就地招工 引贤纳才(统筹抓好改革发展稳定各项工作)

EaLUK-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 05:30:41

“英国5分彩开奖频率非常高的彩票【注册大礼】”Allthese,however,aremerequestionsofdetail.ItisonasubjectoftheprofoundestphilosophicalimportancethatAristotlediffersmostconsciously,mostradically,andmostfatallyfromhispredecessors.Theywereevolutionists,andhewasastationarist.Theyweremechanicists,andhewasateleologist.Theywereuniformitarians,andhewasadualist.Itistruethat,aswementionedatthebeginningofthischapter,Mr.EdwinWallacemakeshim‘recognisethegenesisofthingsbyevolutionanddevelopment,’butthemeaningofthisphraserequirestobeclearedup.Inonesenseitis,ofcourse,almostanidenticalproposition.Thegenesisofthingsmustbebygenesisofsomekindorother.Thegreatquestionis,whatthingshavebeenevolved,andhowhavetheybeenevolved?Modernsciencetellsus,thatnotonlyhaveallparticularaggregatesofmatterandmotionnowexistingcomeintobeingwithinafiniteperiodoftime,butalsothatthespecifictypesunderwhichwearrangethoseaggregateshaveequallybeengenerated;andthattheircharacteristics,whetherstructuralorfunctional,canonlybeunderstoodbytracingouttheiroriginandhistory.Anditfurtherteachesusthatthepropertiesofeveryaggregateresultfromthepropertiesofitsultimateelements,which,withinthelimitsofourexperience,remainabsolutelyunchanged.Now,Aristotletaughtverynearlythecontraryofallthis.Hebelievedthatthecosmos,aswenowknowit,hadexisted,andwouldcontinuetoexist,unchangedthroughalleternity.Thesun,moon,planets,andstars,togetherwiththeorbscontainingthem,arecomposedofanabsolutelyungenerable,incorruptiblesubstance.Theearth,acold,heavy,solidsphere,thoughliabletosuperficialchanges,hasalwaysoccupieditspresentpositioninthecentreoftheuniverse.317Thespecificformsofanimallife—exceptafewwhichareproducedspontaneously—have,inlikemanner,beenpreservedunalteredthroughaninfiniteseriesofgenerations.Mansharesthecommonlot.Thereisnocontinuousprogressofcivilisation.Everyinventionanddiscoveryhasbeenmadeandlostaninfinitenumberoftimes.Ourphilosophercouldnot,ofcourse,denythatindividuallivingthingscomeintoexistenceandgraduallygrowtomaturity;butheinsiststhattheirformationisteleologicallydeterminedbytheparentaltypewhichtheyarestrivingtorealise.Heaskswhetherweshouldstudyathingbyexamininghowitgrows,orbyexaminingitscompletedform:andMr.Wallacequotesthequestionwithoutquotingtheanswer.203Aristotletellsusthatthegeneticmethodwasfollowedbyhispredecessors,butthattheothermethodishis.AndhegoesontocensureEmpedoclesforsayingthatmanythingsintheanimalbodyareduesimplytomechanicalcausation;forexample,thesegmentedstructureofthebackbone,whichthatphilosopherattributestocontinueddoublingandtwisting—theverysameexplanation,webelieve,thatwouldbegivenofitbyamodernevolutionist.204Finally,Aristotleassumestheonlysortoftransformationwhichwedeny,andwhichDemocritusequallydenied—thatistosay,thetransformationoftheultimateelementsintooneanotherbytheoscillationofanindeterminatematterbetweenoppositequalities.Butwhataffordedthemostvaluableeducationinthissensewastheirsystemoffreegovernment,involving,asitdid,thesupremacyofanimpersonallaw,thesubdivisionofpublicauthorityamonganumberofmagistrates,andtheassignmenttoeachofcertaincarefullydefinedfunctionswhichhewasforbiddentoexceed;togetherwiththelivinginterestfeltbyeachcitizeninthewelfareofthewholestate,andthatconceptionofitasawholecomposedofvariousparts,whichisimpossiblewhereallthepublicpowersarecollectedinasinglehand.

