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InthisrespectStoicismbetraysitsdescentfromtheencyclopaediclecturesoftheearlierSophists,particularlyHippias.Whileprofessedlysubordinatingeveryotherstudytotheartofvirtuousliving,itsexpositorsseemtohaveeitherputaverywideinterpretationonvirtue,orelsetohaveraiseditsfoundationtoamostunnecessaryheight.TheyprotestedagainstAristotle’sglorificationofknowledgeasthesupremeend,anddeclareditsexclusivepursuittobemerelyamore10refinedformofself-indulgence;20but,beingGreeks,theysharedthespeculativepassionwithhim,andseizedonanypretextthatenabledthemtogratifyit.AndthisinquisitivenesswasapparentlymuchstrongerinAsiaticHellas,whencetheStoicswerealmostentirelyrecruited,thanintheoldcountry,wherecenturiesofintellectualactivityhadissuedinascepticismfromwhichtheirfreshermindsrevolted.21ItismentionedbyZellerasaproofofexhaustionandcomparativeindifferencetosuchenquiries,thattheStoicsshouldhavefallenbackontheHeracleiteanphilosophyfortheirphysics.22ButalltheideasrespectingtheconstitutionofNaturethatwerethenpossiblehadalreadybeenputforward.TheGreekcapacityfordiscoverywasperhapsgreaterinthethirdcenturythanatanyformertime;butfromtheveryprogressofscienceitwasnecessarilyconfinedtospecialists,suchasAristarchusofSamosorArchimedes.AndiftheStoicsmadenooriginalcontributionstophysicalscience,theyatleastacceptedwhatseemedatthattimetobeitsestablishedresults;here,asinotherrespects,offeringamarkedcontrasttotheEpicureanschool.IfaCleanthesassailedtheheliocentrichypothesisofAristarchusonreligiousgrounds,hewastreadinginthefootstepsofAristotle.Itisfarmoreimportantthatheorhissuccessorsshouldhavetaughtthetruetheoryoftheearth’sshape,ofthemoon’sphases,ofeclipses,andoftherelativesizeanddistanceoftheheavenlybodies.23Onthislastsubject,indeed,oneofthelaterStoics,Posidonius,arrivedatoracceptedconclusionswhich,althoughfallingfarshortofthereality,approximatedtoitinaveryremarkablemanner,whenweconsiderwhatimperfectmeansofmeasurementtheGreekastronomershadattheirdisposition.24

WehaveenteredatsomelengthintoHegel’stheoryoftheRepublic,becauseitseemstoembodyamisleadingconceptionnotonlyofGreekpoliticsbutalsoofthemostimportantattemptatasocialreformationevermadebyonemaninthehistoryofphilosophy.Thoughtwouldbemuchlessworthstudyingifitonlyreproducedtheabstractformofaverylimitedexperience,insteadofanalysingandrecombiningtheelementsofwhichthatexperienceiscomposed.Andour253faithinthepowerofconsciouseffortstowardsimprovementwillverymuchdependonwhichsideofthealternativeweaccept.

Iftherebeaclassofpersonswhoalthoughnotperfectlyvirtuousareontheroadtovirtue,itfollowsthattherearemoralactionswhichtheyarecapableofperforming.ThesetheStoicscalledintermediateorimperfectduties;and,inaccordancewiththeirintellectualviewofconduct,theydefinedthemasactionsforwhichaprobablereasonmightbegiven;apparentlyincontradistinctiontothosewhichwerededucedfromasingleprinciplewiththeextremerigourofscientificdemonstration.Suchintermediatedutieswouldhavefortheirappropriateobjecttheendswhich,withoutbeingabsolutelygood,werestillrelativelyworthseeking,ortheavoidanceofwhat,withoutbeinganabsoluteevil,wasallowedtoberelativelyobjectionable.Theystoodmidwaybetweenvirtueandvice,justastheprogressivecharactersstoodbetweenthewiseandthefoolish,andpreferableobjectsbetweenwhatwasreallygoodandwhatwasreallyevil.

