtosuchanextremitywithamonarchofsoinoffensiveacharacter.ThecrimeseemedtoverifyallthepredictionsandthedenunciationsofBurke.Therewas,exceptamongstacertainclassofalmostfranticRepublicans,auniversalfeelingofabhorrenceandexecration.Therewasagloomysenseofapproachingwar;agloomysense,asifthecatastrophewasanationalratherthanaforeignone.Pitthadhithertomaintainedapositionofneutrality.HehadcontrivedtoavoidgivinganysupporttotheroyalfamilyofFrance,whichmusthaveproducedimmediatelyhostileconsequences,buthehadnotfailed,fromtimetotime,topointoutinParliamenttheatrociousconductoftheFrenchrevolutionists,whichjustifiedallthepropheciesofBurke,andthrewshameonthelaudatorylanguageofFox.

[Seelargerversion]

Charles,accompaniedbyO'Sullivan,Sheridan,andothergentlemen,rodeawaytoaseatofLordLovat's.Thewildgallopofhorsemenstartledthatwilyoldfoxinhislair;andwhenheheardthenewstheMasterbegantotrembleforhisownsafety.Therearedifferentaccountsofhisreceptionofthefugitiveprince.Onesaysthathewassooccupiedwiththinkingofmakinghisownescape,thathehardlyshowedcommoncourtesytotheprinceandhiscompanions,andthattheypartedinmutualdispleasure.AnotherstatesthatLovaturgedthesameadviceasLordGeorgeMurrayhaddone,stilltogetupintothemountains,andmakeaboldface,bywhichtimemightbegainedforfreshreinforcements,oratleastformakingsometermsfortheunhappypeople.ButitisclearthatCharleshadnowlostallspirit,ifhehadeverretainedmuchafterhehadbeenforcedtoretreatfromDerby.Heandhispartyrodeawayagainatteno'clockatnight,andreachedInvergarry,thecastleofGlengarry,abouttwohoursbeforedaybreak.LordGeorgestillentertainedtheideaofkeepingtogetheralargebodyofHighlanders.Hehadalreadywithhimonethousandtwohundred.CharleshadstolenawayfromInvergarrytoArkaig,inLochaber,andthencetoGlenboisdale,wherethemessengersofLordGeorgefoundhim,accompaniedonlybyO'Sullivan,O'Neil,andBurke,hisservant,whoknewthecountryandactedasguide.Alltherestofhistrainhadshiftedforthemselves.LordGeorgeentreatedtheprincenottoquitthecountry,buttocontinuetogatheraforceinthemountains,andthusresistandharasstheirenemiestilltheyreceivedreinforcements;butCharlessenthimwordthattheonlychancewasforhimselftohastenovertoFrance,anduseallhisinteresttobringoveranefficientforce.HethereforesentLordGeorgeawrittenplanofhisintentions,whichwasnot,however,tobeopenedtillhehadsailed;andhedesiredLordGeorgetorequestthedifferentchiefsandtheirmentoseektheirownsafetyasbesttheymight.ThatactterminatedtheRebellion.

Duringthesummer,meetingsofasimilarcharacterwereheldatCork,Longford,Drogheda,Kilkenny,Mallow,Dundalk,Baltinglass,Tara,andotherplaces.AtTara,inthecountyMeath,onthe15thofAugust,animmensemultitudewasassembled—250,000,atthelowestestimate,butrepresentedbytheRepealjournalsasfourtimesthatnumber.Theplacewasselectedbecauseofitsassociationwiththeoldnationalityofthecountry,whereitsancientkingswereelectedandcrowned.O'Connell'sspeechonthisoccasionwasdefiantintone,andinthehighestdegreeinflammatory.ReferringtoaspeechoftheDukeofWellington,hesaid,"TheDukeofWellingtonisnowtalkingofattackingus,andIamgladofit.TheQueen'sarmyisthebravestarmyintheworld,butIfeelittobeafactthatIreland,rousedassheisatthepresentmoment,would,iftheymadewaruponus,furnishwomenenoughtobeatthewholeoftheQueen'sforces."TheLordChancellorSugdenhavingrecentlydeprivedofthecommissionofthepeaceallmagistrateswhoweremembersoftheRepealAssociation,Mr.O'ConnellannouncedthatthedismissedmagistrateswouldbeappointedbytheRepealAssociationasarbitratorstosettlealldisputesamongthepeople,whowerenotagaintogotothepettysessions.Hepronouncedtheuniontobenull,tobeobeyedasaninjusticesupportedbylaw,untiltheyhadtheroyalauthoritytosetthematterrightandsubstitutetheirownParliament.Inhisspeechafterdinnertoamoreselectaudience,hesaidthatthestatesmanwasadrivellerwhodidnotrecollectthemightthatslumbersinapeasant'sarm,andwhoexpectedthat700,000suchmenwouldendureoppressionforever.Anoutbreakwouldsurelycome,thoughnotinhistime,andthentheGovernmentandgentrywouldweep,intearsofblood,theirwantofconsiderationandkindnesstothecountrywhosepeoplecouldrewardthemamplybythedevotionoftheirheartsandthevigouroftheirarms.Whatwerethegentryafraidof?Itcouldnotbeofthepeople,fortheywereunderthestrictestdiscipline.Noarmywasevermoresubmissivetoitsgeneralthanthe[527]peopleofIrelandweretothewishesofasingleindividual.