WhenwenexthearofAristotleheisattheMacedonian285Court,174actingastutortoAlexander,thefutureconquerorofAsia,whoremainedunderhischargebetweentheagesofthirteenandsixteenyears.ThephilosopherismorelikelytohaveobtainedthisappointmentbyCourtinterest—hisfatherwasCourt-physiciantoAlexander’sgrandfather,Amyntas—thanbyhisreputation,whichcouldhardlyhavebeenmadeuntilseveralyearsafterwards.Muchhasbeenmadeofaconnexionwhich,althoughitdidnotlastverylong,appealsstronglytotheimagination,andopensalargefieldforsurmise.Thegreatestspeculativeandthegreatestpracticalgeniusofthatage—somemightsayofallages—couldnot,onewouldthink,comeintosuchclosecontactwithoutleavingadeepimpressiononeachother.Accordingly,thephilosopherissupposedtohavepreparedtheheroforhisfuturedestinies.MiltonhastoldushowAristotle‘bredgreatAlexandertosubduetheworld.’Hegeltellsusthatthiswasdonebygivinghimtheconsciousnessofhimself,thefullassuranceofhisownpowers;forwhichpurpose,itseems,theinfinitedaringofthoughtwasrequired;andheobservesthattheresultisarefutationofthesillytalkaboutthepracticalinutilityofphilosophy.175ItwouldbeunfortunateifphilosophyhadnobettertestimonialtoshowforherselfthanthecharacterofAlexander.ItisnottheleastmeritofGrote’sHistorytohavebroughtoutinfullreliefthesavagetraitsbywhichhisconductwasmarkedfromfirsttolast.Arrogant,drunken,cruel,vindictive,andgrosslysuperstitious,heunitedthevicesofaHighlandchieftaintothefrenzyofanOrientaldespot.Nomaneverstoodfurtherfromthegravity,thegentleness,themoderation—inaword,theS?phrosynêofatrueHellenichero.ThetimecamewhenAristotlehimselfwouldhaverunthemostimminentpersonalriskhadhebeenwithinthetyrant’simmediategrasp.His286nephew,Callisthenes,hadincurreddeepdispleasurebyprotestingagainsttheservileadulation,orratheridolatry,whichAlexanderexactedfromhisattendants.Achargeofconspiracywastrumpedupagainsthim,andeventheexculpatoryevidence,takenundertorture,ofhisallegedaccomplicesdidnotsavehim.‘Iwillpunishthesophist,’wroteAlexander,‘andthosewhosenthimout.’Itwasunderstoodthathisoldtutorwasincludedinthethreat.Fortunately,asGroteobserves,AristotlewasnotatEcbatanabutatAthens;hethereforeescapedthefateofCallisthenes,whosuffereddeathincircumstances,accordingtosomeaccounts,ofgreatatrocity.

