北京:“恢復”成“五一”假期關鍵詞

22xWr-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 04:22:18

“彩票智能选号软件下载”‘Aye,ifJove’svirgindaughterJusticesharedThepowerwhichSocratespossessedofrousingothermindstoindependentactivityandapostolictransmissionofspiritualgiftswas,aswehavesaid,thesecondverificationofhisdoctrine.Eventhosewho,likeAntisthenesandAristippus,derivedtheirpositivetheoriesfromtheSophistsratherthanfromhim,preferredtoberegardedashisfollowers;andPlato,fromwhomhisideasreceivedtheirmostsplendiddevelopment,hasacknowledgedthedebtbymakingthatveneratedfigurethecentreofhisownimmortalDialogues.Athirdverificationisgivenbythesubjective,practical,dialectictendencyofallsubsequentphilosophyproperlysocalled.Onthispointwewillcontentourselveswithmentioningoneinstanceoutofmany,therecentdeclarationofMr.HerbertSpencerthathiswholesystemwasconstructedforthesakeofitsethicalconclusion.101

Insayingthatthepost-Aristotelianphilosopherswerenotoriginalthinkers,wemustguardagainstthesuppositionthattheycontributednothingofvaluetothought.Onthecontrary,whilenotputtingforwardanynewtheories,theygeneralisedsomeoftheprinciplesborrowedfromtheirpredecessors,workedoutothersinminutedetail,andstatedtheargumentsonbothsidesofeverycontrovertedpointwithsuperiordialecticprecision.Thus,whilematerialismhadbeenassumedasself-evidentlytruebythepre-Socraticschools,itwasmaintainedbytheStoicsandEpicureansonwhatseemedtobegroundsofexperienceandreason.And,similarly,wefindthatPlotinus,havingarrivedattheconsciousnessthatspiritualismisthecommongroundonwhich294PlatoandAristotlestand,theconnectingtraitwhichmostcompletelydistinguishesthemfromtheirsuccessors,proceedsinhissecondessay436toarguethecaseagainstmaterialismmorepowerfullythanithadeverbeenarguedbefore,andwithnearlyasmucheffectasithaseverbeenarguedsince.

Buteventakeninitsmildestform,thereweredifficultiesaboutGreekidealismwhichstillremainedunsolved.Theymaybesummedupinoneword,thenecessityofsubordinatingallpersonalandpassionatefeelingstoahigherlaw,whateverthedictatesofthatlawmaybe.Ofsuchself-suppressionfewmenwerelesscapablethanCicero.Whethervirtuemeanttheextirpationormerelythemoderationofdesireandemotion,itwasequallyimpossibletooneofwhomMacaulayhassaid,withnotmoreseveritythantruth,thathiswholesoulwasunderthedominionofagirlishvanityandacravenfear.278Suchweakandwell-intentionednatures174almostalwaystakerefugefromtheirsorrowsandself-reproachesinreligion;andprobablythereligioussentimentwasmorehighlydevelopedinCicerothaninanyotherthinkeroftheage.HerealsoaparallelwithSocratesnaturallysuggestsitself.Therelationbetweenthetwoamountstomorethanamereanalogy;fornotonlywastheintellectualconditionofoldAthensrepeatingitselfinRome,butthereligiousopinionsofallcultivatedRomanswhostillretainedtheirbeliefinaprovidentialGod,were,toanevengreaterextentthantheirethics,derivedthroughStoicismfromthegreatfounderofrationaltheology.Cicero,likeSocrates,viewsGodunderthethreefoldaspectofacreator,aprovidence,andaninformingspirit:—identicalinhisnaturewiththesoulofman,andhavingmanforhispeculiarcare.Withregardtotheevidenceofhisexistence,theteleologicalargumentderivedfromthestructureoforganisedbeingsiscommontoboth;theargumentfromuniversalbelief,doubtlessapowerfulmotivewithSocrates,ismoredistinctlyputforwardbyCicero;andwhilebothregardtheheavenlyluminariesasmanifestembodimentsofthedivineessence,CiceroisledbythetraditionsofPlato,Aristotle,andtheStoics,topresenttheregularityoftheirmovementsasthemostconvincingrevelationofasuperhumanintelligence,andtoidentifytheoutermoststarryspherewiththehighestGodofall.279Intimatelyassociatedwiththisviewishisbeliefintheimmortalityofthesoul,whichhesupposeswillreturnafterdeathtotheeternalandunchangeablespherewhenceitoriginallyproceeded.280ButhisfamiliaritywiththescepticalargumentsofCarneadespreventedCicerofromputtingforwardhistheologicalbeliefswiththesameconfidenceasSocrates;while,atthesametime,itenabledhimtotakeupamuchmoredecidedattitudeofhostilitytowardsthepopularsuperstitionsfromwhichhewasanxious,sofaraspossible,topurifytrue175religion.281Tosumup:Cicero,likeKant,seemstohavebeenchieflyimpressedbytwophenomena,thestarryheavenswithoutandthemorallawwithin;eachinitsownwaygivinghimtheideaofunchangingandeverlastingcontinuance,andbothtestifyingtotheexistenceofapowerbywhichallthingsareregulatedforthebest.Butthematerialismofhisagenaturallypreventedhimfromregardingtheexternalorderasamerereflexorlowermanifestationoftheinwardlawbywhichallspiritsfeelthemselvestobemembersofthesameintelligiblecommunity.

