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Toadeedofdishonourbeenturned.’28

TheoldreligionsofGreeceandItalywereessentiallyoracular.Whileinculcatingtheexistenceofsupernaturalbeings,andprescribingthemodesaccordingtowhichsuchbeingsweretobeworshipped,theypaidmostattentiontotheinterpretationofthesignsbywhicheitherfutureeventsingeneral,ortheconsequencesofparticularactions,weresupposedtobedivinelyrevealed.Oftheseintimations,someweregiventothewholeworld,sothathewhoranmightread,otherswerereservedforcertainfavouredlocalities,andonlycommunicatedthroughtheappointedministersofthegod.TheDelphicoracleinparticularenjoyedanenormousreputationbothamongGreeksandbarbariansforguidanceaffordedunderthelatterconditions;andduringaconsiderableperioditmayevenbesaidtohavedirectedthecourseofHelleniccivilisation.ItwasalsounderthisformthatsupernaturalreligionsufferedmostinjuryfromthegreatintellectualmovementwhichfollowedthePersianwars.MenwhohadlearnedtostudytheconstantsequencesofNatureforthemselves,andtoshapetheirconductaccordingtofixedprinciplesofprudenceorofjustice,eitherthoughtitirreverenttotroublethegodaboutquestionsonwhichtheywerecompetenttoformanopinionforthemselves,ordidnotchoosetoplaceawell-consideredschemeatthemercyofhispossiblyinterestedresponses.ThatsucharevolutionoccurredaboutthemiddleofthefifthcenturyB.C.,seemsprovedbythegreatchangeoftoneinreferencetothissubjectwhichoneperceivesonpassingfromAeschylustoSophocles.Thatanyoneshouldquestiontheveracityofanoracleisasuppositionwhichnevercrossesthemindoftheelderdramatist.Aknowledgeofaugurycountsamongthegreatestbenefits222conferredbyPrometheusonmankind,andtheTitanbringsZeushimselftotermsbyhisacquaintancewiththesecretsofdestiny.Sophocles,ontheotherhand,evidentlyhastodealwithascepticalgeneration,despisingpropheciesandneedingtobewarnedofthefearfulconsequencesbroughtaboutbyneglectingtheirinjunctions.Sofar,virtuewaswiththeGreekswhatitmustinevitablybewithallmenatfirst,chieflyself-regarding,arefinedformofprudence.Moreover,other-regardingvirtuesgavelessscopeforreflection,beingoriginallycomprehendedunderobediencetothelaw.Butthereweretwocircumstanceswhichcouldnotlongescapetheirnotice;first,thatfraudandviolenceareoften,atleastapparently,profitabletothosewhoperpetratethem,afactbitterlyremarkedbyHesiod;50andsecondly,thatsocietycannotholdtogetherwithoutjustice.ItwaslongbeforeGovernmentsgrewupwillingandabletoprotecttheirsubjectsfrommutualaggressions,nordoespositivelawcreatemorality,butimpliesit,andcouldnotbeworkedwithoutit.Norcouldinternationalobligationsbeenforcedbyasuperiortribunal;hencetheyhaveremaineddowntothepresentdayafertilethemeforethicaldiscussion.Itisatthispointthatmoralityformsajunctionwithreligion,thehistoryofwhichishighlyinteresting,butwhichcanherebe64onlybrieflytraced.TheOlympiandivinities,asplacedbeforeusbyHomer,areanythingbutmoral.Theirconducttowardseachotheristhatofadissolutenobility;towardsmenitisthatofunscrupulouspartisansandpatrons.Aloyaladherencetofriendsandgratitudeforsacrificialofferingsaretheirmostrespectablecharacteristics,raisingthemalreadyalittleabovethenature-powerswhencetheywerederived.Now,markhowtheyfirstbecomemoralised.Itisbybeingmadewitnessestoanoath.Anyonewhoiscalledintotestifytoapromisefeelsaggrievedifitisbroken,lookingonthebreachasaninsulttohisowndignity.AstheThirdCommandmentwellputsit,hisnamehasbeentakeninvain.Thusithappenedthatthesamegodswholefteveryothercrimeunpunished,visitedperjurywithsevereandspeedyretribution,continuedevenaftertheoffender’sdeath.51Respectforacontractistheprimaryformofmoralobligation,andstillseemstopossessapeculiarholdoveruneducatedminds.Weseeeverydayhowmanypersonswillabstainfromactionswhichtheyknowtobeimmoralbecausetheyhavegiventheirwordtothateffect,notbecausetheactionsthemselvesarewrong.Andforthatreasonlawcourtswouldbemorewillingtoenforcecontractsthantoredressinjuries.If,then,onepersoninflicteddamageonanother,hemightafterwards,inordertoescaperetaliationfromtheinjuredparty,orfromhisfamily,engagetogivesatisfaction,andthecourtwouldcompelhimtoredeemhispromise.52Thuscontract,byprocuringredressforeveryspeciesofwrong,wouldgraduallyextenditsownobligatorycharactertoabstinencefrominjuryingeneral,andthedivinesanctionsprimarilyinvokedonbehalfofoathswouldbeextended,withthem,overthewholedomainofmoralconduct.

