全国党媒报两会:金晶代表——守护乡愁 留住人才 

kWXJ3-news 发布时间: 2020-07-06 01:06:51

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Andhereweunexpectedlyfindourselvesconfrontedbyanewrelationbetweenancientandmodernthought.Eachactsasapowerfulprecipitantontheother,dissolvingwhatmightotherwisehavepassedforinseparableassociations,andcombiningelementswhichalesscompleteexperiencemighthaveledustoregardasnecessarilyincompatiblewithoneanother.Theinstancejustanalysedishighlysignificant;nordoesitstandalone.Modernspiritualistsoftentalkasifmoralitywasimpossibleapartfromtheirpeculiarmetaphysics.ButtheStoics,confessedlythepurestmoralistsofantiquity,wereuncompromisingmaterialists;whilethespiritualistAristotletaughtwhatisnoteasilydistinguishablefromaveryrefinedsortofegoism.Again,thedoctrineoffree-willisnowcommonlyconnectedwithabeliefintheseparabilityofconsciousnessfrommatter,and,likethat,isdeclaredtobeanindispensableconditionofmorality.AmongtheGreeks,426however,itwasheldbythematerialistEpicureansmoredistinctlythanbyanyotherschool;whiletheStoicsdidnotfindnecessarianisminconsistentwithself-sacrificingvirtue.Thepartialderivationofknowledgefromanactivityinourownmindsisanothersupposedconcomitantofspiritualism;althoughAristotletraceseveryideatoanexternalsource,whileatthesametimeholdingsomecognitionstobenecessarilytrue—atheoryrepudiatedbymodernexperientialists.ToPlato,thespiritualityofthesoulseemedtoinvolveitspre-existencenolessthanitsimmortality,aconsequencenotacceptedbyhismodernimitators.Teleologyisnowcommonlyopposedtopantheism;thetwowerecloselycombinedinStoicism;whileAristotle,althoughhebelievedinapersonalGod,attributedthemarksofdesigninNaturetopurelyunconsciousagencies.

ButeventhemostperfectmasteryofGreekwouldnot284havemadePlotinusasuccessfulwriter.Wearetoldthatbeforetakingupthepenhehadthoroughlythoughtouthiswholesubject;butthisisnottheimpressionproducedbyaperusaloftheEnneads.Onthecontrary,heseemstobethinkingashegoesalong,andtobecontinuallybesetbydifficultieswhichhehasnotforeseen.Thefrequentanddisorderlyinterruptionsbywhichhislectureswereatonetimedisturbedseemtohavemadetheirwayintohissolitarymeditations,breakingortanglingthethreadofsystematicexpositionateveryturn.Irrelevantquestionsareconstantlyintrudingthemselves,tobemetbyequallyirrelevantanswers.Thefirstmodeofexpressinganideaisfrequentlywithdrawn,andanotherputinitsplace,whichis,inmostcases,thelessintelligibleofthetwo;while,asageneralrule,whenwewanttoknowwhatathingis,Plotinusinformsuswithindefatigableprolixitywhatitisnot.

Everygreatsystemofphilosophymaybeconsideredfromfourdistinctpointsofview.Wemayaskwhatisitsvalueasatheoryoftheworldandofhumanlife,measured335eitherbythenumberofnewtruthswhichitcontains,orbythestimulustonewthoughtwhichitaffords.Orwemayconsideritfromtheaestheticside,asamonumentalstructureinterestingusnotbyitsutility,butbyitsbeautyandgrandeur.Underthisaspect,asystemmaybeadmirableforitscompleteness,coherence,andsymmetry,orforthegreatintellectualqualitiesexhibitedbyitsarchitect,althoughitmaybeopentofatalobjectionsasahabitationforhumanbeings,andmayfailtoreproducetheplanonwhichwenowknowthattheuniverseisbuilt.Or,again,ourinterestintheworkmaybepurelyhistoricalandpsychological;wemaylookonitastheproductofaparticularageandaparticularmind,assummingupforusundertheirmostabstractformtheideasandaspirationswhichatanygivenmomenthadgainedpossessionofeducatedopinion.Or,finally,wemaystudyitasalinkintheevolutionofthought,asaresultofearliertendencies,andanantecedentoflaterdevelopments.WeproposetomakeafewremarksonthephilosophyofPlotinus,or,whatisthesamething,onNeo-Platonismingeneral,fromeachofthesefourpointsofview.