Yet,howevermuchmaybeaccountedforbytheseconsiderations,theystillleavesomethingunexplained.WhyshouldonethinkerafteranothersounhesitatinglyassumethattheorderofNatureasweknowithasissuednotmerelyfromadifferentbutfromanexactlyoppositecondition,fromuniversalconfusionandchaos?Theirexperiencewasfartoolimitedtotellthemanythingaboutthosevastcosmicchangeswhichweknowbyincontrovertibleevidencetohavealreadyoccurred,andtobeagainincourseofpreparation.WecanonlyanswerthisquestionbybringingintoviewwhatmaybecalledthenegativemomentofGreekthought.Thescienceofcontrariesisone,saysAristotle,anditcertainlywassotohiscountrymen.Notonlydidtheydelight51tobringtogethertheextremesofwealandwoe,ofprideandabasement,ofsecurityanddisaster,butwhatevertheymostlovedandclungtoinrealityseemedtointeresttheirimaginationmostpowerfullybyitsremoval,itsreversal,oritsoverthrow.TheAthenianswerepeculiarlyintolerantofregalgovernmentandoffeminineinterferenceinpolitics.InAtheniantragedytheprincipalactorsarekingsandroyalladies.TheAthenianmatronsoccupiedapositionofexceptionaldignityandseclusion.Theyarebroughtuponthecomicstagetobecoveredwiththecoarsestridicule,andalsotointerferedecisivelyintheconductofpublicaffairs.Aristophaneswasprofoundlyreligioushimself,andwroteforapeoplewhosereligion,aswehaveseen,waspushedtotheextremeofbigotry.Yetheshowsaslittlerespectforthegodsasforthewivesandsistersofhisaudience.Totakeamoregeneralexamplestill,thewholeGreektragicdramaisbasedontheideaoffamilykinship,andthatinstitutionwasmademostinterestingtoGreekspectatorsbytheviolationofitseternalsanctities,byunnaturalhatred,andstillmoreunnaturallove;orbyafatalmisconceptionwhichcausesthehandsofinnocentpersons,moreespeciallyoftenderwomen,tobearmedagainsttheirnearestanddearestrelativesinutterunconsciousnessoftheawfulguiltabouttobeincurred.ByanextensionofthesamepsychologicallawtoabstractspeculationweareenabledtounderstandhowanearlyGreekphilosopherwhohadcometolookonNatureasacosmos,anorderlywhole,consistingofdiversebutconnectedandinterdependentparts,couldnotproperlygraspsuchaconceptionuntilhehadsubstitutedforitoneofapreciselyoppositecharacter,outofwhichhereconstructeditbyaprocessofgradualevolution.Andifitisaskedhowinthefirstplacedidhecomebytheideaofacosmos,ouranswermustbethathefounditinGreeklife,insocietiesdistinguishedbyamany-sidedbutharmoniousdevelopmentofconcurrentfunctions,andby52voluntaryobediencetoanimpersonallaw.Thus,then,thecircleiscomplete;wehavereturnedtoourpointofdeparture,andagainrecogniseinGreekphilosophyasystematisedexpressionoftheGreeknationalgenius.

CHAPTERVI.CHARACTERISTICSOFARISTOTLE.

ModernagnosticismoccupiesthesamepositionwithregardtothepresentfoundationandpossiblefutureextensionofhumanknowledgeaswasoccupiedbytheancientScepticswithregardtothepossibilityofallknowledge.Itsconclusionsalsoarebasedonaveryinsufficientexperienceofwhatcanbeeffectedbyexperience,andonananalysisofcognitionlargelyadoptedfromthesystemwhichitseekstooverthrow.LikeScepticismalso,whenlogicallythoughtout,ittendstoissueinaself-contradiction,atonetimeaffirmingtheconsciousnessofwhatis,bydefinition,beyondconsciousness;andatanothertimedogmaticallydeterminingthepointsonwhichwemustremainforeverignorant.Itmaybethatsomeproblems,asstatedbymodernthinkers,areinsoluble;butperhapswemayfindourwayourofthembytransformingthequestiontobesolved.

