河北医大一院在正定塔元庄开展“不忘初心、牢记使命”主题教育

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“pk10北京赛车高手论坛【注册大礼】”Bytrueconvictionintoexiledriven;

AnothermethodbywhichAristotlestrovetoovercometheantithesisbetweenlifeasamechanicalarrangementandlifeasametaphysicalconception,wasthenewlycreatedstudyofcomparativeanatomy.Thevariationsinstructureandfunctionwhichaccompanyvariationsintheenvironment,thoughstaticallyandnotdynamicallyconceived,bringusveryneartothetruththatbiologicalphenomenaaresubjecttothesamegenerallawsofcausationasallotherphenomena;anditisthistruthwhich,inthescienceoflife,correspondstotheidentificationofterrestrialwithcelestialphysicsinthescienceofgeneralmechanics.Vitalityisnotanindividualisedprinciplestationedintheheartandservingonlytobalanceoppositeforcesagainstoneanother;butitisdiffusedthroughallthetissues,andbestowsonthemthatextraordinaryplasticitywhichrespondstotheactionsoftheenvironmentbyspontaneousvariationscapableofbeingsummedupinanydirection,andsocreatingentirelyneworganicformswithouttheinterventionofanysupernaturalagency.

OfAristotleandhisphilosophie.’

V.

ButeventhemostperfectmasteryofGreekwouldnot284havemadePlotinusasuccessfulwriter.Wearetoldthatbeforetakingupthepenhehadthoroughlythoughtouthiswholesubject;butthisisnottheimpressionproducedbyaperusaloftheEnneads.Onthecontrary,heseemstobethinkingashegoesalong,andtobecontinuallybesetbydifficultieswhichhehasnotforeseen.Thefrequentanddisorderlyinterruptionsbywhichhislectureswereatonetimedisturbedseemtohavemadetheirwayintohissolitarymeditations,breakingortanglingthethreadofsystematicexpositionateveryturn.Irrelevantquestionsareconstantlyintrudingthemselves,tobemetbyequallyirrelevantanswers.Thefirstmodeofexpressinganideaisfrequentlywithdrawn,andanotherputinitsplace,whichis,inmostcases,thelessintelligibleofthetwo;while,asageneralrule,whenwewanttoknowwhatathingis,Plotinusinformsuswithindefatigableprolixitywhatitisnot.

Ifprivatesocietyexercisedademoralisinginfluenceonitsmostgiftedmembers,andinturnsufferedastillfurtherdebasementbylisteningtotheiropinions,thesamefatalinterchangeofcorruptionwentonstillmoreactivelyinpubliclife,sofar,atleast,asAtheniandemocracywasconcerned.Thepeoplewouldtoleratenostatesmanwhodidnotpamper199theirappetites;andthestatesmen,fortheirownambitiouspurposes,attendedsolelytothematerialwantsofthepeople,entirelyneglectingtheirspiritualinterests.Inthisrespect,Pericles,themostadmiredofall,hadbeenthechiefofsinners;for‘hewasthefirstwhogavethepeoplepayandmadethemidleandcowardly,andencouragedthemintheloveoftalkandofmoney.’Accordingly,arighteousretributionovertookhim,for‘attheveryendofhislifetheyconvictedhimoftheft,andalmostputhimtodeath.’Soithadbeenwiththeotherboastedleaders,Miltiades,Themistocles,andCimon;allsufferedfromwhatisfalselycalledtheingratitudeofthepeople.Likeinjudiciouskeepers,theyhadmadetheanimalcommittedtotheirchargefiercerinsteadofgentler,untilitssavagepropensitieswereturnedagainstthemselves.Or,changingthecomparison,theywerelikepurveyorsofluxury,whofedtheStateonadiettowhichitspresent‘ulceratedandswollencondition’wasdue.Theyhad‘filledthecityfullofharbours,anddocks,andwalls,andrevenuesandallthat,andhadleftnoroomforjusticeandtemperance.’Oneonlyamongtheelderstatesmen,Aristeides,isexceptedfromthissweepingcondemnation,and,similarly,Socratesisdeclaredtohavebeentheonlytruestatesmanofhistime.127

Wehavehere,indeed,somethingcomparablenotonlytothescepticismoftheNewAcademy,butalsototheAristoteliancriticismofPlato’smetaphysics;and,atfirstsight,itmightseemasifthePeripateticphilosophywasdestinedoncemoretoregainthepositiontakenfromitbytheresuscitationofitsancientfoe.ButLockewasnotinclinedtosubstituteoneformofscholasticismforanother.ByapplyingtheanalyticalmethodofAtomismtoknowledgeitself,hecreatedaweaponequallyfataltothetwocompetingsystems.Underhisdissection,theconcreteindividualsubstanceoftheonevanishednolesscompletelythantheuniversalideasoftheother.Nothingremainedbutabundleofqualitiesheldtogetherbyasubjectivebond.