Nexttoitsbearingonthequestionofimmortality,theEpicureanpsychologyismostinterestingasacontributiontothetheoryofcognition.Epicurusholdsthatallourknowledgeisderivedfromexperience,andallourexperience,directlyorindirectly,fromthepresentationsofsense.SofarhesaysnomorethanwouldbeadmittedbytheStoics,byAristotle,andindeedbyeveryGreekphilosopherexceptPlato.Thereis,therefore,nonecessaryconnexionbetweenhisviewsinthisrespectandhistheoryofethics,sinceothershadcombinedthesameviewswithaverydifferentstandardofaction.Itisindiscussingthevexedquestionofwhatconstitutestheultimatecriterionoftruththatheshowstomostdisadvantageincomparisonwiththemoreintellectual96schools.Heseemstohaveconsideredthatsensationsuppliesnotonlythematterbuttheformofknowledge;orrather,heseemstohavemissedthedistinctionbetweenmatterandformaltogether.Whatthesensestellus,hesays,isalwaystrue,althoughwemaydrawerroneousinferencesfromtheirstatements.184Butthisonlyamountstotheidenticalpropositionthatwefeelwhatwefeel;foritcannotbepretendedthattheorderofoursensationsinvariablycorrespondstotheactualorderofthingsinthemselves.Evenconfiningourselvestoindividualsensations,orsinglegroupsofsensations,therearesomethatdonotalwayscorrespondtothesameobjectivereality,andothersthatdonotcorrespondtoanyrealityatall;while,conversely,thesameobjectproducesamultitudeofdifferentsensationsaccordingtothesubjectiveconditionsunderwhichitaffectsus.Toescapefromthisdifficulty,Epicurushasrecoursetoasingularlycrudetheoryofperception,borrowedfromEmpedoclesandtheolderatomists.Whatweareconsciousofis,ineachinstance,nottheobjectitself,butanimagecomposedoffineatomsthrownofffromthesurfacesofbodiesandbroughtintocontactwiththeorgansofsense.Ourperceptioncorrespondsaccuratelytoanexternalimage,buttheimageitselfisoftenveryunliketheobjectwhenceitoriginallyproceeded.Sometimesitsuffersaconsiderablechangeintravellingthroughtheatmosphere.Forinstance,whenasquaretower,seenatagreatdistance,producestheimpressionofroundness,thisisbecausethesharpanglesofitsimagehavebeenrubbedoffonthewaytooureyes.Sometimestheimagecontinuestowanderaboutafteritsoriginalhasceasedtoexist,andthatiswhythedeadseemtorevisitusinourdreams.Andsometimestheimagesofdifferentobjectscoalesceastheyarefloatingabout,thusproducingtheappearanceofimpossiblemonsters,suchascentaursandchimaeras.185

SuchargumentsmanifestlytellnotonlyagainstPlatonism,butagainsteverykindoftranscendentalrealism,fromthenaturaltheologyofPaleytothedogmaticagnosticismofMr.HerbertSpencer.AmodernAristotlemightsaythatthehypothesisofacreativefirstcause,personalorotherwise,logicallyinvolvestheassumptionofasmanyoriginalspecificenergiesastherearequalitiestobeaccountedfor,andthusgivesustheunnecessarytroubleofcountingeverythingtwiceover;thateverydifficultyandcontradictionfromwhichthetranscendentalassumptionisintendedtofreeus,must,onanalysis,reappearintheassumptionitself—forexample,theGodwhoistodeliverusfromevilmustbehimselfconceivedasthecreatorofevil;thattheinfiniteandabsolutecanneithercause,norbeapprehendedby,thefiniteandrelative;thattoseparatefromNaturealltheforcesrequiredforitsperpetuation,andrelegatethemtoasphereapart,isafalseantithesisandasterileabstraction;lastly,thatcausation,whetherefficientorfinal,oncebegun,cannotstop;thatifthisworldisnotself-existing,nothingis;thatthemutualadaptationofthoughtsinadesigningintelligencerequirestobeaccountedforjustlikeanyotheradaptation;thatiftherelativeinvolvestheabsolute,soalsodoestherelationbetweenthetwoinvolveanotherabsolute,andsoontoinfinity.

