腾讯汤道生:科技助力教育公平发展

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“湖 北 快3和 值12最 大 遗 漏”II.

AsalastillustrationoftheextenttowhichauthorityandsubordinationwerepushedinRomansociety,itmaybementionedthatthebetterclassofslaveswerepermittedtokeepslavesfortheirownservice.Butwhethertheinstitutionofslaveryasawholeshouldbereckonedamongtheconditionsfavourabletoauthoritativebeliefsisdoubtful,asitwasanelementcommontoeveryperiodofantiquity.Perhaps,howeverparadoxicalsuchanassertionmayseem,theveryfrequencyofemancipationgaveincreasedstrengthtothefeelingofdependenceonanoverrulingpersonalpower.Afreedmancouldnotforgetthatthemostimportanteventinhislifewasdue,nottoanynaturallaw,buttothewillorthecapriceofamaster;andthisreflectionmusthaveconfirmedhisfaithinthedivinebeingsofwhomheandhismasterwerefellow-slaves.

ZenohadmoredelicacyorlessfortitudethanHipparchia;andtheverymeagreintellectualfareprovidedbyCratesmusthavelefthisinquisitivemindunsatisfied.AccordinglywefindhimleavingthisratherdisappointingsubstituteforSocrates,tostudyphilosophyunderStilpotheMegariandialecticianandPolemotheheadoftheAcademy;14whileweknowthathemusthavegonebacktoHeracleitusforthephysicalbasisfromwhichcontemporaryspeculationhadbythistimecutitselfcompletelyfree.Atlength,aboutthebeginningofthethirdcenturyB.C.,Zeno,afterhavingbeenalearnerfortwentyyears,openedaschoolonhisownaccount.Asiftomarkthepracticalbearingofhisdoctrinehechoseoneofthemostfrequentedresortsinthecityforitspromulgation.TherewasatAthensaporticocalledthePoecileStoa,adornedwithfrescoesbyPolygn?tus,thegreatestpainteroftheCimonianperiod.Itwasamongthemonumentsofthatwonderfulcity,atoncewhattheLoggiadeiLanziistoFlorence,andwhatRaphael’sStanzearetoRome;while,likethePlacedelaConcordeinParis,itwasdarkenedbytheterribleassociationsofarevolutionaryepoch.AcenturybeforeZeno’stimefourteenhundredAtheniancitizenshadbeenslaughteredunderitscolonnadesbyorderoftheThirty.‘IwillpurifytheStoa,’saidtheCypriotestranger;15andthefeelingsstillassociatedwiththewordStoicismprovehownoblyhispromisewasfulfilled.VII.

241

Butwhilephilosopherscannotprescribeamethodtophysicalscience,theymay,toacertainextent,bringitundertheircognisance,bydisengagingitsfundamentalconceptionsandassumptions,andshowingthattheyarefunctionsofmind;byarrangingthespecialsciencesinsystematicorderforpurposesofstudy;andbyinvestigatingthelawoftheirhistoricalevolution.Furthermore,sincepsychologyisthecentralscienceofphilosophy,andsinceitiscloselyconnectedwithphysiology,whichinturnreposesontheinorganic152sciences,acertainknowledgeoftheobjectiveworldisindispensabletoanyknowledgeofourselves.Lastly,sincethesubjectivespherenotonlyrests,onceforall,ontheobjective,butisalsoinacontinualstateofactionandreactionwithit,nophilosophycanbecompletewhichdoesnottakeintoaccounttheconstitutionofthingsastheyexistindependentlyofourselves,inordertoascertainhowfartheyareunalterable,andhowfartheymaybemodifiedtoouradvantage.Wesee,then,thatSocrates,inrestrictingphilosophytohumaninterests,wasguidedbyajusttact;thatincreatingthemethodofdialecticabstraction,hecreatedaninstrumentadequatetothisinvestigation,buttothisalone;and,finally,thathumaninterests,understoodinthelargestsense,embraceanumberofsubsidiarystudieswhicheitherdidnotexistwhenhetaught,orwhichtheinevitablesuperstitionsofhisagewouldnotallowhimtopursue.