Again,thispreferenceformythologicalimageryonthepartofthemoreoriginalandpoeticalthinkerseemstobecloselyconnectedwithamorevividinterestinthepracticaldutiesoflife.WithPlotinus,theprimalbeautyorsupremegoodissomethingthatcanbeisolatedfromallotherbeautyandgoodness,somethingtobeperceivedandenjoyedinabsoluteseclusionfromone’sfellow-men.Godis,indeed,describedasthesourceandcauseofallothergood.Butneitherherenorelsewhereisthereahintthatweshouldstrivetoresemblehimbybecoming,inourturn,thecauseofgoodtoothers.Platoniclove,onthecontrary,firstfindsitsrealityandtruthinunremittingeffortsfortheenlightenmentandelevationofothers,beingrelatedtothetransmissionofspirituallifejustastheloveinspiredbyvisiblebeautyisrelatedtotheperpetuationandphysicalennoblementoftherace.

Empire,whenitcametoAthens,camealmostunsought.ThePersianinvasionshadmadeheragreatnavalpower;thefreechoiceofheralliesplacedherattheheadofagreatmaritimeconfederacy.Thesuddencommandofvastresourcesandthetensionaccumulatedduringagesofrepose,stimulatedallherfacultiesintopreternaturalactivity.HerspiritwassteeledalmosttotheDoriantemper,andenteredintovictoriousrivalrywiththeDorianMuse.Notonlydidherfleetsweepthesea,butherarmy,foronce,defeatedThebanhoplitesinthefield.ThegrandchoralharmoniesofSiciliansong,theSicyonianrecitalsofepicadventure,wererolledbackintoaframeworkforthespectacleofindividualsoulsmeetingoneanotherinargument,expostulation,entreaty,anddefiance;anoblerDoricedificerosetoconfronttheAeginetantempleofAthênê;thestrainedenergyofAeginetancombatantswasrelaxedintoattitudesofreposingpower,andtheeternalsmileontheirfaceswasdeepenedintothesadnessofunfathomablethought.Buttotheviolet-crownedcity,Athênêwasagiverofwealthandwisdomratherthanofprowess;herempirerestedonthecontributionsofunwillingallies,andonatechnicalproficiencywhichothersweresuretoequalintime;sothattheCorinthianoratorscouldsaywithjusticethatAthenianskillwasmoreeasilyacquiredthanDorianvalour.Atoncereceptiveandcommunicative,AthensabsorbedallthatGreececouldteachher,andthenreturneditinamoreelaborateform,butwithoutthefreshnessofitsearliestinspiration.Yettherewasonefieldthatstillaffordedscopeforcreativeoriginality.Habitsofanalysis,thoughfataltospontaneousproduction,werefavourable,orratherwerenecessary,tothegrowthofanewphilosophy.Aftertheexhaustionofeverylimitedidealism,thereremainedthathighestidealisationwhichisthereductionofallpastexperiencetoamethodavailablefortheguidance129ofallfutureaction.Toaccomplishthislastenterpriseitwasnecessarythatasingleindividualshouldgatherupinhimselfthespiritdiffusedthroughawholepeople,bestowingonitbythatveryconcentrationthecapabilityofaninfinitelywiderextensionwhenitsprovisionalrepresentativeshouldhavepassedawayfromthescene.369