CHAPTERXIV.THEREIGNOFVICTORIA(continued).TheremnantoftheBeloocheeforceswerehuntedforsomeweeksbyflyingcolumns.Atlength,CaptainRoberts,attheheadofoneofthem,capturedthebrotherofShereMahommedand1,000ofhisfollowers.AnothercolumnwasattackedbytheAmeerhimself;buthisfollowers,[593]afterthefirstroundoffire,dispersed.ThewholemilitaryforceoftheAmeerswasnowannihilated,andtheconquestofScindewascomplete."Ithink,"saidSirCharlesNapier,"ImayventuretosaythatScindeisnowsubdued.TheScindianpopulationeverywhereexpresstheirsatisfactionatthechangeofmasters."NodoubtthechangefromMohammedantoBritishrulewasanadvantagetothepoorHindoos;andifitbeallowabletodoevilthatgoodmaycome,LordEllenboroughwasjustifiedinthemeanshehadadoptedforsupplantingtheAmeers.

Themeasure,whichwasfoundedontherecommendationsofthereport,wasadvocatedprincipallybyLordJohnRussell,LordMelbourne,andMr.C.Hobhouse.Theplanwasintendedtoprovidefor183corporations,extendingtoapopulationofatleast2,000,000.Manyofthesecorporationsgovernedlargeandimportanttowns,ofwhichtheydidnotsufficientlyrepresenttheproperty,intelligence,andpopulation.InBedfordthecorporationcomposedonlyoneinseventyofthepeople,andone-fortiethoftheproperty.InOxfordtherewereonly1,400electors,andseldommorethan500votedatanelection.InNorwich315oftheelectorswerepaupers.InCambridgetherewereonly118freemen,outofapopulationof20,000;andwhiletheannualrentalwasmorethan£25,000,thepropertyoffreemenamountedtolittlemorethan£2,000.Thesewereonlysamplesofthestrangeanomaliesthateverywhereprevailed.Itwasobvioustoeveryonethatcorporationssoconstitutedwerealtogetherunfittedfortheobjectswhichtheywereoriginallydesignedtoanswer.Onthecontrary,theytendeddirectlytofrustratethoseobjects,andtorenderthepropergovernmentoftownsimpracticable.Theyengenderedjealousyanddistrustbetweenthesmallgoverningpowerandthebodyofthepeople.Afewpersonscarryingonthegovernmentfortheirownbenefitwereconnectedwithaportionofthelowerclasses,whosevotestheypurchasedandwhosehabitstheydemoralised.Withsuchamonopolythegrossestabuseswereinevitable.Charitablefunds,oftenlargeinamount,whichhadbeenleftforthebenefitofthewholepeople,wereeitherlavishlydistributedamongthevenaldependentsofthegoverningbody,squanderedoncivicfeasts,orspentinbribingthefreemeninordertosecuretheirvotes.Inshort,thegeneralifnottheuniversalpracticehadbeentousethepowersofmunicipalcorporations,notforthegoodgovernmentorbenefitofthetownsoverwhichtheypresided—notinorderthattheymightbewellandquietlygovernedinthetermsofthecharters,butforthesolepurposeofestablishinganinterestwhichmightbeusefulintheelectionofmembersofParliament.

Foxandhispartystillmaintainedavigorousandperseveringendeavourtoremainatpeace;butheweakenedhiseffortsbyprofessingtobelievethatwemightyetenterintosubstantialengagementswiththeFrench,whohadatthismomentnopermanentsettledGovernmentatall,butasetofpuppetMinisters,ruledbyaConvention,andtheConventionruledbyamobflamingwiththeideasofuniversalconquestanduniversalplunder.IfFoxhadadvocatedthewisdomofmaintainingthedefensiveasmuchaspossible,andconfiningourselvestodefendingourDutchallies,aswewerebound,hiswordswouldhavehadmoreweight;buthisassurancethatwemightmaintainafullandfriendlyconnectionwithapeoplethatwerebutcheringeachotherathome,andbelyingalltheirmostsolemnprofessionsof[416]equityandfraternitytowardstheirdupesabroad,onlyenabledPitttoaskhimwithwhomhewouldnegotiate—WasitwithRobespierre,orthemonsterMarat,thenintheascendant?"But,"addedPitt,"itisnotmerelytothecharacterofMarat,withwhomwewouldnowhavetotreat,thatIobject;itisnottothehorrorofthosecrimeswhichhavestainedtheirlegislators—crimesineverystagerisingaboveoneanotherinenormity,—butIobjecttotheconsequencesofthatcharacter,andtotheeffectofthosecrimes.Theyaresuchasrenderanegotiationuseless,andmustentirelydepriveofstabilityanypeacewhichcouldbeconcludedinsuchcircumstances.ThemomentthatthemobofPariscomesunderanewleader,maturedeliberationsarereversed,themostsolemnengagementsareretracted,orfreewillisaltogethercontrolledbyforce.Allthecrimeswhichdisgracehistoryhaveoccurredinonecountry,inaspacesoshort,andwithcircumstancessoaggravated,astooutrunthoughtandexceedimagination."Infact,tohavemadeanalliancewithFranceatthatmoment,andforlongafterwards,wouldhavebeentosanctionhercrimes,andtosharetheinfamyofherviolenceandlawlessnessabroad.

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  • 雨花郡主C0pUR

     

  • 雪灵芝g3FGM

    ThatverydayGeneralSmithreachedCorregauminforce,andatthisapparitionthePeishwafledbacktowardsthesourcesoftheKistnah,whencehehaddescended.NotonlyGeneralSmith,butBrigadier-GeneralPritzlerandColonelBoleskeptupthepursuit,advancingfromdifferentquarters,astheslipperyMahrattachiefturnedandman?uvred.Atlengthwearyofthechase,theydeterminedtoreduceSatara,hiscapital,andtheneachofhisstrongfortsandtownsoneafteranother,thusdeprivinghimofsupplies,andleavinghimnoplaceofrefugeorsubsistence.SatarasurrenderedtoGeneralSmithonthe10thofFebruary,thesamedaythatheappearedbeforeit.Asoneplaceafteranotherfell,Gokla,thePeishwa'sgeneral,madeanefforttoarrestthisprocessofreduction,andthisenabledGeneralSmithtoattackhimonthe20thofFebruary,atAshtee,wherehecompletelyroutedhim.Goklahimselfwaskilled,andthePeishwaonlyescapedbyabandoninghispalanquinandmountingahorse.GeneralSmithandLieutenantWarrandwere[141]wounded,butnotamanwaskilledontheBritishside.Greatbootywastaken,includingtwelveelephantsandfifty-sevencamels.