WemustmentionasanadditionalpointofcontrastbetweentheStoicsandthesubsequentschoolswhichtheymostresembled,thatwhiletheselookonthesoulasinseparablefromthebody,andsharingitsfortunesfromfirsttolast,althoughperfectlydistinctfromitinidea,theyemphasisedtheantithesisbetweenthetwojustasstronglyasPlato,givingthesoulanabsolutelyinfinitepowerofself-assertionduringourmortallife,andallowingitacontinued,thoughnotanimmortal,existenceafterdeath.31

Thefirstresultofthisseparationbetweenmanandtheworldwasacompletebreachwiththeoldphysicalphilosophy,shown,ontheonehand,byanabandonmentofspeculativestudies,ontheother,byasubstitutionofconventionforNatureastherecognisedstandardofright.BothconsequencesweredrawnbyProtagoras,themosteminentoftheSophists.Wehavenowtoconsidermoreparticularlywhatwashispartinthegreatdramaofwhichweareattemptingtogiveanintelligibleaccount.

ModernliteratureoffersabundantmaterialsfortestingAristotle’stheory,andtheimmensemajorityofcriticshavedecidedagainstit.EvenamongfairlyeducatedreadersfewwouldpreferMolière’sL’ étourditohisMisanthrope,orSchiller’sMariaStuarttoGoethe’sFaust,orLordLytton’sLucretiatoGeorgeEliot’sRomola,orDickens’sTaleofTwoCitiestothesamewriter’sNicholasNickleby,orhisGreatExpectationstohisDavidCopperfield,althoughineachinstancetheworknamedfirsthasthebetterplotofthetwo.I.

Everygreatsystemofphilosophymaybeconsideredfromfourdistinctpointsofview.Wemayaskwhatisitsvalueasatheoryoftheworldandofhumanlife,measured335eitherbythenumberofnewtruthswhichitcontains,orbythestimulustonewthoughtwhichitaffords.Orwemayconsideritfromtheaestheticside,asamonumentalstructureinterestingusnotbyitsutility,butbyitsbeautyandgrandeur.Underthisaspect,asystemmaybeadmirableforitscompleteness,coherence,andsymmetry,orforthegreatintellectualqualitiesexhibitedbyitsarchitect,althoughitmaybeopentofatalobjectionsasahabitationforhumanbeings,andmayfailtoreproducetheplanonwhichwenowknowthattheuniverseisbuilt.Or,again,ourinterestintheworkmaybepurelyhistoricalandpsychological;wemaylookonitastheproductofaparticularageandaparticularmind,assummingupforusundertheirmostabstractformtheideasandaspirationswhichatanygivenmomenthadgainedpossessionofeducatedopinion.Or,finally,wemaystudyitasalinkintheevolutionofthought,asaresultofearliertendencies,andanantecedentoflaterdevelopments.WeproposetomakeafewremarksonthephilosophyofPlotinus,or,whatisthesamething,onNeo-Platonismingeneral,fromeachofthesefourpointsofview.