Norinhischildhood,norinyouth,norwhen172

Tocompleteourenumerationoftheforcesbywhichanewpublicopinionwasbeingcreated,wemustmentiontheslaves.Thoughstillliabletobetreatedwithgreatbarbarity,211theconditionofthisclasswasconsiderablyamelioratedundertheempire.Theirlivesand,inthecaseofwomen,theirchastity,wereprotectedbylaw;theywereallowedbycustomtoaccumulateproperty;theyhadalwaysthehopeoflibertybeforetheireyes,foremancipationswerefrequentandwereencouragedbythenewlegislation;theyoftenlivedontermsoftheclosestintimacywiththeirmasters,andweresometimeseducatedenoughtoconversewiththemonsubjectsofgeneralinterest.Nowaservileconditionismorefavourablethananyothertoreligiousideas.Itinculcateshabitsofunquestioningsubmissiontoauthority;andbythemiserieswithwhichitisattendedimmenselyenhancesthevalueofconsolatorybeliefs,whethertheytaketheformoffaithindivineprotectionduringthislife,orofacompensationforitsafflictionsinthenext.Moreover,agreatmajorityoftheRomanslavescamefromthoseEasterncountrieswhichwerethenativelandofsuperstition,andthusservedasmissionariesofOrientalcultsandcreedsintheWest,besidesfurnishingaptdisciplestotheteacherswhocamefromAsiawiththeexpressobjectofsecuringconvertstotheirreligioninRome.ThepartplayedbyslavesinthediffusionofChristianityiswellknown;whatwehavetoobserveatpresentisthattheirinfluencemustequallyhavetoldinfavourofeveryothersupernaturalistbelief,and,tothesameextent,againsttherationalismofwriterslikeHoraceandLucian.