Mustwe,then,concludethatSocrateswas,afterall,nothingbutasortofglorifiedGreekPaley,whoseprincipalachievementwastopresentthepopularideasofhistimeonmoralsandpoliticsundertheformofarathergrovellingutilitarianism;andwhose‘evidencesofnaturalandrevealedreligion’boremuchthesamerelationtoGreekmythologyasthecorrespondinglucubrationsoftheworthyarchdeaconboretoChristiantheology?Evenwerethisthewholetruth,itshouldberememberedthattherewasanintervaloftwenty-threecenturiesbetweenthetwoteachers,whichoughttobetakendueaccountofinestimatingtheirrelativeimportance.Socrates,withhisclosely-reasoned,vividly-illustratedethical125expositions,hadgainedatacticaladvantageoverthevaguedeclamationsofGnomicpoetryandtheisolatedaphorismsoftheSevenSages,comparabletothatpossessedbyXenophonandhisTenThousandindealingwiththeunwieldymassesofPersianinfantryandtheundisciplinedmountaineersofCarduchia;whilehisideaofauniformlybeneficentCreatormarkedastillgreateradvanceonthejealousdivinitiesofHerodotus.Ontheotherhand,asagainstHumeandBentham,Paley’spseudo-scientificparaphernaliawerelikethemusketsandcannonofanAsiaticarmywhenconfrontedbytheEnglishconquerorsofIndia.YethadSocratesdonenomorethancontributedtophilosophytheideajustalludedto,hisplaceintheevolutionofthought,thoughhonourable,wouldnothavebeenwhatitisjustlyheldtobe—unique.WhentheAcademicianspassfromtheformtothematterofdogmaticphilosophy,theircriticismsacquiregreaterinterestandgreaterweight.Onthisground,theirassaultsareprincipallydirectedagainstthetheologyoftheirStoicandEpicureanrivals.Itishereinparticularthat151CarneadesrevealshimselftousastheHumeofantiquity.Neverhasthecaseforagnosticismbeenmorepowerfullymadeoutthanbyhimorbythediscipleswhomheinspired.Totheargumentfortheexistenceofsupernaturalbeingsderivedfromuniversalconsent,hereplies,first,thattheopinionofthevulgarisworthless,andsecondly,thatmen’sbeliefsaboutthegodsarehopelesslyatvariancewithoneanother,eventhesamedivinitybeingmadethesubjectofnumberlessdiscordantlegends.238Hereducesthepolytheisticdeificationofnaturalobjectstoanabsurditybyforcingitbackthroughaseriesofinsensiblegradationsintoabsolutefetichism.239Thepersonificationofmentalqualitiesissimilarlytreated,untilanhypothesisisprovidedforeverypassingmood.240Then,turningtothemorephilosophicaldeismoftheStoics,heassailstheirtheoryofthedivinebenevolencewithinstanceafterinstanceoftheapparentmalevolenceandiniquitytobefoundinNature;vividlyremindingoneofthefactsadducedbyMr.HerbertSpencerinconfutationofthesimilarviewsheldbymodernEnglishtheologians.241Asagainstthewholetheoryoffinalcauses,Carneadesarguesafteramethodwhich,thoughlogicallysound,couldnotthenpresentitselfwiththeauthoritywhichadvancingsciencehasmorerecentlyshownittopossess.‘WhatyouStoics,’hesays,152‘explainastheresultofconsciouspurpose,otherphilosophers,likeStratoforinstance,explainwithequalplausibilityastheresultofnaturalcausation.AndsuchisourignoranceoftheforcesatworkinNaturethatevenwherenomechanicalcausecanbeassigned,itwouldbepresumptuoustomaintainthatnonecanexist.242Thereignoflawdoesnotnecessarilyprovethepresenceofintelligence;itismerelytheevidenceofauniformmovementquiteconsistentwithallthatweknowabouttheworkingofunconsciousforces.243Tocontend,withSocrates,thatthehumanmindmustbederivedfromaUniversalMindpervadingallNaturewouldlogicallyinvolvethetransferofeveryhumanattributetoitsoriginalsource.244AndtosaythattheSupremeBeing,becauseitsurpassesman,mustpossessanintelligencelikehis,isnomorerationalthantomakethesameassumptionwithregardtoagreatcitybecauseitissuperiortoanant.’245