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  • 雨花郡主IJDiJ

    Hisanalysisofindividualitywasthefirststepinthisdirection.Wehaveseenthathetreatsdefinitionasaprocessofgradualspecification,beginningwiththemostgeneralnotions,andworkingdownbysuccessivedifferentiationstothemostparticular.Now,thecompletedconceptionisitselftheintegrationofallthesedifferences,thebondofunionholdingthemtogether.Turningtoanantitheticalorderofideas,tothematerialsubstanceofwhichbodiesarecomposed,anditsvarioustransformations,wefindhimworkingoutthesameveinofthought.AccordingtotheAristotelianchemistry,anultimateindeterminateunknowablesomethingclothesitselfwithoneorotheroftheopposingattributes,dryandmoist,hotandcold;andwhentwoofthesearecombined,manifestsitselftooursensesasoneofthefourelements.Theelementscombineinaparticularmannertoformhomogeneousanimaltissues,andtheseagainareunitedintoheterogeneousorgans,whichtogetherconstitutethelivingbody.Here,then,wehavetwoanalogousseriesofspecifications—oneconceptualandleadingdownfromtheabstracttotheconcrete,theotherphysical,andleadingupfromthevague,thesimple,andthehomogeneous,tothedefinite,thecomplex,andtheheterogeneous.Aristotleembracesbothprocessesunderasinglecomprehensivegeneralisation.Hedescribeseachofthemasthecontinuousconversionofa346possibilityintoanactuality.Forthesakeofgreaterclearness,letustakethelibertyofsubstitutingmodernscientifictermsforhiscumbrousandobsoleteclassifications.Weshallthensaythatthegeneralnotion,livingthing,containsunderitthetwolessgeneralnotions—plantandanimal.Ifweonlyknowofanygivenobjectthatithaslife,thereisimpliedthepossibilityofitsbeingeithertheoneortheother,butnotbothtogether.Ondeterminingittobe(say)ananimal,weactualiseoneofthepossibilities.Buttheactualisationisonlyrelative,andimmediatelybecomesthepossibilityofbeingeitheravertebrateoraninvertebrateanimal.Theactualityvertebratebecomesthepossibilityofviviparousoroviparous,andsoonthroughsuccessivedifferentiationsuntilwecome(say)toaman.Nowletusbeginatthematerialend.Hereareamassofmolecules,which,intheiractualstateareonlycarbon,nitrogen,andsoforth.Buttheyarepotentialstarch,gluten,water,oranyotherarticleoffoodthatmightbenamed;forunderfavourableconditionstheywillcombinetoformit.Onceactualisedassuch,theyarepossibleblood-cells;thesearepossibletissues;these,again,possibleorgans,andlastlywecometotheconsensusofvitalfunctions,whichisaman.Whattherawmaterialistothefinishedproduct,thatarethepartstotheentireorganism,theelementstothecompound,thegenustothespecies,andsuchinitsverywidestsenseispotencytorealisation,δ?ναμι?to?ντελ?χεια,throughouttheuniverseofgrowthanddecay.246

     SofarwehavefollowedtheevolutionofPlato’sphilosophyasitmayhavebeeneffectedundertheimpulseofpurelytheoreticalmotives.Wehavenowtoconsiderwhatformwasimposedonitbythemoreimperiousexigenciesofpracticalexperience.Here,again,wefindPlatotakingupandcontinuingtheworkofSocrates,butonavastlygreaterscale.Therewas,indeed,akindofpre-establishedharmonybetweentheexpressionofthoughtontheonehandandtheincreasingneedforitsapplicationtolifeontheother.Forthespreadofpubliccorruptionhadgoneonparipassuwiththedevelopmentofphilosophy.TheteachingofSocrateswasaddressedtoindividuals,anddealtchieflywithprivatemorality.Onotherpointshewascontenttoacceptthelawofthelandandtheestablishedpoliticalconstitutionassufficientlysafeguides.Hewasnotaccustomedtoseethemdefiedorpervertedintoinstrumentsofselfishaggrandisement;nor,apparently,hadthepossibilityofsuchacontingencyoccurredtohim.Stilllessdidheimaginethatallsocialinstitutionsthenexistingwereradicallywrong.Hencethepersonalvirtuesheldamoreimportantplaceinhissystemthanthesocialvirtues.Hisattacksweredirected230againstslothfulnessandself-indulgence,againsttheignoranttemeritywhichhurriedsomeyoungmenintopoliticsbeforetheireducationwasfinished,andthetimidityorfastidiousnesswhichpreventedothersfromdischargingthehighestdutiesofcitizenship.Nor,inacceptingthepopularreligionofhistime,hadheanysuspicionthatitssanctionsmightbeinvokedonbehalfofsuccessfulviolenceandfraud.WehavealreadyshownhowdifferentlyPlatofelttowardshisage,andhowmuchdeeperaswellasmoreshamelesswasthedemoralisationwithwhichhesethimselftocontend.Itmustalsoberememberedhowjudicialproceedingshadcometoovershadoweveryotherpublicinterest;andhowthehighestcultureofthetimehad,atleastinhiseyes,becomeidentifiedwiththesystematicperversionoftruthandright.TheseconsiderationswillexplainwhyGreekphilosophy,whilemovingonahigherplane,passedthroughthesameorbitwhichhadbeenpreviouslydescribedbyGreekpoetry.PreciselyasthelessonsofmoderationinHomerhadbeenfollowedbythelessonsofjusticeinAeschylus,preciselyasthereligionwhichwasaselfishtrafficbetweengodsandmen,andhadlittletotellofalifebeyondthegrave,wasreplacedbythenoblerfaithinadivineguardianshipofmoralityandaretributivejudgmentafterdeath—soalsodidtheSocraticethicsandtheSocratictheologyleadtoasystemwhichmadejusticetheessenceofmoralityandreligionitseverlastingconsecration.