Inpointofstyle,Plotinusismuchthemostdifficultoftheancientphilosophers,and,inthisrespect,isonlysurpassedbyaveryfewofthemoderns.EvenLonginus,whowasoneofthemostintelligentcriticsthenliving,andwho,besides,283hadbeeneducatedinthesameschoolwithourphilosopher,couldnotmakeheadortailofhisbookswhencopiesofthemweresenttohimbyPorphyry,andsupposed,afterthemannerofphilologists,thatthetextmustbecorrupt,muchtothedisgustofPorphyry,whoassuresusthatitsaccuracywasunimpeachable.426ProbablypolitenesspreventedLonginusfromsaying,whathemusthaveseenataglance,thatPlotinuswasatotalstrangertotheartofliterarycomposition.Wearetoldthathewroteasfastasifhewerecopyingfromabook;buthehadnevermasteredeventheelementsoftheGreeklanguage;andtheweaknessofhiseyesightpreventedhimfromreadingoverwhathehadwritten.ThemistakesinspellingandgrammarPorphyrycorrected,butitisevidentthathehasmadenoalterationsinthegeneralstyleoftheEnneads;andthisisnearlyasbadasbadcanbe—disjointed,elliptical,redundant,andawkward.Chapterfollowschapterandparagraphsucceedstoparagraphwithoutanyfixedprincipleofarrangement;theconnexionofthesentencesisbynomeansclear;somesentencesarealmostunintelligiblefromtheirextremebrevity,othersfromtheirinordinatelengthandcomplexity.Theunpractisedhandofaforeignerconstantlyrevealsitselfinthechoiceandcollocationofwordsandgrammaticalinflections.Predicatesandsubjectsarehuddledtogetherwithoutanyregardtotheharmoniesofnumberandgender,sothateveniffalseconcordsdonotoccur,wearecontinuallyannoyedbythesuggestionoftheirpresence.427Thefinalantithesisofconsciouslifeisthatbetweenthe398individualandthestate.Inthissense,Aristotle’sPoliticsisthecompletionofhisEthics.Itisonlyinawell-orderedcommunitythatmoralhabitscanbeacquired;anditisonlyinsuchacommunitythatthebestorintellectuallifecanbeattained,although,properlyspeaking,itisnotasociallife.Nevertheless,thePolitics,likeeveryotherportionofAristotle’ssystem,reproduceswithinitselftheelementsofanindependentwhole.Tounderstanditsinternalorganisation,wemustbeginbydisregardingAristotle’sabortiveclassification(chieflyadaptedfromPlato)ofconstitutionsintothreelegitimate—Monarchy,Aristocracy,andRepublic;andthreeillegitimate—Democracy,Oligarchy,andTyranny.Aristotledistinguishesthembysayingthatthelegitimateformsaregovernedwithaviewtothegeneralgood;theillegitimatewithaviewtotheinterestsofparticularclassesorpersons.But,inpointoffact,asZellershows,291hecannotkeepupthisdistinction;andweshallbetterunderstandhistrueideabysubstitutingforitanother—thatbetweentheintellectualandthematerialstate.Theobjectoftheoneistosecurethehighestcultureforarulingcaste,whoaretoabstainfromindustrialoccupations,andtobesupportedbythelabourofadependentpopulation.Suchagovernmentmaybeeithermonarchicaloraristocratic;butitmustnecessarilybeinthehandsofafew.Theobjectoftheotheristomaintainastableequilibriumbetweentheopposinginterestsofrichandpoor—twoclassespracticallydistinguishedasthefewandthemany.Thisendisbestattainedwheresupremepowerbelongstothemiddleclass.Thedeviationsarerepresentedbyoligarchyandtyrannyontheoneside,andbyextremedemocracyontheother.Wheresuchconstitutionsexist,thebestmodeofpreservingthemistomoderatetheircharacteristicexcessbyborrowingcertaininstitutionsfromtheoppositeformofgovernment,orbymodifyingtheirowninstitutionsinaconciliatorysense.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主LOpBJ

    Insayingthatthepost-Aristotelianphilosopherswerenotoriginalthinkers,wemustguardagainstthesuppositionthattheycontributednothingofvaluetothought.Onthecontrary,whilenotputtingforwardanynewtheories,theygeneralisedsomeoftheprinciplesborrowedfromtheirpredecessors,workedoutothersinminutedetail,andstatedtheargumentsonbothsidesofeverycontrovertedpointwithsuperiordialecticprecision.Thus,whilematerialismhadbeenassumedasself-evidentlytruebythepre-Socraticschools,itwasmaintainedbytheStoicsandEpicureansonwhatseemedtobegroundsofexperienceandreason.And,similarly,wefindthatPlotinus,havingarrivedattheconsciousnessthatspiritualismisthecommongroundonwhich294PlatoandAristotlestand,theconnectingtraitwhichmostcompletelydistinguishesthemfromtheirsuccessors,proceedsinhissecondessay436toarguethecaseagainstmaterialismmorepowerfullythanithadeverbeenarguedbefore,andwithnearlyasmucheffectasithaseverbeenarguedsince.