  • 如萱紫儿Dpd3h

    Thisall-importantquestionwasadjournedtothenextday,the8thofJune,whenitwasdebatedinacommitteeofthewholeHouse.Asthediscussion,however,tookplacewithcloseddoors,asallgreatdebatesofCongressdid,tohidetherealstateofopinion,andtogivetotheultimatedecisionanairofunanimity,thereportsofitaremeagreandunsatisfactory.Weknow,however,thatLee,theoriginalmover,wassupportedbyhiscolleagueWythe,andmostenergeticallybyJohnAdams;thatitwasasvigorouslyopposedbyJohnDickinsonandhiscolleagues,Wilson,ofPennsylvania,RobertLivingstone,ofNewYork,andJohnRutledge,ofSouthCarolina.Moreover,aconsiderablenumberofmembersfromdifferentStatesopposedthemotion,ontheground,notofitsbeingimproperinitself,but,asyet,premature.Sixcoloniesdeclaredforit,includingVirginia.Pennsylvania,NewJersey,andMarylandwereatpresentagainstit.NewYork,Delaware,andSouthCarolina,werenotdecidedtomoveyet;anditwasproposedtogivethemtimetomakeuptheirminds.Dr.Zubly,ofGeorgia,protestedagainstit,andquittedtheCongress.Togivetimeforgreaterunanimity,thesubjectwaspostponedtillthe1stofJuly;but,meanwhile,acommitteewasappointedtodrawupaDeclarationofIndependence.Themembersofthiscommitteewereonlyfive,namely,ThomasJefferson,ofVirginia;JohnAdams,ofMassachusetts;RogerSherman,ofConnecticut;RichardR.Livingstone,ofNewYork;andBenjaminFranklin,ofPennsylvania.

  • 但法国2ZVUy

     

  • 大笨蛋5R6H4

    v

  • 扒皮成INT36

     DuringthisyearlittlewasdoneinAmerica.GeneralBradstreetdefeatedabodyoftheenemyontheRiverOnondaga,and,ontheotherhand,theFrenchtookthetwosmallfortsofOntarioandOswego.

  • 草莓果yQzW1

    ThesedisordersappealedwithirresistibleforcetotheGovernmentandthelegislaturetoputanendtoasystemfraughtwithsomuchevil,andthreateningtheutterdisruptionofsocietyinIreland.Inthefirstplace,somethingmustbedonetomeetthewantsofthedestituteclergyandtheirfamilies.Accordingly,Mr.StanleybroughtinaBillinMay,1832,authorisingtheLord-LieutenantofIrelandtoadvance£60,000asafundforthepaymentoftheclergy,whowereunabletocollecttheirtithesfortheyear1831.Thismeasurewasdesignedtomeettheexistingnecessity,andwasonlyapreliminarytothepromisedsettlementofthetithequestion.ItwasthereforepassedquicklythroughbothHouses,andbecamelawonthe1stofJune.ButthemoneythusadvancedwasnotplacedontheConsolidatedFund.TheGovernmenttookuponitselfthecollectionofthearrearsoftithesandtoreimburseitselfforitsadvancesoutofthesumthatitsucceededinrecovering.ItwasamaximwithMr.Stanleythatthepeopleshouldbemadetorespectthelaw;thattheyshouldnotbeallowedtotrampleuponitwithimpunity.Theodioustaskthusassumedproducedastateofunparalleledexcitement.Thepeopleweredriventofrenzy,insteadofbeingfrightenedbytheChiefSecretarybecomingtithe-collector-general,andthearmyemployedinitscollection.ThefirstproceedingoftheGovernmenttorecoverthetithesundertheActofthe1stofJunewas,therefore,thesignalforgeneralwar.Bonfiresblazeduponthehills,therallyingsoundsofhornswereheardalongthevalleys,andthemusteringtreadofthousandsupontheroads,hurryingtothesceneofaseizureoranauction.Itwasabloodycampaign;therewasconsiderablelossoflife,andtheChurchandtheGovernmentthusbecamemoreobnoxioustothepeoplethanever.Mr.Stanleybeingthecommander-in-chiefononeside,andO'Connellontheother,thecontestwasembitteredbytheirpersonalantipathies.Itwasfoundthattheamountofthearrearsfortheyear1831was£104,285,andthatthewholeamountwhichtheGovernmentwasabletolevy,afterputtingforwarditsstrengthineverypossibleway,was£12,000,thecostofcollectionbeing£15,000,sothattheGovernmentwasnotabletoraiseasmuchmoneyaswouldpaytheexpensesofthecampaign.ThiswashowMr.Stanleyillustratedhisfavouritesentimentthatthepeopleshouldbemadetorespectthelaw.ButtheLiberalpartyamongtheProtestantsfullysympathisedwiththeanti-titherecusants.

     [Seelargerversion]

  • 绿卡纸UcqSY

    BYERNESTCROFTS,R.A.FROMTHEPAINTINGINTHEWALKERARTGALLERY.

     

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