Spottiswoode&Co.,Printers,New-streetSquare,London.

Beforewecancometoadecisiononthispointitwillbenecessarybrieflytorecapitulatethestatementsinquestion.Socratesisdefendinghimselfagainstacapitalcharge.Hefearsthataprejudicerespectinghimmayexistinthemindsofthejury,andtriestoexplainhowitarosewithoutanyfaultofhis,asfollows:—AcertainfriendofhishadaskedtheoracleatDelphiwhethertherewasanymanwiserthanSocrates?Theanswerwasthatnomanwaswiser.Notbeingconsciousofpossessinganywisdom,greatorsmall,hefeltconsiderablysurprisedonhearingofthisdeclaration,andthoughttoconvincethegodoffalsehoodbyfindingoutsomeonewiserthanhimself.Hefirstwenttoaneminentpolitician,who,however,proved,onexamination,tobeutterlyignorant,withthefurtherdisadvantagethatitwasimpossibletoconvincehimofhisignorance.Onapplyingthesametesttoothersapreciselysimilarresultwasobtained.Itwasonlythehandicraftsmenwhocouldgiveasatisfactoryaccountofthemselves,andtheirknowledgeofonetrademadethemfancythattheyunderstoodeverythingelseequallywell.ThusthemeaningoftheoraclewasshowntobethatGodaloneistrulywise,andthatofallmenheiswisestwho,likeSocrates,perceivesthathumanwisdomisworthlittleornothing.Eversincethen,Socrateshasmadeithisbusinesstovindicatethedivineveracitybyseekingoutandexposingeverypretendertoknowledgethathecanfind,alineofconductwhichhasmadehimextremelyunpopularinAthens,whileithasalsowonhimagreatreputationforwisdom,aspeoplesupposedthatthemattersonwhichheconvictedothersofignorancewereperfectlycleartohimself.

