曹可凡:书店是一座文化灯塔

83tlz-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 05:28:43

“qconnecthangera1pk10”Anotherwaytopreventcrimesistorewardvirtue.OnthisheadInoticeageneralsilenceinthelawsofallnationstothisday.Ifprizesofferedbyacademiestothediscoverersofusefultruthshavecausedthemultiplicationofknowledgeandofgoodbooks,whyshouldnotvirtuousactionsalsobemultiplied,byprizesdistributedfromthemunificenceofthesovereign?Themoneyofhonoureverremainsunexhaustedandfruitfulinthehandsofthelegislatorwhowiselydistributesit.

ButitisprobablethatBeccariaowedhisescapefrompersecutionlesstohisapologythantotheliberalprotectionofCountFirmian,whoinhisreportoftheaffairtotheCourtofViennaspokeoftheRispostaas‘fullofmoderationandhonourabletothecharacterofitsauthor.’ThattheCountfullyagreedwithBeccaria’sopinionsontortureisprovedbyaletterhewrote,inwhichhedeclareshimselftohavebeenmuchpleasedwithwhatBeccariahadsaidonthesubject.Hisvanity,hesaid,hadbeenflatteredbyit,forhisownfeelingsabouttorturehadalwaysbeenthesame.Thebookseemedtohimwrittenwithmuchloveofhumanityandmuchimagination.BeccariaalwaysacknowledgedhisgratitudetotheCountforhisactioninthismatter.ToMorellethe[18]wrote,thatheowedtheCounthistranquillity,inhavingprotectedhisbook;andwhen,afewyearslater,hepublishedhisbookonStyle,hededicatedittoFirmianashisbenefactor,thankinghimforhavingscatteredthecloudsthatenvyandignorancehadgatheredthicklyoverhishead,andforhavingprotectedonewhoseonlyobjecthadbeentodeclarewiththegreatestcautionandrespecttheinterestsofhumanity.CHAPTERI.INTRODUCTION.

Forinstance,theinjurytothepublicisnogreaterthehundredthtimeamanstealsarabbitthanitisthefirst.Thepublicmaybeinterestedinthepreventionofpoaching,butitisnotinterestedinthepersonofthepoacher,norinthenumberoftimeshemayhavebrokenthelaw.Thelawclaimstobeimpersonal—totreatoffencesastheyaffecttheState,notastheyaffectindividuals;toactmechanically,coldly,anddispassionately.Ithas,therefore,simplytodealwiththeamountofinjurydonebyeachspecificoffence,andtoaffixtoititsspecificpenalty,regardlessofallmattersofmoralantecedents.Therepetitionofanoffencemaymakeitsimmoralitythegreater,butits[88]criminalityremainsthesame,andthisonlyiswithintheprovinceofthelaw.

Smugglingisarealcrimeagainstthesovereignandthenation;butitspunishmentshouldnotbeoneofdisgrace,becauseitscommissionincursnodisgraceinpublicopinion.

Personsguiltyoflessercrimesareusuallyeitherpunishedintheobscurityofaprison,ortransported,asanexampletonationswhohavegivennooffence,toadistantandthereforealmostuselessservitude.Sincethegravestcrimesarenotthosewhichmenaretemptedtocommitonthespurofthemoment,thepublicpunishmentofagreatmisdeedwillberegardedbymostmenasstrangeandofimpossibleoccurrence;butthepublicpunishmentoflightercrimes,towhichmen’sthoughtsmorereadilyincline,willmakeanimpression,which,atthesametimethatitdivertsthemindfromthem,willrestrainitstillmorefromcrimesofgreatergravity.Punishmentsshouldnotonlybeproportionedtooneanotherandtocrimesinpointofforce,butalsointhemodeoftheirinfliction.