‘Onearththereisnothinggreatbutman,

TheambiguitiesanduncertaintieswhichPlotinusexhibitsintheorisingontheoriginofMatter,areduenotonlytotheconflictinginfluencesofPlatoandAristotle,butalsotoanotherinfluencequitedistinctfromtheirs.ThisistheStoiccosmology.WhileutterlyrepudiatingthematerialismoftheStoics,Plotinusevidentlyfeltattractedbytheirseveremonism,andbytheconsistentmannerinwhichtheyderivedeveryformofexistencefromthedivinesubstance.TheytoorecognisedadistinctionbetweenFormandMatter,theactiveandthepassiveprincipleinNature,buttheysupposedthattheone,besidesbeingpenetratedandmouldedbytheother,hadalsobeenoriginallyproducedbyit.SuchatheorywaswellsuitedtotheenergeticandpracticalcharacterofStoicmorality,withitsaversionfrommerecontemplation,itsimmediatebearingontheconcreteinterestsoflife.Manwasconceivedasanintelligentforce,havingforhisproperfunctiontobringorderoutofchaos,‘tomakereasonandthewillofGodprevail,’andthisidealappearedtobereflectedinthedynamicconstitutionofNature.WithPlotinus,ontheotherhand,aswithAristotle,theoryandnotpracticewastheendoflife,orrather,ashehimselfexpressedit,practicewasaninferiorkindoftheorising,anendeavourtosetbeforeoneselfinoutwardformwhatshouldproperlybesoughtinthenoeticworldwheresubjectandobjectareone.490Accordingly,whileacceptingtheStoicmonism,hestrovetobringitintocloseagreementwithAristotle’scosmology,bysubstitutingcontemplationforwillasthecreativeprincipleinallexistence,nolessthanastheidealofhappinessforman.

DoubtlessthecoolintellectofaGreekandthefervidtemperamentofanAfricanwouldalwayshaveexpressedthemselvesinwidelydifferentaccents.Whatwehavetonoteisthattheonewasnowtakingtheplaceoftheotherbecausetheatmospherehadbeenheateduptoapointasfavourabletopassionasitwasfataltothought.

IV.

PlotinusisdrivenbythisperplexitytoreconsiderthewholetheoryofMatter.477HetakesAristotle’sdoctrineasthegroundworkofhisinvestigation.Accordingtothis,allexistenceisdividedintoMatterandForm.Whatweknowofthings—inotherwords,thesumoftheirdifferentialcharacteristics—istheirForm.Takeawaythis,andtheunknowableresiduumistheirMatter.Again,MatteristhevagueindeterminatesomethingoutofwhichparticularFormsaredeveloped.ThetwoarerelatedasPossibilitytoActuality,asthemoregenerictothemorespecificsubstancethrougheverygradeofclassificationandcomposition.ThustherearetwoMatters,theonesensibleandtheotherintelligible.Theformerconstitutesthecommonsubstratumofbodies,theotherthecommonelementofideas.478ThegeneraldistinctionbetweenMatterandFormwasoriginallysuggestedtoAristotlebyPlato’sremarksonthesamesubject;buthediffers325fromhismasterintwoimportantparticulars.Plato,inhisTimaeus,seemstoidentifyMatterwithspace.479Sofar,itisamuchmorepositiveconceptionthanthe?ληoftheMetaphysics.Ontheotherhand,heconstantlyopposesittorealityassomethingnon-existent;andheatleastimpliesthatitisopposedtoabsolutegoodasaprincipleofabsoluteevil.480ThuswhiletheAristotelianworldisformedbythedevelopmentofPowerintoActuality,thePlatonicworldiscomposedbytheunionofBeingandnot-Being,oftheSameandtheDifferent,oftheOneandtheMany,oftheLimitandtheUnlimited,ofGoodandEvil,invaryingproportionswitheachother.

