“品牌上海”之中华:78载铮铮气节 “小铅笔”写就“大文章”

eWRlS-news 发布时间: 2020-07-07 03:28:19

“北京赛车pk10聚彩开户”ThesepreparationsonthepartofSpainwereinoneparticularfavourabletotheKingofEngland—theyrenderedtheEmperormuchmoreconceding.TheEnglishenvoyatthatCourt—rathersingularlyaSwissofthecantonofBern—theGeneraldeSt.Saphorin,hadfoundStahremberg,theEmperor'sMinister,veryhigh,anddisinclinedtolistentotheproposalsoftheKingofEnglandregardingBremenandVerden;butthenewsoftheSpanisharmament,andstillmoreofitshavingsailedfromCadiztoBarcelona,producedawonderfulchange.TheImperialCourtnotonlyconsentedtothedemandsofEngland,butaccepteditsmediationwiththeTurks,bywhichaconsiderableforcewasliberatedfortheserviceinItaly.TheEmperoraccededtotheallianceproposedbetweenEngland,France,andGermanyinordertodriveSpaintoterms,andwhichafterwards,whenjoinedbytheDutch,wascalledtheQuadrupleAlliance.InFrance,however,allobstaclestothisTreatywerenotyetovercome.Therewasastrongparty,headedbytheMarshald'Huxelles,chiefoftheCouncilforForeignAffairs,whichstronglyopposedthisplanofcoercingthegrandsonofLouisXIV.ToovercometheseobstaclesStanhopewentovertoParis,andhadseveralconferenceswithKingPhilip;and,supportedbyLordStairandNancré,alldifficultieswereremoved,andtheAlliancewassignedinthesucceedingAugust.

Priestley,inaletter,describestheeffectofWedderburn'saddressasreceivedwithwhatmustseemmadmerrimentbytheCouncil."Mr.Wedderburnhadacompletetriumph.Atthesalliesofhissarcasticwit,allthemembersoftheCouncil,thePresidenthimself,LordGower,notexcepted,frequentlylaughedoutright;andnopersonbelongingtotheCouncilbehavedhimselfwithdecentgravity,exceptLordNorth,whocameinlate."

ThespiritofChoiseulhavingdepartedfromtheFrenchadministration,andthekinghavingsounequivocallyexpressedhisintentionnottogotowar,theSpanishCourthastenedtoloweritstoneandofferconciliatoryterms.InDecembertheyhadproposed,throughPrincedeMasserano,todisavowtheexpeditionofBuccarelli,iftheEnglishCourtwoulddisownthemenacesofCaptainHunt.Thiswaspromptlyrefused,andordersweresenttoMr.HarristoquitthecapitalofSpain.HesetoutinJanuary,1771,butwasspeedilyrecalled;theexpeditionofBuccarelliwasdisavowed;thesettlementofPortEgmontwasconceded,whilstthemainquestionastotherightofeitherpartytotheFalklandsatlargewaslefttofuturediscussion.Solittlevalue,however,didBritainattachtotheFalklandIsles,thatitabandonedthemvoluntarilytwoyearsafterwards.Formanyyearstheywereforsakenbybothnations;butin1826theRepublicofBuenosAyresadoptedthemasapenalcolony,andin1833theBritishfinallytookpossessionofthem.TheLondonChartistscontrivedtoholdtheirmeetingsandtomarchinprocession;andasthissometimesoccurredatnight,accompaniedbythefiringofshots,itwasasourceofalarmtothepublic.Therewereconfederateclubsestablished,consistingchieflyofIrishmen,whofraternisedwiththeEnglishChartists.Onthe31stofMaytheyheldagreatmeetingonClerkenwellGreen.There,afterhearingsomeviolentspeeches,themengotthewordofcommandtofallinandmarch,andthecrowdformedrapidlyintocolumnsfourabreast.InthisordertheymarchedtoFinsburySquare,wheretheymetanotherlargebody,withwhichtheyunited,bothformingintonewcolumnstwelveabreast,andthustheypacedthesquarewithmeasuredmilitarytreadforaboutanhour.ThencetheymarchedtoStepney,wheretheyreceivedfurtheraccessions,fromthattoSmithfield,upHolborn,QueenStreet,andLongAcre,andonthroughLeicesterSquaretoTrafalgarSquare.Herethepoliceinterfered,andtheyweregraduallydispersed.ThisoccurredonMonday.OnTuesdaynighttheyassembledagainatClerkenwellGreen,butweredispersedbyalargebodyofhorseandfootpolice.TherewastobeanothergreatdemonstrationonWednesday,butthepoliceauthoritiesissuedacautionarynotice,andmadeeffectualarrangementsforthedispersionofthemeeting.SquadronsofHorseGuardswerepostedinClerkenwellandFinsbury,andprecautionsweretakentopreventthethreatenedbreakingofthegasandwatermains.Thespecialconstableswereagainpartiallyputinrequisition,and5,000ofthepoliceforcewerereadytobeconcentrateduponanypoint,whilethewholeofthefirebrigadewereplacedonduty.Thesemeasureshadtheeffectofpreventingtheassembly.Similarattemptsweremadeinseveralofthemanufacturingtowns,buttheywereeasilysuppressed.InJune,however,thedisturbanceswereagainrenewedinLondon.OnWhitMonday,the4th,therewastobeagreatgatheringofChartistsinBonner'sFields,butthegroundwasoccupiedearlyinthemorningby1,600policemen,500pensioners,and100constablesmounted.TherewasalsoabodyofHorseGuardsintheneighbourhood.Uptothehouroftwoo'clocktheleadersofthemovementdidnotappear,andsoonafteratremendousthunderstormaccompaniedbydrenchingrain,causedthedispersionofalltheidlerswhocametowitnessthedisplay.Tenpersonswerearrestedontheground,andtriedandsentencedtovarioustermsofimprisonment.