Therewasnotananomalyinouroldcriminalpracticewhichwasnotbasedonthistheory—atheorywhichhad,indeed,itsprecedentintheoldHebrewlawthatpunishedmoreseverelyatheftfromafieldthanatheftfromahouse;andthefirstwriterwhoprotestedagainstitwasEden,afterwardsLordAuckland,whoin1771publishedhis‘PrinciplesofPenalLaw,’oneofthebestbookseverwrittenonthesubject.TheinfluenceofBeccariaisapparentinEden’swork,notonlybyhisdirectreferencetoit,butbyhisspiritofdeclaredoppositiontotheactualpracticeofthelaw.Twoinstancesofitstendencywillsuffice.‘Imprisonment,inflictedbylawasapunishment,isnotaccordingtotheprinciplesofwiselegislation.Itsinksusefulsubjectsintoburthensonthecommunity,andhasalwaysabadeffectontheirmorals;norcanitcommunicatethebenefitofexample,beinginitsnaturesecludedfromtheeyeofthepeople.’Andagain:‘Whateverexceedssimpledeathismerecruelty.Everystepbeyondisatraceofancientbarbarity,tendingonlytodistracttheattentionofthespectatorsandtolessenthesolemnityoftheexample.Thereisnosuchthingasvindictivejustice;theideaisshocking.’

Butatleast,itwillbethought,wehavebythistimearrivedatsomeprinciplesaboutpunishmentwhichcorrespondwiththeeternaltruthsofequity.IsnotEquality,forinstance,oneoftheprimaryessentialsofpunishment?Doesitnotstandasapenalaxiomwithalmostthesanctionofamorallawthatallmenshouldsufferequallyforequalcrimes?Yet,ifbyequalitybemeantthesamepunishment,thesamekindoflabour,thesametermofservitude,thesamepecuniaryfine—andthisistheonlythingitcanmean—whatmoreobviousthanthatthesamepunishmentforrichandpoor,foryoungandold,forstrongandweak,formenandwomen,foreducatedanduneducated,willbringtotheconstitutionofapenalcodetheutmostinequalitytheimaginationcanconceive?Beccariainsiststhatthelawcandonomorethanassignthesameextrinsicpunishmenttothesamecrime;thatis,thesamepunishment,regardlessofallotherexternalconsiderations;andhecallsfortheinflictionofthesamepunishmentonthenoblemanasonthecommoner.Letitbeso;butthesamepunishmentisnolongeranequalone;andhencefromthisverydemandforequalityspringsthedemandforitsveryopposite,forwhatBenthamcallstheequabilityofpunishment;thatis,consideration[77]forthedifferentcircumstancesofindividualcriminals.Sothatthesamenominalpunishmentnotbeingthesamerealone,equalityofpunishmentappearstobeachimera,andthelaw,whichpunishes,say,adistinguishedofficerlessseverelythanitpunishesacostermongerforthesamecrime,errsperhapsreallylessfromactualequalitythanifitcondemnedbothtopreciselythesamepunishment.

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  • 雨花郡主9WmEi

    Butshouldamanwhoisbanishedandexcludedforeverfromthesocietyofwhichhewasamemberbealsodeprivedofhisproperty?Suchaquestionmayberegardedfromdifferentpointsofview.Thelossofpropertyisagreaterpunishmentthanbanishment;thereought,therefore,tobesomecasesinwhich,accordingtohiscrime,amanshouldlosethewhole,orpart,ornoneofhisproperty.Theconfiscationofthewholewilloccur,whenthelegalsentenceofbanishmentisofakindtoannihilateallthetiesthatexistbetweensocietyanditsoffendingmember;forinsuchacasethecitizendies,andonlythemanremains;andwithregardtothepoliticalbodycivildeathshouldproducethesameeffectasnaturaldeath.Itwouldseemthenthattheconfiscatedpropertyshouldpasstoaman’slawfulheirsratherthan[182]totheheadoftheState,sincedeathandbanishmentinitsextremeformarethesamewithregardtothebodypolitic.ButitisnotbythissubtletythatIdaretodisapproveofconfiscationsofproperty.Ifsomehavemaintainedthatconfiscationshaveactedaschecksonactsofrevengeandonthegreatpowerofindividuals,itisfromneglectingtoconsiderthat,howevermuchgoodpunishmentsmayeffect,theyarenotforthatreasonalwaysjust,becausetobejusttheymustbenecessary;andanexpedientinjusticecanbetoleratedbynolegislator,whowishestoclosealldoorsagainstwatchfultyranny,everreadytoholdoutflatteringhopes,bytemporaryadvantagesandbytheprosperityofafewpersonsofcelebrity,indisregardoffutureruinandofthetearsofnumberlesspersonsofobscurity.Confiscationsplaceapriceontheheadsofthefeeble,causetheinnocenttosufferthepunishmentoftheguilty,andmakethecommissionofcrimesadesperatenecessityevenfortheinnocent.Whatsaddersightcantherebethanthatofafamilydraggeddowntoinfamyandmiserybythecrimesofitshead,unabletopreventthembythesubmissionimposedonitbythelaws,evensupposingsuchpreventiontohavebeenwithinitspower!