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Butonlookingatthematteralittlemoreclosely,weshallfindthatPlotinusonlysetinaclearerlightwhathadallalongbeentheleadingmotiveofhispredecessors.WehavealreadyobservedthatPlato’swholemythologicalmachineryisonlyafancifulwayofexpressingthatindependentexperiencewhichthemindderivesfromthestudyofitsownspontaneousactivity.AndtheprocessofgeneralisationdescribedintheSymposiumisreallylimitedtomoralphenomena.Plato’sstandpointislessindividualisticthanthatofPlotinusinsofarasitinvolvesacontinualreferencetothebeliefs,experiences,andwantsofothermen;butitisequallysubjective,inthesenseofinterpretingallNaturebytheanalogiesofhumanlife.Thereareevenoccasionswhenhisspiritualismgoesthelengthofinculcatingcompletewithdrawalfromtheworldofcommonlifeintoanidealsphere,whenheseemstoidentifyevilwithmatter,whenhereducesallvirtuetocontemptfortheinterestsofthebody,inlanguagewhichhisAlexandriansuccessorcouldadoptwithoutanymodificationofitsobviousmeaning.434

Itwasfrommathematicalsciencethatthelightofcertaintyfirstbroke.Socrateshadnotencouragedthestudyofmathematics,eitherpureorapplied;nor,ifwemayjudgefromsomedisparagingallusionstoHippiasandhislecturesintheProtagoras,didPlatoatfirstregarditwithanyparticularfavour.Hemayhaveacquiredsomenotionsofarithmeticandgeometryatschool;buttheintimateacquaintancewith,anddeepinterestinthem,manifestedthroughouthislaterworks,probablydatesfromhisvisitstoItaly,Sicily,Cyrênê,andEgypt.IneachoftheseplacestheexactscienceswerecultivatedwithmoreassiduitythanatAthens;insouthernItalytheyhadbeenbroughtintocloseconnexionwithphilosophybyasystemofmysticalinterpretation.ThegloryofdiscoveringtheirtruespeculativesignificancewasreservedforPlato.JustashehaddetectedaprofoundanalogybetweentheSocraticscepticismandtheHeracleiteanflux,soalso,byanothervividintuition,hesawinthedefinitionsanddemonstrationsofgeometryatypeoftruereasoning,aparticularapplicationoftheSocraticlogic.Thusthetwostudieswerebroughtintofruitfulreaction,theonegainingawiderapplicability,andtheotheranexactermethodofproof.Themathematicalspiritultimatelyproved211toostrongforPlato,andpetrifiedhisphilosophyintoalifelessformalism;butnoextraneousinfluencehelpedsomuchtobringaboutthecompletematurityofhisconstructivepowers,innodirectionhashemoreprofoundlyinfluencedthethoughtoflaterages.Theparentageofthetwoideaswillfurtherelucidatetheiressentiallyheterogeneouscharacter.FormodernCommunismisanoutgrowthofthedemocratictendencieswhichPlatodetested;andassuchhaditscounterpartinancientAthens,ifwemaytrusttheEcclêsiazusaeofAristophanes,wherealsoitisassociatedwithunbridledlicentiousness.155Plato,onthe261contrary,seemstohavereceivedthefirstsuggestionofhisCommunismfromthePythagoreanandaristocraticconfraternitiesofSouthernItaly,wheretheprinciplethatfriendshaveallthingsincommonwasanacceptedmaxim.