Plotinuspassesbyanalmostinsensibletransitionfromthemoreelementaryandanalyticaltothemoreconstructiveportionofhisphilosophy.Thisnaturallyfallsintotwogreatdivisions,theonespeculativeandtheotherpractical.Ithastobeshownbywhatnecessityandinwhatorderthegreatcosmicprinciplesareevolvedfromtheirsupremesource;andithasalsotobeshowninwhatwaythisknowledgeisconnectedwiththesupremeinterestsofthehumansoul.ThemoralaspectofNeo-Platonismisnotatfirstveryclearlydistinguishedfromitsmetaphysicalaspect;andbothfindtheirmostgeneralsolutioninthesamelineofthoughtthathasledusuptoacontemplationoftheultimateOne.Forthesuccessivegradationsofourascentrepresent,inaninvertedorder,thestepsofcreativeenergybywhichallthingsareevolvedfromtheirprimalsource;whiletheydirectlycorrespondtotheprocessofpurificationthroughwhicheverysoulmustpassinreturningfromtheexileofherseparateandmaterialexistencetothehappinessofidentificationwithGod.Andhereweatoncecomeonthefundamentalcontradictionofthesystem.Whatweweresocarefullytaughttoconsiderasoneandnothingmore,mustnowbeconceivedasthefirstcauseandthesupremegood.Plotinusdoes,indeed,trytoevadethedifficultybysayingthathisabsoluteisonly318acauseinrelationtootherthings,thatitisnotsomuchgoodasthegiverofgood,thatitisonlyoneinthesenseofnotbeingmany.468Butaftermakingthesereservations,hecontinuestousetheoldtermsasconfidentlyasiftheystoodfortheideasusuallyassociatedwiththem.Hisfundamentalerrorwastoidentifythreedistinctmethodsofconnectingphenomena,inthought,witheachotherorwithourselves.Wemayviewthingsinrelationtotheirgeneratingantecedents,inrelationtootherthingswithwhichtheyareassociatedbyresemblanceorjuxtaposition,orinrelationtothesatisfactionofourownwants.ThesethreemodesofreferencecorrespondtoAristotle’sefficient,formal,andfinalcauses;butthewordcausationshouldbeappliedonlytothefirst.WhethertheirunfortunateconfusionbothbyAristotleandbyhissuccessorswasinanyappreciabledegreeduetotheirhavingbeenassociatedbyhimunderacommondenomination,mayreasonablybedoubted.Itisrathermoreprobablethatthesamenamewasgiventothesedifferentconceptionsinconsequenceoftheirhavingfirstbecomepartiallyidentifiedinthought.Socialarrangements,whichhaveagreatdealtodowithprimitivespeculation,wouldnaturallyleadtosuchanidentification.Thekingorotherchiefmagistratestandsattheheadofthesocialhierarchyandformsthebondofunionamongitsmembers;heisthesourceofallauthority;andhisposition,or,failingthat,hisfavour,isregardedasthesupremegood.ReligionextendsthesamecombinationofattributestoherchiefGod;andphilosophy,followingonthelinesofreligion,employsittounifythemethodsofscienceandmorality.

Yet,howevermuchmaybeaccountedforbytheseconsiderations,theystillleavesomethingunexplained.WhyshouldonethinkerafteranothersounhesitatinglyassumethattheorderofNatureasweknowithasissuednotmerelyfromadifferentbutfromanexactlyoppositecondition,fromuniversalconfusionandchaos?Theirexperiencewasfartoolimitedtotellthemanythingaboutthosevastcosmicchangeswhichweknowbyincontrovertibleevidencetohavealreadyoccurred,andtobeagainincourseofpreparation.WecanonlyanswerthisquestionbybringingintoviewwhatmaybecalledthenegativemomentofGreekthought.Thescienceofcontrariesisone,saysAristotle,anditcertainlywassotohiscountrymen.Notonlydidtheydelight51tobringtogethertheextremesofwealandwoe,ofprideandabasement,ofsecurityanddisaster,butwhatevertheymostlovedandclungtoinrealityseemedtointeresttheirimaginationmostpowerfullybyitsremoval,itsreversal,oritsoverthrow.TheAthenianswerepeculiarlyintolerantofregalgovernmentandoffeminineinterferenceinpolitics.InAtheniantragedytheprincipalactorsarekingsandroyalladies.TheAthenianmatronsoccupiedapositionofexceptionaldignityandseclusion.Theyarebroughtuponthecomicstagetobecoveredwiththecoarsestridicule,andalsotointerferedecisivelyintheconductofpublicaffairs.Aristophaneswasprofoundlyreligioushimself,andwroteforapeoplewhosereligion,aswehaveseen,waspushedtotheextremeofbigotry.Yetheshowsaslittlerespectforthegodsasforthewivesandsistersofhisaudience.Totakeamoregeneralexamplestill,thewholeGreektragicdramaisbasedontheideaoffamilykinship,andthatinstitutionwasmademostinterestingtoGreekspectatorsbytheviolationofitseternalsanctities,byunnaturalhatred,andstillmoreunnaturallove;orbyafatalmisconceptionwhichcausesthehandsofinnocentpersons,moreespeciallyoftenderwomen,tobearmedagainsttheirnearestanddearestrelativesinutterunconsciousnessoftheawfulguiltabouttobeincurred.ByanextensionofthesamepsychologicallawtoabstractspeculationweareenabledtounderstandhowanearlyGreekphilosopherwhohadcometolookonNatureasacosmos,anorderlywhole,consistingofdiversebutconnectedandinterdependentparts,couldnotproperlygraspsuchaconceptionuntilhehadsubstitutedforitoneofapreciselyoppositecharacter,outofwhichhereconstructeditbyaprocessofgradualevolution.Andifitisaskedhowinthefirstplacedidhecomebytheideaofacosmos,ouranswermustbethathefounditinGreeklife,insocietiesdistinguishedbyamany-sidedbutharmoniousdevelopmentofconcurrentfunctions,andby52voluntaryobediencetoanimpersonallaw.Thus,then,thecircleiscomplete;wehavereturnedtoourpointofdeparture,andagainrecogniseinGreekphilosophyasystematisedexpressionoftheGreeknationalgenius.