IfthereareanywhovalueAristotleasachampionofspiritualism,theymusttakehimwithhisencumbrances.Ifhisphilosophyprovesthatonepartofthesoulisimmaterial,itprovesequallythatthesoul,takingitaltogether,isperishable.NotonlydoesherejectPlato’smetempsychosisasinconsistentwithphysiology,buthedeclaresthataffection,memory,andreasoningarefunctionsnotoftheeternalNous,butofthewholeman,andcometoanendwithhisdissolution.AstotheactiveNous,hetellsusthatitcannotthinkwithouttheassistanceofthepassiveNous,whichismortal.Andtherearevariouspassagesinthe‘NicomacheanEthics’showingthathehadfacedthisnegationofafuturelife,andwasperfectlyresignedtoitsconsequences.272Atoneperiodofhislife,probablywhenundertheimmediateinfluenceofPlato,hehadindulged375indreamsofimmortality;butaprofounderacquaintancewithnaturalsciencesufficedtodissipatethem.Perhapsalingeringvenerationforhisteachermadehimpurposelyuseambiguouslanguageinreferencetotheeternityofthatcreativereasonwhichhehadsocloselyassociatedwithself-consciousness.ItmayremindusofSpinoza’scelebratedproposition,Sentimusexperimurquenosaeternosesse,wordsabsolutelydisconnectedwiththehopeofacontinuedexistenceoftheindividualafterdeath,butapparentlyintendedtoenlistsomeofthesentimentassociatedwiththatbeliefonthesideofthewriter’sownphilosophy.

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  • 雨花郡主M5TPd

    Thiswasthecreedprofessedby‘thegreatscientificschoolofantiquity,’andthiswasitswayofprotesting‘againstthecontemptofphysicswhichprevailed’amongtheStoics!

     IfthenecessityoftheOneisprovedbytheinwarddifferentiationofwhatseemedmostsimple,itisalsoprovedbytheintegrationofwhatseemsmostdivided.Inhisnextessay,ourphilosopherwandersofffromtheinvestigationofwhathehasjustbegun,byabruptlystartingthequestionwhetherallsoulsareone.460Thisquestionis,however,mostintimatelyconnectedwithhismaintheme.Heanswersitintheaffirmative.Strictlypersonalasourfeelingsseem,weare,inreality,onewitheachother,throughourjointparticipationintheworld-soul.Loveandsympathyamonghumanbeingsaresolelyduetothisconnexion.Plotinusmentions,asanotherevidenceofitsreality,thesecretaffinitiescalledintoplayevenatagreatdistancebymagicalspells—anallusionverycharacteristicofhisage.461Whatpreventsusfrommorefullyperceivingtheunityofallsoulsistheseparatenessofthebodieswithwhichtheyareassociated.Matteristheprincipleofindividuation.Butevenwithinthesoulthereisadivisionbetweentherationalandtheirrationalpart,concentrationbeingthecharacteristicoftheoneanddispersionoftheother.Thelatterisfittedbyitsdividednatureforpresidingoverthebodilyfunctionsofsensationandnutrition;andwiththedissolutionofthebodyitreturnstotheunityofthehighersoul.Therearetwowaysinwhichwecanaccountforthispervadingunity.Itiseitherasproductsorasportionsoftheuniversalsoulthatallparticularsoulsareone.Plotinuscombinesbothexplanations.Theworld-soulfirstgivesbirthtoanimageofitself,andthenthis310issubdividedintoasmanypartialsoulsastherearebodiesrequiringanimation.