StillmoreimportantwastheantithesisbetweenNatureandconvention,which,sofarasweknow,originatedexclusivelywithHippias.Wehavealreadyobservedthatuniversalityandnecessitywere,withtheGreeks,standingmarksofnaturalness.Thecustomsofdifferentcountrieswere,ontheotherhand,distinguishedbyextremevariety,amountingsometimestodiametricalopposition.Herodotuswasfondofcallingattentiontosuchcontrasts;only,hedrewfromthemtheconclusionthatlaw,tobesoarbitrary,mustneedspossesssupremeandsacredauthority.AccordingtothemoreplausibleinterpretationofHippias,thevariety,andatleastinGreekdemocracies,thechangeabilityoflawprovedthatitwasneithersacrednorbinding.Healsolookedonartificialsocialinstitutionsasthesolecauseofdivisionanddiscordamongmankind.HerewealreadyseethedawnofacosmopolitanismafterwardspreachedbyCynicand82Stoicphilosophers.Furthermore,todiscoverthenaturalruleofright,hecomparedthelawsofdifferentnations,andselectedthosewhichwereheldbyallincommonasthebasisofanethicalsystem.63Now,thisispreciselywhatwasdonebytheRomanjuristslongafterwardsundertheinspirationofStoicalteaching.WehaveitonthehighauthorityofSirHenryMainethattheyidentifiedtheJusGentium,thatis,thelawssupposedtobeobservedbyallnationsalike,withtheJusNaturale,thatis,thecodebywhichmenweregovernedintheirprimitiveconditionofinnocence.Itwasbyagradualapplicationofthisidealstandardthatthenumerousinequalitiesbetweendifferentclassesofpersons,enforcedbyancientRomanlaw,wereremoved,andthatcontractwassubstitutedforstatus.Aboveall,theabolitionofslaverywas,ifnotdirectlycaused,atanyratepowerfullyaided,bythebeliefthatitwasagainstNature.AtthebeginningofthefourteenthcenturywefindLouisHutin,KingofFrance,assigningasareasonfortheenfranchisementofhisserfs,that,‘accordingtonaturallaw,everybodyoughttobebornfree,’andalthoughSirH.Maineholdsthistohavebeenamistakeninterpretationofthejuridicalaxiom‘omneshominesnaturaaequalessunt,’whichmeansnotanidealtobeattained,butaprimitiveconditionfromwhichwehavedeparted:neverthelessitveryfaithfullyreproducesthetheoryofthoseGreekphilosophersfromwhomtheideaofanaturallawwasderived.That,inAristotle’stimeatleast,apartyexistedwhowereopposedtoslaveryontheoreticalgroundsofrightisperfectlyevidentfromthelanguageofthePolitics.‘Somepersons,’saysAristotle,‘thinkthatslave-holdingisagainstnature,forthatonemanisaslaveandanotherfreebylaw,whilebynaturethereisnodifferencebetweenthem,forwhichreasonitisunjustasbeingtheresultofforce.’64Andheproceedstoprovethecontraryatlength.Thesamedoctrineofnaturalequalityledtoimportantpoliticalconsequences,having,againaccordingtoSir83H.Maine,contributedbothtotheAmericanDeclarationofIndependenceandtotheFrenchRevolution.

Inthetheoryofreasoningthesimplepropositionistakenasastarting-point;butinsteadofdeducingthesyllogism379fromthesynthesisoftwopremises,Aristotlereachesthepremisesthroughtheconclusion.Hetellsus,indeed,thatreasoningisawayofdiscoveringfromwhatweknow,somethingthatwedidnotknowbefore.Withhim,however,itisreallyaprocessnotofdiscoverybutofproof.Hestartswiththeconclusion,analysesitintopredicateandsubjectormajorandminor,andthen,byafurtheranalysis,introducesamiddletermconnectingthetwo.Thus,webeginwiththeproposition,‘Caiusismortal,’andproveitbyinterpolatingthenotionhumanitybetweenitstwoextremes.Fromthispointofviewthepremisesaremerelyatemporaryscaffoldingforbringingthemajorandminorintoconnexionwiththemiddleterm;andthisisalsothereasonwhyAristotlerecognisesthreesyllogisticfiguresonly,insteadofthefouradmittedbylaterlogicians.For,themiddlemayeitherbecontainedinoneextremeandcontaintheother,whichgivesusthefirstfigure;oritmaycontainboth,whichgivesthesecondfigure;orbecontainedinboth,whichgivesthethird;andthisisanexhaustiveenumerationofthepossiblecombinations.274

Nevertheless,ineachcase,subjectiveidealismhadtheeffectofconcentratingspeculation,properlysocalled,onethicalandpracticalinterests.Lockestruckthekeynoteofeighteenthcenturyphilosophywhenhepronouncedmoralitytobe‘theproperscienceandbusinessofmankindingeneral.’574Andnosoonerhadmoralitycometothefrontthanthesignificanceofancientthoughtagainmadeitselfapparent.Whetherthroughconsciousimitation,orbecausethesamecausesbroughtaboutthesameeffects,ethicalenquiriesmovedalongthelinesoriginallylaiddownintheschoolsofAthens.Whenrulesofconductwerenotdirectlyreferredtoadivinerevelation,theywerebasedeitheronasupposedlawofNature,oronthenecessitiesofhumanhappiness,oronsomecombinationofthetwo.Nothingismorecharacteristicof422theeighteenthcenturythanitsworshipofNature.Eventhetheologyoftheageisdeeplycolouredbyit;andwiththemajorityofthosewhorejectedtheologyitbecameanewreligion.ButthissentimentisdemonstrablyofGreekorigin,andfounditsmostelaborate,thoughnotitsmostabsolute,expressioninStoicism.TheStoicshadinheriteditfromtheCynics,whoheldthefaithingreaterpurity;andthese,again,sofaraswecanjudge,fromacertainSophisticschool,somefragmentsofwhoseteachinghavebeenpreservedbyXenophonandPlato;whilethefirstwhogavewidecurrencytothisfamousabstractionwas,inallprobability,Heracleitus.TotheStoics,however,isduethatintimateassociationofnaturalismwithteleologywhichmeetsusagaininthephilosophyofthelastcentury,andevennowwhereverthedoctrineofevolutionhasnotbeenthoroughlyaccepted.Itwasassumed,intheteethofallevidence,thatNaturebearsthemarksofauniformlybeneficentdesign,thatevilisexclusivelyofhumanorigin,andthatevenhumannatureisessentiallygoodwhenunspoiledbyartificialrestrictions.