  • 雪灵芝C8iOk

    ThethirdgreatideaofStoicismwasitsdoctrineofhumanity.MenareallchildrenofoneFather,andcitizens37ofoneState;thehighestmorallawis,FollowNature,andNaturehasmadethemtobesocialandtoloveoneanother;theprivateinterestofeachis,orshouldbe,identifiedwiththeuniversalinterest;weshouldliveforothersthatwemayliveforourselves;eventoourenemiesweshouldshowloveandnotanger;theunnaturalnessofpassionisprovedbynothingmoreclearlythanbyitsanti-socialanddestructivetendencies.Here,also,thethreegreatStoicsoftheRomanempire—Seneca,Epictêtus,andMarcusAurelius—ratherthanthefoundersoftheschool,mustbeourauthorities;82whetheritbebecausetheirlessonscorrespondtoamoredevelopedstateofthought,orsimplybecausetheyhavebeenmoreperfectlypreserved.Theformerexplanationis,perhaps,themoregenerallyaccepted.Thereseems,however,goodreasonforbelievingthattheideaofuniversallove—thehighestofallphilosophicalideasnexttothatoftheuniverseitself—datesfurtherbackthaniscommonlysupposed.ItcanhardlybeduetoSeneca,whohadevidentlyfarmorecapacityforpopularisingandapplyingthethoughtsofothersthanfororiginalspeculation,andwhoonthissubjectexpresseshimselfwitharhetoricalfluencynotusuallycharacterisingtheexpositionofnewdiscoveries.Thesameremarkappliestohisillustrioussuccessors,who,whileagreeingwithhimintone,donotseemtohavedrawnonhiswritingsfortheirphilosophy.ItisalsoclearthattheideainquestionspringsfromtwoessentiallyStoicconceptions:theobjectiveconceptionofaunifiedworld,acosmostowhichallmenbelong;38andthesubjectiveconceptionofarationalnaturecommontothemall.These,again,arerootedinearlyGreekthought,andwerealreadyemergingintodistinctnessatthetimeofSocrates.AccordinglywefindthatPlato,havingtocomposeacharacteristicspeechfortheSophistHippias,makeshimsaythatlike-mindedmenarebynaturekinsmenandfriendstooneanother.83Nature,however,sooncametobeviewedunderadifferentaspect,anditwasmaintained,justasbysomelivingphilosophers,thathertruelawistheuniversaloppressionoftheweakbythestrong.Thentheideaofmindcameinasasalutarycorrective.IthadsuppliedabasisfortheethicsofProtagoras,andstillmorefortheethicsofSocrates;itwasnowcombinedwithitsoldrivalbytheStoics,andfromtheirunionarosetheconceptionofhumannatureassomethingalliedwithandillustratedbyallotherformsofanimallife,yetcapable,iffullydeveloped,ofrisinginfinitelyabovethem.Nevertheless,theindividualandtheuniversalelementwereneverquitereconciledintheStoicethics.Thealtruisticqualityofjusticewasclearlyperceived;butnoattemptwasmadetoshowthatallvirtueisessentiallysocial,andhascometoberecognisedasobligatoryontheindividualmainlybecauseitconducestothesafetyofthewholecommunity.Thelearnerwastoldtoconquerhispassionsforhisownsakeratherthanforthesakeofothers;andindulgenceinviolentanger,thoughmoreenergeticallydenounced,was,intheory,placedonaparwithimmoderatedelightoruncontrollabledistress.Soalso,vicesofimpuritywereclassedwithcomparativelyharmlessformsofsensuality,andconsideredinreference,nottothesocialdegradationoftheirvictims,buttothespiritualdefilementoftheirperpetrators.