     Thedishonourwasforthetownsmenwho,inanoutbreakofinsanefanaticism,drovetheblamelesstruthseekerfromhisadoptedhome.AnaxagoraswastheintimatecompanionofPericles,andPericleshadmademanyenemiesbyhisdomesticaswellasbyhisforeignpolicy.Acoalitionofharassedinterestsandoffendedprejudiceswasformedagainsthim.Acryarosethatreligionandtheconstitutionwereindanger.TheAthenianshadtoomuchgoodsensetodismisstheirgreatdemocraticMinister,buttheypermittedtheillustriousstatesman’spoliticalopponentstostrikeathimthroughhisfriends.29Aspasiawassavedonlybythetearsofherlover.Pheidias,thegrandest,mostspiritual-mindedartistofalltime,wasarrestedonachargeofimpiety,anddiedinaprisonofthecitywhosetempleswereadornedwiththeimperishablemonumentsofhisreligiousinspiration.Adecreeagainst‘astronomersandatheists’wassoevidentlyaimedatAnaxagorasthatthephilosopherretiredtoLampsacus,wherehediedattheageofseventy-two,universallyadmiredandrevered.AltarsdedicatedtoReasonandTruthwereerectedinhishonour,andforcenturieshismemorycontinuedtobecelebratedbyanannualfeast.30Hiswholeexistencehadbeendevotedtoscience.Whenaskedwhatmadelifeworthliving,heanswered,‘Thecontemplationoftheheavensandoftheuniversalcosmicorder.’Thereplywaslikeatitle-pagetohisworks.Wecanseethatspecialisationwas38beginning,thatthepositivescienceswereseparatingthemselvesfromgeneraltheoriesaboutNature,andcouldbecultivatedindependentlyofthem.Asingleindividualmight,indeed,combinephilosophyofthemostcomprehensivekindwithadetailedenquiryintosomeparticularorderofphenomena,buthecoulddothiswithoutbringingthetwostudiesintoanyimmediateconnexionwitheachother.SuchseemstohavebeenthecasewithAnaxagoras.Hewasaprofessionalastronomerandalsotheauthorofamodifiedatomichypothesis.This,fromitsgreatercomplexity,seemsmorelikelytohavebeensuggestedbythepurelyquantitativeconceptionofLeucippusthantohaveprecededitintheorderofevolution.Democritus,andprobablyhisteacheralso,drewaverysharpdistinctionbetweenwhatwereafterwardscalledtheprimaryandsecondaryqualitiesofmatter.ExtensionandresistancealonehadarealexistenceinNature,whiletheattributescorrespondingtoourspecialsensations,suchastemperature,taste,andcolour,wereonlysubjectively,or,asheexpressedit,conventionallytrue.Anaxagorasaffirmednolessstronglythanhisyoungercontemporariesthatthesumofbeingcanneitherbeincreasednordiminished,thatallthingsariseandperishbycombinationanddivision,andthatbodiesareformedoutofindestructibleelements;liketheAtomists,again,heregardedtheseelementarysubstancesasinfiniteinnumberandinconceivablyminute;onlyheconsideredthemasqualitativelydistinct,andasresemblingonaninfinitesimalscalethehighestcompoundsthattheybuildup.Notonlyweregold,iron,andtheothermetalsformedofhomogeneousparticles,butsuchsubstancesasflesh,bone,andbloodwere,accordingtohim,equallysimple,equallydecomposable,intomoleculesoflikenaturewiththemselves.Thus,asAristotlewellobserves,hereversedthemethodofEmpedocles,andtaughtthatearth,air,fire,andwaterwerereallythemostcomplexofallbodies,sincetheysupplied39nourishmenttothelivingtissues,andthereforemustcontainwithinthemselvesthemultitudinousvarietyofunitsbywhoseaggregationindividualisedorganicsubstanceismadeup.31Furthermore,ourphilosopherheldthatoriginallythisintermixturehadbeenstillmorethoroughgoing,allpossiblequalitiesbeingsimultaneouslypresentinthesmallestparticlesofmatter.TheresultingstateofchaoticconfusionlasteduntilNous,orReason,cameandsegregatedtheheterogeneouselementsbyaprocessofcontinuousdifferentiationleadinguptothepresentarrangementofthings.BothPlatoandAristotlehavecommendedAnaxagorasforintroducingintospeculationtheconceptionofReasonasacosmicworld-orderingpower;bothhavecensuredhimformakingsolittleuseofhisowngreatthought,forattributingalmosteverythingtosecondary,material,mechanicalcauses;fornoteverywhereapplyingtheteleologicalmethod;infact,fornotanticipatingtheBridgewaterTreatisesandprovingthattheworldisconstructedonaplanofperfectwisdomandgoodness.LessfortunatethantheAthenians,wecannotpurchasetheworkofAnaxagorasonNatureatanorchestralbook-stallforthemoderatepriceofadrachma;butweknowenoughaboutitscontentstocorrectthesomewhatpetulantandsuperficialcriticismofaschoolperhapslessinsympathythanwearewithitsauthor’smethodofresearch.EvidentlytheClazomenianphilosopherdidnotmeanbyReasonanethicalforce,apowerwhichmakesforhumanhappinessorvirtue,noryetareflectingintelligence,adesigneradaptingmeanstoends.ToallappearancestheNouswasnotaspiritinthesensewhichweattach,orwhichAristotleattachedtotheterm.Itwas,accordingtoAnaxagoras,thesubtlestandpurestofallthings,totallyunmixedwithothersubstances,andthereforeabletocontrolandbringthemintoorder.Thisisnothowmenspeakofanimmaterialinextendedconsciousness.Thetruthisthatno40amountofphysicalsciencecouldcreate,althoughitmightleadtowardsaspiritualisticphilosophy.Spiritualismfirstarosefromthesophisticnegationofanexternalworld,fromtheexclusivestudyofman,fromtheSocraticsearchaftergeneraldefinitions.Yet,ifNousoriginallymeantintelligence,howcoulditlosethisprimarysignificationandbecomeidentifiedwithameremodeofmatter?Theansweris,thatAnaxagoras,whosewholelifewasspentintracingouttheorderofNature,wouldinstinctivelythinkofhisownintelligenceasadiscriminating,identifyingfaculty;would,consequently,conceiveitsobjectivecounterpartundertheformofadifferentiatingandintegratingpower.Allprecedingthinkershadrepresentedtheirsupremebeingundermaterialconditions,eitherasoneelementsinglyorasasumtotalwhereelementaldifferencesweremerged.AnaxagorasdifferedfromthemchieflybytheverysharpdistinctiondrawnbetweenhisinformingprincipleandtherestofNature.TheabsoluteintermixtureofqualitieswhichhepresupposesbearsaverystrongresemblancebothtotheSphairosofEmpedoclesandtothefieryconsummationofHeracleitus,itmayevenhavebeensuggestedbythem.Only,whatwiththemwasthehighestformofexistencebecomeswithhimthelowest;thoughtisassertingitselfmoreandmore,andinterpretingthelawofevolutioninaccordancewithitsownimperiousdemands.