     

  • 雪灵芝uW8P1

    ThatPenologyisstillonlyinitsexperimentalstageasascience,inspiteoftheprogressithasmadeinrecenttimes,isclearfromthechangesthataresoconstantlybeingmadeineverydepartmentofourpenalsystem.Wenolongermutilatenorkillourcriminals,asourancestorsdidintheplenitudeoftheirwisdom;wehaveceasedtotransportthem,andouronlystudynowistoteachthemusefultradesandlaboriousindustry.Yetwhetherweshallbetterbringthemtolovelabourbycompulsoryidlenessorbycompulsorywork,whethershortimprisonmentorlongisthemosteffectivediscipline,whetherseclusionorassociationisleastlikelytodemoralisethem,theseandsimilarquestionshavetheiranswersinaquicksandofuncertainty.Thisonlymayexperiencebesaidtohaveyetdefinitelyproved,thatverylittlerelationexistsinanycountrybetweenthegivenquantityofcrimeandthequantityorseverityofpunishmentdirectedtoitsprevention.Ithastakenthousandsofyearstoestablishthistruth,andevenyetitisbutpartiallyrecognisedovertheworld.

  • 如萱紫儿w08e9

    CHAPTERV.OBSCURITYOFTHELAWS.

  • 但法国CrjIG

     Themindofmanoffersmoreresistancetoviolenceandtoextremebutbriefpainsthanitdoestotimeandtoincessantweariness;forwhilstitcan,sotospeak,gatheritselftogetherforamomenttorepeltheformer,itsvigorouselasticityisinsufficienttoresistthelongandrepeatedactionofthelatter.Inthe[174]caseofcapitalpunishment,eachexamplepresentedofitisallthatasinglecrimeaffords;inpenalservitudeforlife,asinglecrimeservestopresentnumerousandlastingwarnings.Andifitbeimportantthatthepowerofthelawsshouldoftenbewitnessed,thereoughttobenolongintervalsbetweentheexamplesofthedeathpenalty;butthiswouldpresupposethefrequencyofcrimes,sothat,torenderthepunishmenteffective,itmustnotmakeonmenalltheimpressionthatitoughttomake,inotherwords,itmustbeusefulandnotusefulatthesametime.Andshoulditbeobjectedthatperpetualservitudeisaspainfulasdeath,andthereforeequallycruel,Iwillreply,that,takingintoconsiderationalltheunhappymomentsofservitude,itwillperhapsbeevenmorepainfulthandeath;butwhilstthesemomentsarespreadoverthewholeofalifetime,deathexercisesallitsforceinasinglemoment.Thereisalsothisadvantageinpenalservitude,thatithasmoreterrorsforhimwhoseesitthanforhimwhosuffersit,fortheformerthinksofthewholesum-totalofunhappymoments,whilstthelatter,bytheunhappinessofthepresentmoment,hashisthoughtsdivertedfromthatwhichistocome.Allevilsaremagnifiedinimagination,andeverysuffererfindsresourcesandconsolationsunknowntoandunbelievedinbyspectators,whosubstitutetheirownsensibilityforthehardenedsoulofacriminal.