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  • 雨花郡主a7x3g

    ThefamousthesesofGorgiaswerequotedinaformerchapterasanillustrationofthetacticspursuedbyGreekHumanisminitscontroversywithphysicalscience.Theymustbenoticedagaininthepresentconnexion,onaccountoftheirbearingonthedevelopmentofscepticism,andashavinginauguratedamethodofreasoningoftenemployedinsubsequentattacks,directed,notagainstthewholeofknowledge,butagainstparticularpartsofit.ThescepticismofProtagorasrestedontheassumptionthatthereisanexternalrealityfromthereactionofwhichwithmindallourperceptionsproceed.Neitherofthesetwofactorscanbeknownapartfromtheother,andasbothareinaconstantflux,ourknowledgeoftheresultingcompoundatonetimedoesnotshowwhatithasbeenorwillbeatanothertime.ButGorgiasaltogetherdeniedtheexistenceofanyobjectivereality;andheattemptedtodisproveitbyananalyticalinsteadofasyntheticargument,layingdownaseriesofdisjunctivepropositions,andupsettingthedifferentalternativesinsuccession.Existencemustbeeithersomethingornothing,orbothtogether;andifsomething,itmustbeeitherfiniteorinfinite,orboth,andeitheroneormany,orboth.Hisargumentagainstaninfiniteexistenceisaltogetherfutile;butitservestoillustratetheundevelopedstateofreflectionatthatperiod.Theeternityoftheworldisconfoundedwithitsunlimitedextensioninspace:andthishypothesis,again,ismetbythetransparentquibblethattheworld,notbeinginanyoneplace,mustbenowhereornotatall.Andthealternativethattheworldhasnotalwaysexistedisrefutedbytheunprovedassumption,which,apparently,noGreekphilosophereverthoughtofdisputing,thatnothingcanbeginwithoutbeingcausedbysomethingelse.Still,howevercontemptiblesuchreasoningsmayseem,131itisobviousthatinthemwehavethefirstcrudeformofthefamousantinomiesbywhichKantlongafterwardssoughttoprovetheimpossibilityofaworldexistinginspaceandtimeapartfromapercipientsubject,andwhichhavesincebeenusedtoestablishinamoregeneralwaytheunknowabilityofexistenceassuch.Itwillalsobeobservedthatthescepticalargumentsrespectivelyderivedfromtherelativityofthoughtandfromthecontradictionsinherentinitsultimateproductsareruntogetherbymodernagnostics.Butnoreasonthatwecanrememberhaseverbeengiventoshowthatanideaisnecessarilysubjectivebecauseitisself-contradictory.

     Sofar,wehaveonlyconsideredbeliefinitsrelationtothere-distributionofpolitical,social,andnationalforces.Butbehindallsuchforcesthereisadeeperandmoreperennialcauseofintellectualrevolutionatwork.Thereisnowintheworldanorganisedandever-growingmassofscientifictruths,atleastathousandtimesgreaterandathousandtimesmorediffusedthantheamountofpositiveknowledgepossessedbymankindintheageoftheAntonines.Whatthosetruthscandointhefuturemaybeinferredfromwhattheyhavealreadydoneinthepast.EventheelementaryscienceofAlexandria,thoughitcouldnotcopewiththesupernaturalistreactionoftheempire,provedstrongenough,somecenturieslater,tocheckthefloodofMahometanfanaticism,andforatimetoleadcaptivitycaptiveintheverystrongholdsofmilitanttheologicalbelief.When,longafterwards,JesuitismandPuritanismbetweenthemthreatenedtoreconquerallthatthehumanismoftheRenaissancehadwonfromsuperstition,whenallEuropefromendtoendwasredwiththebloodorblackenedwiththedeath-firesofhereticsandwitches,science,whichhadmeanwhilebeensilentlylayingthefoundationsof265anewkingdom,hadbuttoappearbeforetheeyesofmen,andtheyleftthepowersofdarknesstofollowwheresheled.WhenthefolliesandexcessesoftheRevolutionprovokedanotherintellectualreaction,herauthorityreducedittoameremimicryandshadowoftheterriblerevengesbywhichanalogousepochsinthepasthistoryofopinionhadbeensignalised.Andthiswasatatimewhenthematerialsofreactionexistedinabundance,becausetherationalisticmovementoftheeighteenthcenturyhadleftthemiddleandlowerclassesuntouched.Atthepresentmoment,Catholicismhasnoalliesbutadispirited,half-scepticalaristocracy;andanyappealtootherquarterswouldshowthatherformerreserveshaveirrevocablypassedovertothefoe.Whatismore,shehasunconsciouslybeenplayingthegameofrationalismforfifteencenturies.Bywagingamercilesswarfareoneveryotherformofsuperstition,shehasdoneherbesttodryupthesourcesofreligiousbelief.Thosewhomshecallsheathensandpaganslivedinanatmosphereofsupernaturalismwhichrenderedthemfarlessaptpupilsofphilosophythanherownchildrenareto-day.Itwashardertorenouncewhatshetookawaythanitwillbetorenouncewhatshehasleft,whenthetruthsofscienceareseenbyall,astheyarenowseenbyafew,toinvolvetheadmissionthatthereisnoobjectforourdevotionbutthewelfareofsentientbeingslikeourselves;thattherearenochangesinNatureforwhichnaturalforceswillnotaccount;andthattheunityofallexistencehas,forus,noindividualisationbeyondthefiniteandperishableconsciousnessofman.