[Seelargerversion]

Mr.WalpolehassummedupthecharacterofGeorgeIV.inwordsalikeofterribleconcisenessandofunmitigatingtruth—"Hewasabadson,abadhusband,abadfather,abadsubject,abadmonarch,andabadfriend."

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[Seelargerversion]

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FoxintroducedhisfirstBillonthe20thofNovember.Allwentsmoothly,andthesecondreadingwasorderedforthatdayweek.Thenthestormburst.Mr.Grenville(afterwardsLordGrenville)describedtheBillasaschemetoputtheCompanyintothehandsofMinisters,andtoannihilatetheprerogativesoftheCrownatthesametime.HedenounceditasoneofthemostdaringanddangerousattemptsthathadeverbeenbroughtintothatHouse.HemovedthatitshouldlieovertillafterChristmas,andtherewasastrongphalanxreadytosupporthim.Grenvilledidnotpressthemotiontoadivision,andtheBillwasreadasecondtimeonthe27th,whenavehementandlongdebatetookplace.Pittputforthhiswholestrengthagainstit,Foxforit,anditwascarriedbytwohundredandtwenty-ninevotesagainstonehundredandtwenty.Onthe1stofDecemberitwasmovedthattheBillbecommitted,whentheOppositionwasequallydetermined.OnthisoccasionBurke,whohadmadehimselfprofoundlyacquaintedwithIndianaffairs,tookthelead,anddeliveredoneofhisveryfinestspeeches,fullofinformationandeloquence.PittresistedthegoingintoCommitteewithallhispower,andpledgedhimself,iftheHousewouldthrowouttheBill,tobringinanotherjustasefficacious,andatthesametimedevoidofitsdanger.Thedebate,liketheformerone,didnotclosetillhalf-pastfourinthemorning,andthenitwaswithatriumphantmajorityoftwohundredandseventeenagainstonehundredandthree.TheBill,thuscarriedbysuchmajoritiesthroughtheCommons,wascarrieduptotheLords,onthe9thofDecember,byFox,accompaniedbyanumerousbodyoftheCommoners,anditwasconsideredascertainofpassingthere;butthekingandhisparty,exasperatedattheresoluteconductoftheCommons,hadgonetosuchlengthstoquashtheBillintheLordsasarerarelyresortedtobytheCrown.AsintheLowerHouse,sohere,itwasallowedtobereadthefirsttimewithoutdividing;butitwasattackedwithanominoussolemnitybyThurlow,theDukeofRichmond,andLordTemple,who,sincehisrecallfromtheLord-LieutenancyofIreland,hadthrownhimselfintotheOppositionwithpeculiarvivacity.Itwasknownthathehadbeenfrequentlyclosetedwiththekingoflate,andhebluntlydeclaredtheBillinfamous.Asamatteroffact,hehadurgedthekingtousehispersonalinfluencewiththeHouseofLords.Thurlowwentfurther,and,fixingoneofhismostsolemnglancesonthePrinceofWales,whowassittingintheHousetovotefortheBill,declaredthatifthismeasurepassed,thecrownofEnglandwouldnotbeworthwearing;[303]andthatifthekingallowedittobecomelaw,hewould,infact,havetakenitfromhisheadandputitonthatofMr.Fox.Onthe15th,whentheBillwasproposedforthesecondreading,theroyalproceedingsagainstitwerebroughtatoncetolight.TheDukeofPortlandroseandsaid,beforegoingintothequestion,hewasboundtonoticeareportwhichwasconfidentlyincirculation,andwhich,iftrue,vitallyaffectedtheconstitutionofthecountry.ThiswasnolessthanthatthekinghadwrittenanotetoLordTemple,statingthat"hisMajestywoulddeemthosewhovotedfortheBillnotonlynothisfriends,buthisenemies;andthatifLordTemplecouldputthisintostillstrongerlanguage,hehadfullauthoritytodoso."