  • 雪灵芝vQ1cZ

    II.

  • 如萱紫儿BG9FG

    I.

  • 但法国kLL2Z

     

  • 大笨蛋luri6

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  • 扒皮成0XIeL

     Daemonism,however,doesnotfillaverygreatplaceinthecreedofPlutarch;andacomparisonofhimwithhissuccessorsshowsthatthesanertraditionsofGreekthoughtonlygraduallygavewaytotherisingfloodofignoranceandunreason.Itistruethat,asamoralist,thephilosopherofChaeroneaconsideredreligionofinestimableimportancetohumanvirtueandhumanhappiness;while,asahistorian,heacceptedstoriesofsupernaturaloccurrenceswithacredulityrecallingthatofLivyandfallinglittleshortofDionCassius.NordidhisownPlatonisticmonotheismpreventhimfromextendingaverygenerousintellectualtolerationtothedifferentformsofpolytheismwhichhefoundeverywhereprevailing.395Inthisrespect,heandprobablyallthephilosophersofthatandthesucceedingage,theEpicureans,theSceptics,andsomeoftheCynicsaloneexcepted,offerastrikingcontradictiontooneofGibbon’smostcelebratedepigrams.Tothemthepopularreligionswerenotequallyfalsebutequallytrue,and,toacertainextent,equallyuseful.WherePlutarchdrewthelinewasatwhathecalledDeisidaimonia,thefrightfulmentalmaladywhich,asalreadymentioned,begantoafflictGreecesoonaftertheconquestsofAlexander.Itisgenerallytranslatedsuperstition,buthasamuchnarrowermeaning.Itexpressesthebeliefsandfeelingsofonewholivesinperpetualdreadofprovokingsupernaturalvengeance,not254bywrongfulbehaviourtowardshisfellow-men,norevenbyintentionaldisrespecttowardsahigherpower,butbytheneglectofcertainceremonialobservances;andwhoisconstantlyonthelook-outforheaven-sentprognosticationsofcalamities,which,whentheycome,willapparentlybeinflictedfromsheerill-will,Plutarchhasdevotedoneofhismostfamousessaystothecastigationofthisweakness.Hedeliberatelyprefersatheismtoit,showingbyanelaboratecomparisonofinstancesthattheformer—withwhich,however,hehasnosympathyatall—ismuchlessinjurioustohumanhappiness,andinvolvesmuchlessrealimpiety,thansuchaconstantattributionofmeaninglessmalicetothegods.OneexampleofDeisidaimoniaadducedbyPlutarchisSabbatarianism,especiallywhencarried,asithadrecentlybeenbytheJewsduringthesiegeofJerusalem,tothepointofentirelysuspendingmilitaryoperationsonthedayofrest.396Thatthebeliefindaemons,someofwhompassedforbeingmalevolentpowers,mightyieldafruitfulcropofnewsuperstitions,doesnotseemtohaveoccurredtoPlutarch;stilllessthatthedoctrineoffuturetormentsofwhich,followingPlato’sexample,hewasafirmupholder,mightproveaterrortoothersbesidesoffendersagainstthemorallaw,—especiallywhenmanipulatedbyaclasswhoseinterestitwastostimulatethefeelinginquestiontotheutmostpossibleintensity.