  • 雪灵芝V2m2h

    ThestudyofpsychologywithPlatostandsinafourfoldrelationtohisgeneraltheoryoftheworld.Thedialecticmethod,withoutwhichNaturewouldremainunintelligible,isafunctionofthesoul,andconstitutesitsmostessentialactivity;thensoul,asdistinguishedfrombody,representsthehigher,supersensualelementofexistence;thirdly,theobjectivedualismofrealityandappearanceisreproducedinthesubjectivedualismofreasonandsense;andlastly,soul,astheoriginalspringofmovement,mediatesbetweentheeternalentitieswhichareunmovedandthematerialphenomenawhicharesubjecttoacontinualflux.ItisverycharacteristicofPlatothathefirststrainsanantithesistotheutmostandthenendeavourstoreconcileitsextremesbytheinterpositionofoneormoreintermediatelinks.So,whileassigningthisofficetosoulasapartoftheuniverse,he224classifiesthepsychicfunctionsthemselvesaccordingtoasimilarprinciple.Ontheintellectualsideheplacestrueopinion,orwhatweshouldnowcallempiricalknowledge,midwaybetweendemonstrationandsense-perception.SuchatleastseemstobetheresultreachedintheTheaetêtusandtheMeno.IntheRepublicafurtheranalysisleadstoasomewhatdifferentarrangement.Opinionisplacedbetweenknowledgeandignorance;whilethepossibleobjectstowhichitcorrespondsformatransitionfrombeingtonot-being.Subsequentlymathematicalreasoningisdistinguishedfromthehighersciencewhichtakescognisanceoffirstprinciples,andthusservestoconnectitwithsimpleopinion;whilethisagain,dealingasitdoeswithmaterialobjects,isrelatedtotheknowledgeoftheirshadowsasthemostperfectscienceisrelatedtomathematics.138

  • 如萱紫儿s3sgU

  • 但法国Q8HGZ

    WenowpasstotheconsiderationofAristotle’smostimportantachievement—hissystemoflogic.Andas,herealso,weshallfindmuchtocriticise,itisaswelltobeginbysayingthat,inouropinion,hiscontributionstothesciencearethemostvaluableevermade,andperhapshavedonemoretoadvanceitthanallotherwritingsonthesamesubjectputtogether.

     Orburieddeepinsubterraneangloom,

  • 大笨蛋aYLgM

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  • 扒皮成jz7ni

    Platohadbegunbycondemningpoetryonlyinsofarasitwasinconsistentwithtruereligionandmorality.Atlast,withhisusualpropensitytogeneralise,hecondemneditand,byimplication,everyimitativeartquaart,asadelusionandasham,twiceremovedfromthetruthofthings,becauseacopyofthephenomenawhicharethemselvesunrealrepresentationsofanarchetypalidea.Hisiconoclasmmayremindusofotherethicaltheologiansbothbeforeandafter,whetherHebrew,Moslem,orPuritan.Ifhedoesnotsharetheirfanaticalhatredforplasticandpictorialrepresentations,itisonlybecauseworksofthatclass,besidesbeingofachastercharacter,exercisedfarlesspowerovertheGreekimaginationthanepicanddramaticpoetry.Moreover,thetalesofthepoetswere,accordingtoPlato,theworstliesofany,sincetheywerebelievedtobetrue;whereasstatuesandpicturesdifferedtooobviouslyfromtheiroriginalsforanysuchillusiontobeproducedintheircase.LikethePuritans,again,Platosanctionedtheuseofreligioushymns,withtheaccompanimentofmusicinitssimplestandmostelevatedforms.Likethem,also,hewouldhaveapprovedofliteraryfictionwhenitwasemployedforedifyingpurposes.WorksliketheFaeryQueen,ParadiseLost,andthePilgrim’sProgress,wouldhavebeenhisfavouritesinEnglishliterature;andhemighthave242extendedthesameindulgencetofictionsoftheEdgeworthiantype,wherethevirtuouscharactersalwayscomeoffbestintheend.