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    AfterthedepartureoftheBritishfleet,theJacobintroops,townsmen,andgalleyconvicts,wereperpetratingthemosthorriblescenesontheunfortunateToulonese.EventhepoorworkmenwhohadbeenemployedbytheEnglishtostrengthenthedefences,werecollectedinhundreds,andcutdownbydischargesofgrape-shot.ThreeJacobincommissioners,thebrotherofRobespierre,Barras,andFreron,weresenttopurgetheplace,andbesidesthegrape-shottheguillotinewasindailyactivityexterminatingthepeople.TheverymentionofthenameofToulonwasforbidden,anditwashenceforthtobecalledPortdelaMontagne.

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    CHAPTERXI.THEREIGNOFWILLIAMIV.(concluded).

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     ThemotionwassecondedbyMr.Grote.Whenhehadconcluded,LordAlthorproseandmovedthattheHouseshouldbeadjourneduntilthe2ndofJune.ThedifferencesintheCabinethadnowreachedtheircrisis.ItwasfullyexpectedthatMr.Ward'smotionwouldbecarried,andMinistersdifferedastowhethertheprincipleinvolvedinitshouldberejectedoraccepted;themajoritywereforacceptingit,whereuponMr.Stanley,SirJamesGraham,LordRipon,andtheDukeofRichmondresignedtheiroffices.TheyweresucceededbyMr.Spring-Rice,asColonialSecretary;LordAuckland,asFirstLordoftheAdmiralty;theEarlofCarlisle,asLordPrivySeal;Mr.Abercromby,asMasteroftheMint.Mr.PoulettThompsonbecamePresidentoftheBoardofTrade,andtheMarquisofConynghamPostmaster-General.

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    WithSpaintheprospectofwarbecameeverydaymoreimminent.Stanhopequittedthatcountry,andtheSpanishGovernmentorderedtheseizureofthePrinceFrederick,ashipbelongingtotheSouthSeaCompany.TwentythousandmenwereassembledandsentagainstGibraltar.Allattemptsonthegreatfortresswereasuselessasformeroneshadbeen.TheEnglishregardedtheattackwithevenanairofindifference,whilsttheirguns,sickness,anddesertion,werefastcuttingoffthebesiegers.Infourmonthstheinvestingarmy,beingreducedtohalfitsnumber,drewoffwiththisemptybutdestructiveresult.

     

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    ButHarleyandSt.Johnhaddeprivedthenationofitstriumph,andleftthewayopentofreshinsultsandhumiliations.NosoonerdidVillarsseetheEnglishforceswithdrawnfromtheAllies,thanheseizedtheopportunitytosnatchfreshadvantagesforFrance,andthusmakealltheirdemandsontheAlliescertain.HecrossedtheScheldtonthe24thofJuly,and,withanoverwhelmingforce,attackedtheEarlofAlbemarle,whocommandedadivisionoftheAlliedarmyatDenain.Eugene,who,fromthereductionofQuesnoy,hadproceededtolaysiegetoLandrey,instantlyhastenedtothesupportofAlbemarle;but,tohisgrief,foundhimself,wheninsightofhim,cutofffromrenderinghimanyassistancebythebreakingdownofthebridgeovertheScheldt;andhehadthepaintoseeAlbemarlebeatenunderhisveryeyes.SeventeenbattalionsofAlbemarle'sforcewerekilledortaken.Hehimselfandallthesurvivingofficersweremadeprisoners.Fivehundredwagonsloadedwithbread,twelvepiecesofbrasscannon,alargequantityofammunitionandprovisions,horsesandbaggage,fellintothehandsoftheFrench.VillarsthenmarchedontoMarchiennes,wherethestoresoftheAlliesweredeposited,andtookitonthe31stofJuly,thegarrisonoffivethousandbeingsenttoValenciennesprisoners.HenextadvancedtoDouay,whereEugenewouldhavegivenhimbattle,butwasforbiddentodosobytheStates,andthusDouayfellintoVillars'hands.ThencamethefallofQuesnoyandBouchain,whichhadcostMarlboroughandEugenesomuchtowin.

     

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