III.ThisprocesswasconceivedbyAeschylusasaconflictbetweentwogenerationsofgods,endingwiththeircompletereconciliation.InthePrometheusBoundwehavethecommencementoftheconflict,intheEumenidesitsclose.Oursympathiesareapparentlyatfirstintendedtobeenlistedonbehalfoftheolderdivinities,butatlastareclaimedexclusivelybytheyounger.AsopposedtoPrometheus,Zeusisevidentlyinthewrong,andseekstomakeupforhisdeficienciesbyarbitraryviolence.IntheOresteiaheisthechampionofjusticeagainstiniquity,andthroughhisinterpreter,Apollo,heenforcesarevisedmoralcodeagainsttheantiquatedclaimsoftheErinyes;theselatter,however,ultimatelyconsentingtobecomeguardiansofthenewsocial70order.TheAeschyleandramashowsusGreekreligionatthehighestlevelitcouldreach,unaidedbyphilosophicalreflection.WithSophoclesaperceptibledeclinehasalreadybegun.Wearelothtosayanythingthatmaysoundlikedisparagementofsonobleapoet.Weyieldtononeinadmirationforonewhohascombinedthetwohighestqualitiesofart—sweetnessandstrength—morecompletelythananyothersinger,Homeraloneexcepted,andwhohasgiventheprimordialaffectionstheirdefinitiveexpressionforalltime.Butwecannothelpperceivinganelementofsuperstitioninhisdramas,which,sofar,distinguishesthemunfavourablyfromthoseofhisTitanicpredecessor.WithSophocles,whenthegodsinterfere,itistopunishdisrespecttowardsthemselves,nottoenforcejusticebetweenmanandman.Ajaxperishesbyhisownhandbecausehehasneglectedtoaskfordivineassistanceinbattle.LaiusandJocastêcometoatragicendthroughdisobediencetoaperfectlyarbitraryoracle;andasapartofthesamedivinepurposeOedipusencountersthemostfrightfulcalamitiesbynofaultofhisown.Thegodsare,moreover,exclusivelyobjectsoffear;theirsolebusinessistoenforcethefulfilmentofenigmaticprophecies;theygivenoassistancetothepiousandvirtuouscharacters.Antigonêisallowedtoperishforhavingperformedthelastdutiestoherbrother’scorpse.Neoptolemusreceivesnoaidinthatstrugglebetweenambitionontheonehandwithtruthfulnessandpityontheotherwhichmakeshischaracteroneofthemostinterestinginallimaginativeliterature.WhenAthênêbidsOdysseusexultoverthedegradationofAjax,thegenerousIthacanrefusestoherface,andfallsbackontheconsciousnessofacommonhumanityunitinghiminsympathywithhisprostratefoe.