     Thetwoelementsoferrorandachievementaresointimatelyblendedandmutuallyconditionedinthephilosophywhichwehavebeenreviewing,thattodecideontheirrespectiveimportanceisimpossiblewithoutfirstdecidingonastilllargerquestion—thevalueofsystematicthoughtassuch,andapartfromitsactualcontent.ForAristotlewasperhapsthegreatestmasterofsystematisationthateverlived.The401frameworkandlanguageofsciencearestill,toagreatextent,whathemadethem;anditremainstobeseenwhethertheywilleverbecompletelyremodelled.Yeteventhisgifthasnotbeenanunmixedbenefit,foritwaslongusedintheserviceoffalsedoctrines,anditstillinducescriticstoreadintotheAristotelianformstruthswhichtheydonotreallycontain.Letusconcludebyobservingthatofalltheancients,orevenofallthinkersbeforetheeighteenthcentury,thereisnonetowhomthemethodsandresultsofmodernsciencecouldsoeasilybeexplained.Whilefindingthattheyreversedhisownmostcherishedconvictionsoneverypoint,hewouldstillbepreparedbyhislogicalstudiestoappreciatetheevidenceonwhichtheyrest,andbyhisardentloveoftruthtoacceptthemwithoutreserve.Mostofallwouldhewelcomeourastronomyandourbiologywithwonderanddelight,whileviewingthedevelopmentofmodernmachinerywithmuchmorequalifiedadmiration,andtheprogressofdemocracyperhapswithsuspiciousfear.HewhothoughtthatthemindandbodyofanartisanwerealikedebasedbytheexerciseofsomesimplehandicraftunderthepurebrightskyofGreece,whatwouldhehavesaidtotheeffectwroughtonhumanbeingsbythenoisome,grinding,sunless,soullessdrudgeryofourfactoriesandmines!Howprofoundlyunfittedwouldhehavedeemeditsvictimstoinfluencethosepoliticalissueswithwhichtheinterestsofscienceareeverydaybecomingmorevitallyconnected!Yetslowly,perhaps,andunwillingly,hemightbebroughttoperceivethatourindustryhasbeentheindispensablebasisofourknowledge,assupplyingboththematerialmeansandthemoralendsofitscultivation.Hemightalsolearnthatthereisanevencloserrelationshipbetweenthetwo:thatwhilethesupportersofprivilegeareleaguedforthemaintenanceofsuperstition,theworkers,andthosewhoadvocatetheirclaimstopoliticalequality,areleaguedforitsrestraintandoverthrow.Andif402hestillshrankbackfromtheheatandsmokeandturmoilamidwhichthegeniusofouragestands,likeanotherHeracleitus,infeverishexcitement,bythesteam-furnacewhenceitspowersofrevolutionarytransmutationarederived,wetoomightreapplythewordsoftheoldEphesianprophet,biddinghimenterboldly,forherealsotherearegods.