  • 草莓果JcT4C

    Theideaofvirtueasahedonisticcalculus,abandonedbyitsfirstoriginator,andapparentlyneglectedbyhisimmediatesuccessors,wastakenupbyEpicurus;forthatthelatterborroweditfromPlatoseemstobeprovedbytheexact62resemblanceoftheirlanguage;125andM.Guyauisquitemistakenwhenherepresentshisheroasthefounderofutilitarianmorality.126Itwasnotenough,however,toappropriatethecast-offideasofPlato;itwasnecessarytomeettheargumentsbywhichPlatohadbeenledtothinkthatpleasurewasnotthesupremegood,andtodoubtwhetheritwas,assuch,agoodatall.Themostnaturalcoursewouldhavebeentobeginbyexhibitingthehedonisticidealinamorefavourablelight.Sensualgratifications,fromtheirremarkableintensity,hadlongbeentheacceptedtypesofpleasurablefeeling,andfromtheiranimalcharacter,aswellasfromotherobviousreasons,hadfrequentlybeenusedtoexciteaprejudiceagainstit.Ontheotherhand,Platohimself,andAristotlestillmore,hadbroughtintoprominencethesuperiority,simplyaspleasures,ofthoseintellectualactivitieswhichtheyconsideredtobe,evenapartfromallpleasure,thehighestgood.ButEpicurusrefusedtoavailhimselfofthisopportunityforeffectingacompromisewiththeoppositeschool,boldlydeclaringthatheforhispartcouldnotconceiveanypleasuresapartfromthosereceivedthroughthefivesenses,amongwhichhe,characteristicallyenough,includedaestheticenjoyments.Theobvioussignificanceofhiswordshasbeenexplainedaway,andtheyhavebeenassertedtocontainonlytheveryharmlesspropositionthatouranimalnatureisthebasis,thecondition,ofourspiritualnature.127But,ifthiswerethetrueexplanation,itwouldbepossibletopointoutwhatotherpleasureswererecognisedbyEpicurus.These,iftheyexistedatall,musthavebelongedtothemindassuch.Now,wehaveitonCicero’sauthoritythat,whileadmittingtheexistenceofmentalfeelings,bothpleasurableandpainful,hereducedthemtoanextensionandreflectionofbodilyfeelings,mentalhappinessproperlyconsistingintheassuranceof63prolongedandpainlesssensualgratification.Thisissomethingverydifferentfromsayingthatthehighestspiritualenjoymentsareconditionedbythehealthyactivityofthebodilyorgans,orthattheycannotbeappreciatediftheanimalappetitesarestarved.Itamountstosayingthattherearenospecificandpositivepleasuresapartfromthefivesensesasexercisedeitherinrealityorinimagination.128AndevenwithouttheevidenceofCicero,wecanseethatsomesuchconclusionnecessarilyfollowedfromtheprincipleselsewherelaiddownbyEpicurus.ToaGreek,thementalpleasures,parexcellence,werethosederivedfromfriendshipandfromintellectualactivity.Butourphilosopher,whilewarmlypanegyrisingfriendship,recommendsitnotforthedirectpleasurewhichitaffords,butforthepainanddangerwhichitprevents;129whilehisrestrictionofscientificstudiestotheofficeofdispellingsuperstitiousfearsseemsmeantforadirectprotestagainstAristotle’sopinion,thatthehighestpleasureisderivedfromthosestudies.Equallysignificantishisoutspokencontemptforliteraryculture.130Inthisrespect,heoffersamarkedcontrasttoAristippus,who,whenaskedbysomeonewhatgoodhissonwouldgetbyeducation,answered,‘Thismuch,atleast,thatwhenheisattheplayhewillnotsitlikeastoneuponastone,’131thecustomaryattitude,itwouldseem,ofanordinaryAthenianauditor.

     WehaveseenhowPlatocametolookonmathematicsas217anintroductiontoabsoluteknowledge.Henowdiscoveredaparallelmethodofapproachtowardsperfectwisdominanorderofexperiencewhichtomostpersonsmightseemasfaraspossibleremovedfromexactscience—inthosepassionatefeelingswhichwereexcitedintheGreekimaginationbythespectacleofyouthfulbeauty,withoutdistinctionofsex.Therewas,atleastamongtheAthenians,astrongintellectualelementintheattachmentsarisingoutofsuchfeelings;andthestrangeanomalymightoftenbeseenofamandevotinghimselftotheeducationofayouthwhomhewas,inotherrespects,doinghisutmosttocorrupt.Again,thebeautybywhichaGreekfeltmostfascinatedcamenearertoavisibleembodimentofmindthananythathaseverbeenknown,andassuchcouldbeassociatedwiththepurestphilosophicalaspirations.And,finally,thepassionofloveinitsnormalmanifestationsisanessentiallygenericinstinct,beingthatwhichcarriesanindividualmostentirelyoutofhimself,makinghiminstrumentaltothepreservationoftheraceinformsofever-increasingcomelinessandvigour;sothat,givenawisetrainingandawideexperience,themaintenanceofanoblebreedmaysafelybeentrustedtoitsinfallibleselection.134AllthesepointsofviewhavebeendevelopedbyPlatowithsuchcopiousnessofillustrationandsplendouroflanguagethathisnameisstillassociatedinpopularfancywithanidealofexaltedandpurifieddesire.

  • 绿卡纸oLDJV

     

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