Wehavenowtoseehow,grantingEpicurushisconceptionofpainlessnessasthesupremegood,heproceedstoevolvefromitawholeethical,theological,andphysicalsystem.Forreasonsalreadymentioned,theethicaldevelopmentmustbestudiedfirst.Weshallthereforebeginwithananalysisoftheparticularvirtues.Temperance,asthegreatself-regardingduty,obviouslytakesprecedenceoftheothers.Indealingwiththisbranchofhissubject,therewasnothingtopreventEpicurusfromprofitingbythelaboursofhispredecessors,andmoreespeciallyofthenaturalisticschoolfromProdicusdown.Sofarasmoderationisconcerned,thereneedbelittledifferencebetweenatheoryofconductbasedexclusivelyontheinterestsoftheindividual,andatheorywhichregardshimchieflyasaportionofsomelargerwhole.Accordingly,wefindthatourphilosopher,inhispraisesoffrugality,closelyapproximatedtotheCynicandStoicstandards—somuchso,indeed,thathisexpressionsonthesubjectarerepeatedlyquotedbySenecaasthebestthatcouldbefound.PerhapstheRomanmoralistvaluedthemlessfortheirownsakethanasbeing,tosomeextent,theadmissionsofanopponent.But,intruth,hewasonlyreclaimingwhattheprinciplesofhisownsecthadoriginallyinspired.TobecontentwiththebarestnecessarieswasapartofthatNature-worshipagainstwhichGreekhumanism,withitshedonisticandidealisticoffshoots,hadbegunbyvigorouslyprotesting.HencemanypassagesinLucretiusexpressexactlythesamesentimentsasthosewhicharemostcharacteristicofLatinliteratureatatimewhenitiscompletelydominatedbyStoicinfluences.

ItisgenerallyassumedbytheGermancriticsthattheatomictheorywaspeculiarlyfittedtoserveasabasisfortheindividualisticethicsofEpicureanism.Tothiswecanhardlyagree.Theinsignificanceandpowerlessnessoftheatoms,exceptwhenaggregatedtogetherinenormousnumbers,wouldseemtobenaturallymorefavourabletoasystemwherethecommunitywentforeverythingandtheindividualfornothing;nordoesthegeneralacceptanceofatomismbymodernscienceseemtobeaccompaniedbyanyrelaxationofthesocialsentimentinitsprofessors.HadtheStoicsfollowedDemocritusandEpicurusHeracleitus—atleastaconceivablehypothesis—someequallycogentreasonwoulddoubtlesshavebeenforthcomingtoindicatetheappropriatenessoftheirchoice.161Asitis,wehavenoevidencethatEpicurussawanythingmoreintheatomictheorythanaconvenientexplanationoftheworldonpurelymechanicalprinciples.

Neitherforaughtthatbrings

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  • 雨花郡主KX5aH

    ItwillnowbebetterunderstoodwhencearosethehostilityoftheStoicstopleasure,andhowtheycouldspeakofitinwhatseemssuchaparadoxicalstyle.Itwassubjectivefeelingasopposedtoobjectivelaw;itwasrelative,particular,andindividual,asopposedtotheirformalstandardofright;anditwascontinuallydrawingmenawayfromtheirtruenaturebyactingasatemptationtovice.Thus,probablyforthelastreason,CleanthescouldspeakofpleasureascontrarytoNature;whilelessrigorousauthoritiesregardeditasabsolutelyindifferent,beingaconsequenceofnaturalactions,notanessentialelementintheirperformance.Andwhentheiropponentspointedtotheuniversaldesireforpleasureasaproofthatitwasthenaturalendofanimatedbeings,theStoicsansweredthatwhatNaturehadinviewwasnotpleasureatall,butthepreservationoflifeitself.48

     

  • 雪灵芝AcOo1

  • 如萱紫儿xWfVO

    Again,HobbesdifferswhollyfromBaconinthedeductivecharacterofhismethod.Hislogicistheoldsyllogisticsystemreorganisedonthemodelofmathematicalanalysis.Likeallthegreatthinkersofhistime,hewasageometricianandamechanicalphysicist,reasoningfromgeneraltoparticularpropositionsanddescendingfromcausestoeffects.554397Hisfamoustheoryofasocialcontractisarationalconstruction,notahistoricalnarrative.Butthoughamathematician,heshowsnotracesofPlatonicinfluence.Heis,therefore,allthemoregovernedbyAtomistandStoicmodesofthought.Hetreatshumannature,singleandassociated,asGalileoandDescarteshadtreatedmotionandspace.Likethem,too,hefindshimselfinconstantantagonismtoAristotle.Thedescriptionofmanasasocialanimalisdisdainfullyrejected,andthepoliticalunionresolvedintoanequilibriumofmanyopposingwillsmaintainedbyviolentpressurefromwithout.Inethics,nolessthaninphysics,wefindattractiveforcesreplacedbymechanicalimpacts.