  • 大笨蛋OG34Z

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  • 扒皮成I8JnV

    Therighttoasksuchaquestionderivesitselffromrecentexperience.In1853thecountrydecidedtoshortentermsofpenalservitudeascomparedwiththoseofthethenexpiringsystemoftransportation,forwhichtheyweretobesubstituted.Fouryearslateritwasresolvedtoequalisetermsofpenalservitudewiththoseformerlygivenoftransportation,thoughtransportationforsevenyearswasstilltohaveitsequivalentinthreeofpenalservitude.Thencamethegarrottingyear,1862,inconsequenceofwhichtheminimumtermofpenalservitudewasraisedtofiveyears,whilstnosentenceofpenalservitude,afterapreviousconvictionoffelony,wastobeforlessthansevenyears.Nowagainthetidehasturnedinfavourofshortersentences,anditisofficiallyproposedtorelinquishthelatterminimumofservitudeastoosevere,andasleadinginpracticetosentencesofsimpleimprisonment,whichontheotherhandaredeclaredtobetooslight.

     Forifpunishmentisweaktopreventcrime,itisstrongtoproduceit,anditisscarcelyopentodoubtthatitsproductiveforceisfargreaterthanitspreventive.Ourtermsofimprisonmentcompelmorepersonstoenteracareerofcrimethantheypreventfrompursuingone,thatbeingoftentheonlyresourceleftforthosewhodependonacriminal’slabour.Whetherinprisonortheworkhouse,suchdependentsbecomeachargetosociety;nordoesitseemreasonable,thatifonemanundersoretemptationstealsaloaf,ahundredothermenwhodonosuchthingmustcontributetokeep,notonlytheprisonerhimself,buthisfamilytoo,intheirdailybreadforsolongatimeasitpleasesthelawtodetainhimfromearninghisandtheirnecessarysubsistence.

  • 草莓果G5Jap

     Itisthespecificcrime,notthefactthatitisasecondorthirdfelony,whichisinjurious.Neitheracommunitynoranindividualsuffermorefromthecommissionofacrimebyamanwhocommitsitforthesecondtimethanfromitscommissionbyamanwhohasnevercommitteditbefore.Iftwobrothersareeachrobbedofapoundapieceontwoseveraloccasions,theonewhoisrobbedeachtimebythesamecriminalsuffersnomorethantheonewhoisrobbedeachtimebydifferentcriminals.Stilllessisthepublicmoreinjuredinonecasethanintheother.Thereforetheformerbrotherisentitledforhissecondlosstonomorerestitutionthantheother,norhasanymoreclaimonsocietyfortheinflictionofasevererpunishmentonhisbehalfthanthatinflictedforthesecondlossofhisbrother.

  • 绿卡纸RS1AL

     TheverysuccessofBeccaria’sworkhassoaccustomedustoitsresultthatweareapttoregardit,asmenregardasplendidcathedralintheirnativetown,withverylittlerecognitionofitsclaimstoadmiration.Theworkisthere,theyseeit,theyliveunderitsshadow;theyareevenreadytoboastofit;but[30]whattothemisthetoilandriskofitsbuilders,orthecareandthoughtofitsarchitects?ItmaybesaidthatthisindifferenceistheveryconsummationBeccariawouldmosthavedesired,asitisthemostsignalproofofthesuccessofhislabour.Sosignal,indeed,hasbeenthatsuccess,thatalreadytheatrocitieswhichmeninthosedaysacceptedasamongtheunalterableconditionsoftheirexistence,orresignedthemselvestoasthenecessarysafeguardsofsociety,havebecomesorepulsivetotheworld’smemory,thatmenhaveagreedtohidethemfromtheirhistoricalconsciousnessbyseldomreading,writing,orspeakingoftheirexistence.Andthisissurelyafacttoberememberedwithhopefulness,whenwehearanevillikewarwithallitsattendantatrocities,defendednowadaysbypreciselythesameargumentswhichlittlemorethanahundredyearsagowereurgedonbehalfoftorture,butwhichhaveprovedneverthelessinsufficienttokeepitinexistence.

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