BeforeascertaininginwhatdirectionPlatosoughtforanoutletfromtheseaccumulateddifficulties,wehavetoglanceataDialoguebelongingapparentlytohisearliestcompositions,butinonerespectoccupyingapositionapartfromtherest.TheCritotellsusforwhatreasonsSocratesrefusedtoescapefromthefatewhichawaitedhiminprison,as,withtheassistanceofgenerousfriends,hemighteasilyhavedone.TheagedphilosopherconsideredthatbyadoptingsuchacoursehewouldbesettingtheAthenianlawsatdefiance,anddoingwhatinhimlaytodestroytheirvalidity.Now,weknowthatthehistoricalSocratesheldjusticetoconsistinobediencetothelawoftheland;andhereforoncewefindPlatoagreeingwithhimonadefiniteandpositiveissue.Suchasuddenandsingularabandonmentofthescepticalattitudemeritsourattention.Itmight,indeed,besaidthatPlato’sinconsistenciesdefyallattemptsatreconciliation,andthatinthisinstancethedesiretosethismalignedfriendinafavourablelighttriumphedovertheclaimsofanimpracticablelogic.Wethink,however,thatadeeperandtruersolutioncanbefound.IftheCritoinculcatesobediencetothelawsasabindingobligation,itisnotforthereasonswhich,accordingtoXenophon,wereadducedbytherealSocratesinhisdisputewiththeSophistHippias;generalutilityandprivateinterestwerethesolegroundsappealedtothen.Plato,on185theotherhand,ignoresallsuchexternalconsiderations.Truetohisusualmethod,hereducesthelegalconsciencetoapurelydialecticalprocess.Justasinanargumentthedisputantsare,oroughttobe,boundbytheirownadmissions,soalsothecitizenisboundbyatacitcompacttofulfilthelawswhoseprotectionhehasenjoyedandofwhoseclaimshisprotractedresidenceisanacknowledgment.Herethereisnoneedofatranscendentfoundationformorality,asnonebutlogicalconsiderationscomeintoplay.Anditalsodeservestobenoticedthat,wherethisveryideaofanobligationbasedonacceptanceofserviceshadbeenemployedbySocrates,itwasdiscardedbyPlato.IntheEuthyphro,aDialoguedevotedtothediscussionofpiety,thetheorythatreligionrestsonanexchangeofgoodofficesbetweengodsandmenismentionedonlytobescornfullyrejected.Equallyremarkable,andequallyinadvanceoftheSocraticstandpoint,isaprincipleenunciatedintheCrito,thatretaliationiswrong,andthatevilshouldneverbereturnedforevil.120AndbotharedistinctanticipationsoftheearliestChristianteaching,thoughbothareimplicitlycontradictedbytheso-calledreligiousservicescelebratedinChristianchurchesandbythedoctrineofadivineretributionwhichisonlynotretaliatorybecauseitisinfinitelyinexcessoftheprovocationreceived.

Anditisnowonderthatthewordsoftheirgreatpoetshouldreadlikeapropheticexposureoftheterrorswithwhichthereligiousrevival,basedonacoalitionofphilosophyandsuperstition,wasshortlytooverspreadthewholehorizonofhumanlife.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主8uO9V

    Thenaturalismandutilitarianismoftheeighteenthcenturyarethelastconceptionsdirectlyinheritedfromancientphilosophybymodernthought.Henceforward,whateverlightthestudyoftheformercanthrowonthevicissitudesofthelatterisdueeithertotheirpartialparallelism,ortoaninfluencebecomingeverydayfainterandmoredifficulttotraceamidthemultitudeoffactorsinvolved.Theprogressofanalyticalcriticismwascontinuallydeflectedorarrestedbythestillpowerfulresistanceofscholasticism,justasthescepticaltendenciesoftheNewAcademyhadbeenbefore,thoughhappilywithlesspermanentsuccess;andas,inantiquity,thishadhappenedwithinnolessthanwithoutthecriticalschool,soalsodowefindLockeclingingtothetheologyofDescartes;BerkeleylapsingintoPlatonism;Humeplayingfastandloosewithhisownprinciples;andKantleavingitdoubtfultowhichsidehebelongs,soevenlyarethetwoopposingtendenciesbalancedinhismind,so427dexterouslydoesheadaptthenewcriticismtotheframeworkofscholasticlogicandmetaphysics.

     II.

  • 雪灵芝GwyFE

    Asomewhatsimilarobservationappliestotheartofreasoning,whichitwouldbepossibletocompilebybringingtogetheralltherulesonthesubject,scatteredthroughtheOrganon.Aristotlehasdiscoveredandformulatedeverycanonoftheoreticalconsistency,andeveryartificeofdialecticaldebate,withanindustryandacutenesswhichcannotbetoohighlyextolled;andhislaboursinthisdirectionhaveperhapscontributedmorethanthoseofanyothersinglewritertotheintellectualstimulationofafterages;butthekindofgeniusrequisiteforsuchataskwasspeculativeratherthanpractical;therewasnoexperienceofhumannatureinitsconcretemanifestations,noprevisionofrealconsequencesinvolved.Suchacodemightbe,andprobablywastoagreatextent,abstractedfromthePlatonicdialogues;buttoworkuptheprocessesofthoughtintoaseriesofdramaticcontests,carriedonbetweenlivingindividuals,asPlatohasdone,requiredavividperceptionandgraspofrealitieswhich,andnotanypoeticalmysticism,iswhatpositivelydistinguishesaPlatonistfromanAristotelian.190