  • 如萱紫儿t7rwZ

  • 但法国nWIXf

    Wealsomissinhimtheirsingle-mindeddevotiontophilosophyandtheirrigorousunityofdoctrine.TheAcragantinesagewasapartyleader(inwhichcapacity,tohisgreatcredit,hevictoriouslyupheldthepopularcause),arhetorician,anengineer,aphysician,andathaumaturgist.Thewell-knownlegendrelatingtohisdeathmaybetakenasanotundeservedsatireonthecolossalself-conceitofthemanwhoclaimeddivinehonoursduringhislifetime.Half-mysticandhalf-rationalist,hemadenoattempttoreconcilethetwoinconsistentsidesofhisintellectualcharacter.Itmaybecomparedtooneofthosegrotesquecombinationsinwhich,accordingtohismorphology,theheadsandbodiesofwidelydifferentanimalswereunitedduringthebeginningsoflifebeforetheyhadlearnedtofallintotheirproperplaces.Hebelievedinmetempsychosis,andprofessedtorememberthesomewhatmiscellaneousseriesofformsthroughwhichhisownpersonalityhadalreadyrun.Hehadbeenaboy,agirl,abush,abird,andafish.Nevertheless,asweshallpresentlysee,histheoryofNaturealtogetherexcludedsuchanotionasthesoul’sseparateexistence.Wehavenowtoconsiderwhatthattheoryactuallywas.ItwillberememberedthatParmenideshadaffirmedtheperpetuityandeternalself-identityofbeing,butthathehaddeprivedthisprofounddivinationofallpracticalvaluebyinterpretingitinasensewhichexcludeddiversityandchange.Empedoclesalsodeclarescreationanddestructiontobeimpossible,butexplainsthattheappearancessodenominatedarisefromtheunionandseparationoffoureverlastingsubstances—earth,air,fire,andwater.Thisisthefamousdoctrineofthefour29elements,which,adoptedbyPlatoandAristotle,waslongregardedasthelastwordofchemistry,andstillsurvivesinpopularphraseology.Itsauthormayhavebeenguidedbyanunconsciousreflectiononthecharacterofhisownphilosophicalmethod,forwasnothe,too,constructinganewsystemoutoftheelementssuppliedbyhispredecessors?Theyhadsuccessivelyfixedonwater,air,andfireastheprimordialformofexistence;headdedafourth,earth,andeffectedasortofreconciliationbyplacingthemallonanequalfooting.Curiouslyenough,theearliermonisticsystemhadarelativejustificationwhichhiscrudeeclecticismlacked.Allmattermayexisteitherinasolid,aliquid,oragaseousform;andallsolidmatterhasreacheditspresentconditionafterpassingthroughthetwootherdegreesofconsistency.Thatthethreemodificationsshouldbefoundcoexistinginourownexperienceisamereaccidentofthepresentrégime,andtoenumeratethemistosubstituteadescriptionforanexplanation,theusualfaultofeclecticsystems.Empedocles,however,besideshishappyimprovementonParmenides,madearealcontributiontothoughtwhen,asAristotleputsit,hesoughtforamovingaswellasforamaterialcause;inotherwords,whenheaskednotonlyofwhatelementstheworldiscomposed,butalsobywhatforcesweretheybroughttogether.Hetellsusoftwosuchcauses,LoveandStrife,theoneacombining,theotheradissociatingpower.Ifforthesehalf-mythologicalnameswereadattractiveandrepulsiveforces,theresultwillnotbeverydifferentfromourowncurrentcosmologies.Suchterms,whensousedastoassumetheexistenceofoccultqualitiesinmatter,drivingitspartsasunderordrawingthemclosetogether,are,intruth,ascompletelymythologicalasanyfigmentsofHellenicfancy.Unliketheirmodernantitypes,theEmpedocleangoddessesdidnotreigntogether,butsucceededoneanotherinalternatedominionduringprotractedperiodsoftime.ThevictoryofLovewascompletewhenallthingshadbeendrawnintoa30perfectsphere,evidentlytheabsoluteEleaticBeingsubjectedtoaHeracleiteanlawofvicissitudeandcontradiction.ForStrifelaysholdontheconsolidatedorb,andbyherdisintegratingactiongraduallyreducesittoaformlesschaos,till,atthecloseofanotherworld-period,theworkofcreationbeginsagain.YetgrowthanddecayaresoinextricablyintertwinedthatEmpedoclesfailedtokeepupthisidealseparation,andwascompelledtoadmitthesimultaneousactivityofbothpowersinoureverydayexperience,sothatNatureturnsouttobecomposedofsixelementsinsteadoffour,themindwhichperceivesitbeingconstitutedinapreciselysimilarmanner.ButLove,althoughonthewholevictorious,canonlygraduallygetthebetterofherretreatingenemy,andNature,asweknowit,istheresultoftheircontinuedconflict.Empedoclesdescribedtheprocessofevolution,asheconceivedit,insomewhatminutedetail.Twopointsonlyareofmuchinteresttous,hisallegedanticipationoftheDarwiniantheoryandhispsychology.Theformer,suchasitwas,hasoccasionallybeenattributedtoLucretius,buttheRomanpoetmostprobablycopiedEpicurus,althoughtheverybriefsummaryofthatphilosopher’sphysicalsystempreservedbyDiogenesLaertiuscontainsnoallusiontosuchatopic.Weknow,however,thatinAristotle’stimeatheoryidenticalwiththatofLucretiuswasheldbythosewhorejectedteleologicalexplanationsoftheworldingeneralandoflivingorganismsinparticular.Allsortsofanimalswereproducedbyspontaneousgeneration;onlythosesurvivedwhichwereaccidentallyfurnishedwithappliancesforprocuringnourishmentandforpropagatingtheirkind.ThenotionitselforiginatedwithEmpedocles,whosefancifulsuppositionshavealreadybeenmentionedinadifferentconnexion.Mostassuredlyhedidnotofferitasasolutionofproblemswhichinhistimehadnotyetbeenmooted,butasanillustrationoftheconfusionwhichprevailedwhenLovehadonlyadvancedalittlewayinherordering,harmonising,31unifyingtask.Prantl,writingafewyearsbeforetheappearanceofMr.Darwin’sbookontheOriginofSpecies,andthereforewithoutanyprejudiceonthesubject,observeswithtruththatthistheoryofEmpedocleswasdeeplyrootedinthemythologicalconceptionsofthetime.23Perhapshewasseekingforarationalisticexplanationofthecentaurs,minotaurs,hundred-handedgiants,andsoforth,inwhoseexistencehehadnot,likeLucretius,learnedcompletelytodisbelieve.Hisstrangesuppositionwasafterwardsfreedfromitsworstextravagances;butevenasstatedintheDeRerumNatura,ithasnoclaimwhatevertorankasaserioushypothesis.AnythingmoreunliketheDarwiniandoctrine,accordingtowhichallexistingspecieshavebeenevolvedfromlesshighly-organizedancestorsbythegradualaccumulationofminutedifferences,itwouldbedifficulttoconceive.Everythinkerofantiquity,withoneexception,believedintheimmutabilityofnaturalspecies.Theyhadexistedunchangedfromalleternity,orhadsprungupbyspontaneousgenerationfromtheearth’sbosomintheirpresentform.ThesolitarydissentientwasAnaximander,whoconjecturedthatmanwasdescendedfromanaquaticanimal.24Strangetosay,thisluckyguesshasnotyetbeenquotedasanargumentagainsttheAscidianpedigree.ItischieflytheenemiesofDarwinismwhoareeagertofinditanticipatedinEmpedoclesorLucretius.Byacuriousinversionoftraditionalism,itisfanciedthatamoderndiscoverycanbeupsetbyshowingthatsomebodysaidsomethingofthekindmorethantwothousandyearsago.Unfortunatelyauthorityhasnotthenegativevalueofdisprovingtheprincipleswhichitsupports.Wemustbecontenttoacceptthetruthsbroughttolightbyobservationandreasoning,evenattheriskoffindingourselvesinhumiliatingagreementwithaphilosopherofantiquity.25