  • 但法国ktbzT

    Meanwhile,hedonismhadbeentemporarilytakenupbyPlato,anddevelopedintotheearliestknownformofutilitarianism.InhisProtagoras,heendeavourstoshowthateveryvirtuehasforitsobjecteithertosecureagreaterpleasurebythesacrificeofalesserpleasure,ortoavoidagreaterpainbytheenduranceofalesserpain;nothingbeingtakenintoaccountbuttheinterestsoftheindividualagentconcerned.PlatoafterwardsdiscardedthetheorysketchedintheProtagorasforahigherandmoregenerous,iflessdistinctlyformulatedmorality;butwhileceasingtobeahedonistheremainedautilitarian;thatistosay,heinsistedonjudgingactionsbytheirtendencytopromotethegeneralwelfare,notbythesentimentswhichtheyexciteinthemindofaconventionalspectator.

     

  • 大笨蛋D4hwW

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  • 扒皮成afe0j

    Here,then,arethreemainpointsofdistinctionbetweenourphilosopherandhisprecursors,theadvantagebeing,sofar,entirelyontheirside.Hedidnot,liketheIonianphysiologists,anticipateinoutlineourtheoriesofevolution.Heheldthatthecosmoshadalwaysbeen,bythestrictestnecessity,arrangedinthesamemanner;thestarryrevolutionsneverchanging;thefourelementspreservingaconstantbalance;theearthalwayssolid;landandwateralwaysdistributedaccordingtotheirpresentproportions;living321speciestransmittingthesameunalterabletypethroughaninfiniteseriesofgenerations;thehumanraceenjoyinganeternalduration,butfromtimetotimelosingallitsconquestsinsomegreatphysicalcatastrophe,andobligedtobeginoveragainwiththedepressingconsciousnessthatnothingcouldbedevisedwhichhadnotbeenthoughtofaninfinitenumberoftimesalready;theexistingdistinctionsbetweenHellenesandbarbarians,mastersandslaves,menandwomen,groundedoneverlastingnecessitiesofnature.Hedidnot,likeDemocritus,distinguishbetweenobjectiveandsubjectivepropertiesofmatter;noradmitthatvoidspaceextendstoinfinityroundthestarrysphere,andhoneycombstheobjectswhichseemmostincompressibleandcontinuoustooursenses.Hedidnothope,likeSocrates,fortheregenerationoftheindividual,nor,likePlato,fortheregenerationoftherace,byenlightenedthought.ItseemedasifPhilosophy,abdicatingherhighfunction,andobstructingthepathswhichshehadfirstopened,werenowcontenttosystematisetheforcesofprejudice,blindness,immobility,anddespair.

     ThosemanifestationsofsympathywhichareoftensomuchmorepreciousthanmaterialassistancewerealsorepugnanttoStoicprinciples.Onthissubject,Epictêtusexpresseshimselfwithsingularharshness.‘Donot,’hesays,‘letyourselfbeputoutbythesufferingsofyourfriends.Iftheyareunhappy,itistheirownfault.Godmadethemforhappiness,notformisery.Theyaregrievedatpartingfromyou,arethey?Why,then,didtheysettheiraffectionsonthingsoutsidethemselves?Iftheysufferfortheirfollyitservesthemright.’93

  • 草莓果g0L1Y

     Bethisasitmay,weventuretohopethataprinciplehas154beenheresuggesteddeepandstrongenoughtoreunitethetwohalvesintowhichhistorianshavehithertodividedtheSocraticsystem,or,rather,thebeginningofthatuniversalsystematisationcalledphilosophy,whichisnotyet,andperhapsneverwillbe,completed;aprinciplewhichisoutwardlyrevealedinthecharacterofthephilosopherhimself.Withsuchanone,ethicsanddialecticsbecomealmostindistinguishablethroughtheintermixtureoftheirprocessesandtheparallelismoftheiraims.Integrityofconvictionenters,bothasameansandasanelement,intoperfectintegrityofconduct,norcanitbemaintainedwhereanyotherelementofrectitudeiswanting.Clearness,consecutiveness,andcoherencearethemoralityofbelief;whiletemperance,justice,andbeneficence,takenintheirwidestsenseandtakentogether,constitutethesupremelogicoflife.