  • 如萱紫儿SrF2f

  • 但法国OvKCn

     

  • 大笨蛋sgIgw

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  • 扒皮成uIScl

    Incavesandunsunnedhollowsoftheearth,

     

  • 草莓果I9hq8

    Allexistence,accordingtoPlotinus,proceedsfromtheOne,whichhealsocallsGod.ButGoddoesnotcreatetheworldbyaconsciousexerciseofpower;for,aswehaveseen,everyformofconsciousnessisexcludedfromhisdefinition.319Neitherdoesitproceedfromhimbyemanation,forthiswouldimplyadiminutionofhissubstance.469Itisproducedbyanoverflowofhisinfinitepower.470Ourphilosophertriestoexplainanddefendthisratherunintelligiblemodeofderivationbytheanalogyofphysicalsubstancesandtheiractions.Lightisconstantlycomingfromthesunwithoutanylosstotheluminaryitself.471Andallthingsare,inlikemanner,constantlycommunicatingtheirpropervirtuetootherswhileremainingunalteredthemselves.Herewehaveagoodexampleofthecloseconnexionbetweenscienceandabstractspeculation.Peopleoftentalkasifmetaphysicswassomethingbeyondthereachofverification.Butsomemetaphysicaltheoriesadmit,atanyrate,ofdisproof,insofarastheyarefoundedonfalsephysicaltheories.HadPlotinusknownthatneitherthesunnoranythingelseinNaturecanproduceforceoutofnothing,hewould,veryprobably,havehesitatedtocredittheOnewithsuchapower.

     Tobeafterlifewhatwehavebeenbefore!’

  • 绿卡纸aRe64

    Hisanalysisofindividualitywasthefirststepinthisdirection.Wehaveseenthathetreatsdefinitionasaprocessofgradualspecification,beginningwiththemostgeneralnotions,andworkingdownbysuccessivedifferentiationstothemostparticular.Now,thecompletedconceptionisitselftheintegrationofallthesedifferences,thebondofunionholdingthemtogether.Turningtoanantitheticalorderofideas,tothematerialsubstanceofwhichbodiesarecomposed,anditsvarioustransformations,wefindhimworkingoutthesameveinofthought.AccordingtotheAristotelianchemistry,anultimateindeterminateunknowablesomethingclothesitselfwithoneorotheroftheopposingattributes,dryandmoist,hotandcold;andwhentwoofthesearecombined,manifestsitselftooursensesasoneofthefourelements.Theelementscombineinaparticularmannertoformhomogeneousanimaltissues,andtheseagainareunitedintoheterogeneousorgans,whichtogetherconstitutethelivingbody.Here,then,wehavetwoanalogousseriesofspecifications—oneconceptualandleadingdownfromtheabstracttotheconcrete,theotherphysical,andleadingupfromthevague,thesimple,andthehomogeneous,tothedefinite,thecomplex,andtheheterogeneous.Aristotleembracesbothprocessesunderasinglecomprehensivegeneralisation.Hedescribeseachofthemasthecontinuousconversionofa346possibilityintoanactuality.Forthesakeofgreaterclearness,letustakethelibertyofsubstitutingmodernscientifictermsforhiscumbrousandobsoleteclassifications.Weshallthensaythatthegeneralnotion,livingthing,containsunderitthetwolessgeneralnotions—plantandanimal.Ifweonlyknowofanygivenobjectthatithaslife,thereisimpliedthepossibilityofitsbeingeithertheoneortheother,butnotbothtogether.Ondeterminingittobe(say)ananimal,weactualiseoneofthepossibilities.Buttheactualisationisonlyrelative,andimmediatelybecomesthepossibilityofbeingeitheravertebrateoraninvertebrateanimal.Theactualityvertebratebecomesthepossibilityofviviparousoroviparous,andsoonthroughsuccessivedifferentiationsuntilwecome(say)toaman.Nowletusbeginatthematerialend.Hereareamassofmolecules,which,intheiractualstateareonlycarbon,nitrogen,andsoforth.Buttheyarepotentialstarch,gluten,water,oranyotherarticleoffoodthatmightbenamed;forunderfavourableconditionstheywillcombinetoformit.Onceactualisedassuch,theyarepossibleblood-cells;thesearepossibletissues;these,again,possibleorgans,andlastlywecometotheconsensusofvitalfunctions,whichisaman.Whattherawmaterialistothefinishedproduct,thatarethepartstotheentireorganism,theelementstothecompound,thegenustothespecies,andsuchinitsverywidestsenseispotencytorealisation,δ?ναμι?to?ντελ?χεια,throughouttheuniverseofgrowthanddecay.246

     

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