     

  • 大笨蛋XMHrr

    v

  • 扒皮成4tTC0

     HerdespairisbuttheinvertedimageofPlato’shope,thereturntoapurerstateofbeingwhereknowledgewillnolongerbeobscuredbypassingthroughtheperturbingmediumofsightandtouch.Again,modernapologistsfortheinjusticeandmiseryofthepresentsystem144arguethatitsinequalitieswillberedressedinafuturestate.Platoconverselyregardedthesufferingsofgoodmenasaretributionforformersin,orastheresultofaforgottenchoice.TheauthorityofPindarandofancienttraditiongenerallymayhaveinfluencedhisbelief,butithadadeepergroundinthelogicofaspiritualisticphilosophy.Thedualismofsoulandbodyisonlyoneformofhisfundamentalantithesisbetweenthechangelessessenceandthetransitorymanifestationsofexistence.ApantheismlikeSpinoza’swasthenaturaloutcomeofsuchasystem;buthispracticalgeniusorhisardentimaginationkeptPlatofromcarryingitsofar.Norintheinterestsofprogresswastheresulttoberegretted;fortheologyhadtopassthroughonemorephasebeforethetermofitsbeneficentactivitycouldbereached.Ethicalconceptionsgainedanew241significanceintheblendedlightofmythologyandmetaphysics;thosewhomadeittheirtradetopervertjusticeatitsfountain-headmightstilltremblebeforetheterrorsofasupernaturaltribunal;orifPlatocouldnotregeneratethelifeofhisownpeoplehecouldforetellwhatwastobethecommonfaithofEuropeinanotherthousandyears;andmemory,ifnothope,isthericherforthosemagnificentvisionswherehehasprojectedtheeternalconflictbetweengoodandevilintothesilenceanddarknessbywhichourlivesareshutinoneveryside.

  • 草莓果9gcTP

    Therestillremainedonelastproblemtosolve,onepoint228wheretheconvergingstreamsofethicalandmetaphysicalspeculationmetandmixed.Grantedthatknowledgeisthesoul’shighestenergy,whatistheobjectofthisbeatificvision?Grantedthatallparticularenergiesco-operateforacommonpurpose,whatistheendtowhichtheyaresubordinated?Grantedthatdialecticleadsusupthroughascendinggradationstooneall-comprehensiveidea,howisthatideatobedefined?Platoonlyattemptstoanswerthislastquestionbyre-statingitundertheformofanillustration.AsthesunatoncegiveslifetoallNature,andlighttotheeyebywhichNatureisperceived,soalsotheideaofGoodisthecauseofexistenceandofknowledgealike,buttranscendsthembothasanabsoluteunity,ofwhichwecannotevensaythatitis,forthedistinctionofsubjectandpredicatewouldbringbackrelativityandpluralityagain.HereweseemtohavetheSocraticparadoxreversed.Socratesidentifiedvirtuewithknowledge,but,atthesametime,entirelyemptiedthelatterofitsspeculativecontent.Plato,inheritingtheideaofknowledgeinitsartificiallyrestrictedsignificance,wasirresistiblydrawnbacktotheolderphilosophywhenceithadbeenoriginallyborrowed;then,justashismasterhadgivenanethicalapplicationtoscience,sodidhe,travellingoverthesamegroundinanoppositedirection,extendthetheoryofethicsfarbeyonditslegitimaterange,untilaprinciplewhichseemedtohavenomeaning,exceptinreferencetohumanconduct,becametheabstractbondofunionbetweenallrealityandallthought.

     Thethirdthesismaintainsthat,grantingtheworldtoexistandtobeknowable,onemancannotcommunicatehisknowledgetoanother;for,thedifferentclassesofsensationsbeingheterogeneous,avisualortactualimpressiononourconsciousnesscannotbeconveyedbyanauditoryimpressionontheconsciousnessofsomeoneelse.Thisdifficultyhasbeencompletelyovercomebythesubsequentprogressofthought.Wecannot,itistrue,directlycommunicatemore132thanafewsensationstooneanother;butbyproducingonewemaycallupotherswithwhichithasbecomeassociatedthroughpreviousexperience.Andthegreatbulkofourknowledgehasbeenanalysedintorelationsofco-existence,succession,andresemblance,whicharequiteindependentoftheparticularsymbolsemployedtotransmitthemfromonemindtoanother.220

  • 绿卡纸MOx6E

     

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