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  • 雨花郡主LwiCF

    HowmuchofthecompletesystemknowninlatertimesunderthisnamewasduetoZenohimself,wedonotknow;fornothingbutafewfragmentsofhisandofhisimmediatesuccessors’writingsisleft.TheideaofcombiningAntistheneswithHeracleitus,andbothwithSocrates,probablybelongs9tothefounderoftheschool.Hissuccessor,Cleanthes,amanofcharacterratherthanofintellect,wascontenttohandonwhatthemasterhadtaught.ThencameanotherCypriote,Chrysippus,ofwhomwearetoldthatwithouthimtheStoawouldnothaveexisted;16sothoroughlydidheworkoutthesysteminallitsdetails,andsostronglydidhefortifyitspositionsagainsthostilecriticismbyaframeworkofelaboratedialectic.‘Givemethepropositions,andIwillfindtheproofs!’heusedtosaytoCleanthes.17Afterhim,nothingofimportancewasaddedtothedoctrinesoftheschool;althoughthespiritbywhichtheywereanimatedseemstohaveundergoneprofoundmodificationsinthelapseofages.

     

  • 雪灵芝b9WI9

    TheEpicureanphilosophywas,infact,thefirsttogainafootinginRome;andittherebyacquiredapositionofcomparativeequalitywiththeotherschools,towhichitwasnotreallyentitled,butwhichithaseversincesucceededinmaintaining.Thenewdoctrinefelllikeasparkonamassofcombustiblematerial.TheRomanswerefullofcuriosityaboutNatureandherworkings;fullofcontemptforthedegradingEtruscansuperstitionswhichhamperedthemateveryturn,andthefalsityofwhichwasprovingtoomuchevenfortheofficialgravityoftheirstate-appointedinterpreters;fullofimpatienceattheGreekmythologywhichwasbeginningtosubstituteitselfforthesevereabstractionsoftheirownmorespiritualfaith;265fullofloathingfortheAsiaticorgieswhichwerebeingintroducedintothehighestsocietyoftheirowncity.Epicureanismofferedthemacompleteandeasilyintelligibletheoryoftheworld,whichatthesametimecameasadeliverancefromsupernaturalterrors.Theconsequencewasthatitsdifferentpartswerethrownoutofperspective,andtheirrelativeimportancealmostreversed.Originallyframedasanethicalsystemwithcertainphysicalandtheologicalimplications,itwasinterpretedbyLucretius,andapparentlyalsobyhisRomanpredecessors,266asascientificandanti-religioussystem,withcertainreferencestoconductneitherveryprominentlybroughtforwardnorverydistinctlyconceived.168AndweknowfromthecontentsofthepapyrusrollsdiscoveredatHerculaneum,thatthosewhostudiedthesysteminitsoriginalsourcespaidparticularattentiontothevoluminousphysicaltreatisesofEpicurus,aswellastothetheologicalworksofhissuccessors.NorwasthischangeoffrontlimitedtoEpicureanism,if,aswemaysuspect,therationalisticdirectiontakenbyPanaetiuswasdue,atleastinpart,toasimilardemandonthesideofhisRomanadmirers.

  • 如萱紫儿hNi3l

  • 但法国2i0LA

    ‘Hisutterancesonthissubject[theexistenceofanexternalworld]areperhapschieflytobefoundinthethirdbookofhistreatise“OntheSoul,”beginningwiththefourthchapter.Onturningtothemweseethatheneverseparatesexistencefromknowledge.“Athinginactualexistence,”hesays,“isidenticalwiththeknowledgeofthatthing.”Again,“Thepossibleexistenceofathingisidenticalwiththepossibilityinusofperceivingorknowingit.”Thus,untilathingisperceivedorknown,itcanonlybesaidtohaveapotentialorpossibleexistence.AndfromthisadoctrineverysimilartothatofFerriermightbededuced,that“nothingexistsexceptplusme,” —thatistosay,inrelationtosomemindperceivingit.‘(Aristotle,p.165.)

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