  • 草莓果QrXtg

    AnothernoteworthycircumstanceisthatthelastcenturiesofPaganismwereonthewholemarkedbyasteadyliterarydecline.Toaliteraryman,thismeantthatcivilisationasawholewasretrograding,thatitwasaneffeteorganismwhichcouldonlyberegeneratedbytheinfusionofnewlifefromwithout;while,conversely,thefreshliteraryproductivityofmediaevalandmodernEuropewascreditedtothecompleterenovationwhichChristianityandtheBarbariansweresupposedtohavewrought.AcloserstudyofRomanlawhasdonemuchtocorrectthissuperficialimpression.Ithasrevealedtheexistence,inatleastonemostimportantdomain,ofavastintellectualandmoraladvancecontinueddowntothedeathofMarcusAurelius.AndtheretrogrademovementwhichsetinwithCommodusmaybefairlyattributedtotheincreasedmilitarismnecessitatedbytheencroachmentsofbarbarism,andmoredirectlytotheinfusionofbarbarianelementsintotheterritoryoftheempire,rather198thantoanyspontaneousdecayofRomancivilisation.Thesubsequentresuscitationofartandlettersisanothertestimonytothepermanentvalueandvitalityofancientculture.Itwasinthoseprovinceswhichhadremainedleastaffectedbythenortherninvasion,suchasVenetiaandTuscany,thatthefreeactivityofthehumanintellectwasfirstormostfruitfullyresumed,anditwasfromtheirradiationofstillunconqueredByzantiumthatthelightwhichre-awakenedthemwasderived.

     

  • 绿卡纸TmFgB

    WhenAristotlepassesfromthewholecosmostothephilosophyoflife,hismethodofsystematicdivisionislessdistinctlyillustrated,butstillitmaybetraced.Thefundamentalseparationisbetweenbodyandsoul.Thelatterhasawidermeaningthanwhatweassociatewithitatpresent.Itcoversthepsychicfunctionsandthewholelifeoftheorganism,which,again,isnotwhatwemeanbylife.Forlifewithusisbothindividualandcollective;itresidesineachspeckofprotoplasm,andalsointheconsensusofthewholeorganism.WithAristotleitismoreexclusivelyacentralprinciple,thefinalcauseoftheorganism,thepowerwhichholdsittogether,andbywhichitwasoriginallyshaped.Biologybeginsbydeterminingtheideaofthewhole,andthenconsidersthemeansbywhichitisrealised.Thepsychicfunctionsarearrangedaccordingtoasystemofteleologicalsubordination.Thelowerprecedesthehigherintime,butislogicallynecessitatedbyit.Thusnutrition,orthevegetativelifeingeneral,mustbestudiedincloseconnexionwithsensationandimpulse,oranimallife;andthis,again,withthoughtorpurereasoning.Ontheotherhand,anatomyandphysiologyareconsideredfromapurelychemicalandmechanicalpointofview.Avitalpurposeis,indeed,assignedtoeveryorgan,butwithnomorereferencetoitsspecificallyvitalpropertiesthanifitformedpartofasteamengine.Here,asalwayswithAristotle,theideaofmoderationdeterminesthepointofview363whencetheinferiorormaterialsystemistobestudied.Organictissueismadeupofthefourelementalprinciples—hot,cold,wet,anddry—mixedtogetherinproperproportions;andtheobjectoforganicfunctionistomaintainthemindueequilibrium,anendeffectedbytheregulatingpowerofthesoul,which,accordingly,hasitsseatintheheartorcentreofthebody.Ithasbeenalreadyshownhow,inendeavouringtoworkoutthischimericaltheory,AristotlewentmuchfurtherastrayfromthetruththansundryotherGreekphysiologistslessbiassedbytherequirementsofasymmetricalmethod.

     Ithasbeensaidthat,whatevermaybethevalueofhislogic,Baconrecalledmenfromtheconstructionofbaselesstheoriestothestudyoffacts.But,herealso,hemerelyechoesAristotle,whosaidthesamethinglongbeforehim,withmuchgreaterterseness,andwiththesuperiorauthorityofonewhoteachesbyexampleaswellasbyprecept;whilethe381meritofrevivingAristotle’sadvicewhenithadfallenintooblivionbelongstoanotherBacon,theauthoroftheOpusMajus;themeritofactingonit,tothesavantsoftheRenaissance,tosuchmenasVesalius,Cesalpino,andTychoBrahe.

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