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    NeverthelessBacon’sownattitudetowardsfinalcausesdiffersessentiallyfromDescartes’.TheFrenchmathematician,hadhespokenhiswholemind,wouldprobablyhavedeniedtheirexistencealtogether.TheEnglishreformerfullyadmitstheirreality,as,withhisAristoteliantheoryofForms,hecouldhardlyavoiddoing;andwefindthatheactuallyassociatesthestudyoffinalwiththatofformalcauses,assigningbothtometaphysicsasitspeculiarprovince.Thisbeingso,hiscomparativeneglectoftheformerismosteasilyexplainedbythefamouscomparisonofteleologicalenquiriestovestalvirgins,dedicatedtotheserviceofGodandbearingnooffspring;forMr.Ellishasmadeitperfectlyclearthatthebarrennessalludedtoisnotscientificbutindustrial.OurknowledgeisextendedwhenwetracetheworkingsofadivinepurposeinNature;butthisisnotakindofknowledgewhichbearsfruitinusefulmechanicalinventions.553BaconprobablyfeltthatmenwouldnotbeveryforwardtoimproveonNatureiftheybelievedintheperfectionofherworksandintheirbeneficentadaptationtoourwants.TheteleologicalspiritwasasstrongwithhimaswithAristotle,butittookadifferentdirection.Insteadofstudyingtheadaptationofmeanstoendswhereitalreadyexisted,hewishedmentocreateitforthemselves.Buttheutilitariantendency,whichpredominatedwithBacon,wasquiteexceptionalwithDescartes.Speakinggenerally,hedesiredknowledgeforitsownsake,notasaninstrumentforthegratificationofotherwants;andthisintellectualdisinterestednesswas,perhaps,anotheraspectoftheseveranceeffectedbetweenthoughtandmatter.

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    Protagoraswasbornabout480B.C.Hewasafellow-townsmanofDemocritus,andhasbeenrepresented,thoughnotongoodauthority,asadiscipleofthatillustriousthinker.ItwasratherbyastudyofHeracleitusthathis87philosophicalopinions,sofarastheywereborrowedfromothers,seemtohavebeenmostdecisivelydetermined.Inanycase,practice,nottheory,wastheprincipaloccupationofhislife.Hegaveinstructionforpaymentinthehigherbranchesofaliberaleducation,andadoptedthenameofSophist,whichbeforehadsimplymeantawiseman,asanhonourabletitleforhisnewcalling.Protagoraswasaverypopularteacher.Thenewsofhisarrivalinastrangecityexcitedimmenseenthusiasm,andhewasfollowedfromplacetoplacebyabandofeagerdisciples.AtAthenshewashonouredbythefriendshipofsuchmenasPericlesandEuripides.Itwasatthehouseofthegreattragicpoetthathereadoutaworkbeginningwiththeominousdeclaration,‘Icannottellwhetherthegodsexistornot;lifeistooshortforsuchdifficultinvestigations.’66Athenianbigotrytookalarmdirectly.Thebookcontainingthisfrankconfessionofagnosticismwaspubliclyburned,allpurchasersbeingcompelledtogiveupthecopiesintheirpossession.Theauthorhimselfwaseitherbanishedortookflight,andperishedbyshipwreckonthewaytoSicilybeforecompletinghisseventiethyear.

     IntheopeningchapterofthisworkweendeavouredtoexplainhowthePythagoreanphilosophyaroseoutoftheintoxicateddelightinspiredbyafirstacquaintancewiththemanifoldpropertiesofnumberandfigure.IfwewouldenterintothespiritofPlatonism,wemustsimilarlythrowourselvesbackintothetimewhentheideaofauniversalclassificationfirstdawnedonmen’sminds.WemustrememberhowitgratifiedtheGreekloveofordercombinedwithindividuality;whatunboundedopportunitiesforaskingandansweringquestionsitsupplied;andwhatpromisesofpracticalregenerationitheldout.Notwithoutashadeofsadnessforsomanybaffledeffortsandsomanyblightedhopes,yetalsowithagratefulrecollectionofallthatreasonhasaccomplished,andwithsomethingofhisownhighintellectualenthusiasm,shallwelistentoPlato’spropheticwords—wordsofdeeperimportthantheirownauthorknew— ‘IfIfindanymanwhoisabletoseeaOneandManyinNature,himIfollowandwalkinhisstepsasifhewereagod.’137

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