  • 绿卡纸Bj4Wy

    NoonewilldenythatthelifeoftheGreekswasstainedwithfoulvices,andthattheirtheorysometimesfelltotheleveloftheirpractice.Noonewhobelievesthatmoraltruth,likealltruth,hasbeengraduallydiscovered,willwonderatthisphenomenon.Ifmoralconductisafunctionofsociallife,then,likeotherfunctions,itwillbesubject,notonlytogrowth,butalsotodiseaseanddecay.Anintenseandrapidintellectualdevelopmentmayhaveforitsconditionatotallyabnormalstateofsociety,wherecertainvices,unknowntoruderages,springupandflourishwithrankluxuriance.Whenmenhavetotakewomenalongwiththemoneverynewpathofenquiry,progresswillbeconsiderablyretarded,althoughitsbenefitswillultimatelybesharedamongagreaternumber,andwillbebetterinsuredagainstthedangerofaviolentreaction.ButtheworkthatHellaswascommissionedtoperformcouldnotwait;ithadtobeaccomplishedinafewgenerations,ornotatall.Thebarbarianswereforcingtheirwayinoneveryside,notmerelywiththeweightofinvadingarmies,butwiththedeadlierpressureofabenumbingsuperstition,withthebrute-worshipofEgyptandthedevil-worshipofPhoenicia,with57theirdeliriousorgies,theirmutilations,theircrucifixions,andtheirgladiatorialcontests.AlreadyinthelaterdramasofEuripidesandintheRhodianschoolofsculpture,weseetheawfulshadowcomingnearer,andfeelthepoisonousbreathofAsiaonourfaces.Reason,thereasonbywhichtheseterrorshavebeenforeverexorcised,couldonlyarriveatmaturityundertheinfluenceoffreeanduninterrupteddiscussioncarriedonbymenamongthemselvesinthegymnasium,theagora,theecclêsia,andthedicastery.Theresultingandinevitableseparationofthesexesbredfrightfuldisorders,whichthroughallchangesofcreedhaveclunglikeamoralpestilencetotheshoresoftheAegean,andhavehelpedtocomplicatepoliticalproblemsbyjoiningtoreligioushatredthefierceranimosityofphysicaldisgust.ButwhateverwerethecorruptionsofGreeksentiment,Greekphilosophyhadthepowertopurgethemaway.‘Follownature’becamethewatchwordofoneschoolafteranother;andapreceptwhichatfirstmayhavemeantonlythatmanshouldnotfallbelowthebrutes,wasfinallysointerpretedastoimplyanabsolutecontrolofsensebyreason.NoloftierstandardofsexualpurityhaseverbeeninculcatedthanthatfixedbyPlatoinhislatestwork,theLaws.Isocratesbidshusbandssetanexampleofconjugalfidelitytotheirwives.Socrateshadalreadydeclaredthatvirtuewasthesameforbothsexes.Xenophoninterestshimselfintheeducationofwomen.Platowouldgivethemthesametraining,andeverywhereassociatetheminthesamefunctionswithmen.Equallydecisiveevidenceofatheoreticaloppositiontoslaveryisnotforthcoming,andweknowthatitwasunfortunatelysanctionedbyPlatoandAristotle,inthisrespectnobetterinspiredthantheearlyChristians;nevertheless,thegermofsuchanoppositionexisted,andwillhereafterbepointedout.

     Wehavenowconcludedoursurveyofthefirstgreatmentalantithesis,thatbetweenreasonontheonehand,andsenseandopinionontheother.Thenextantithesis,thatbetweenreasonandpassion,willoccupyusamuchshortertime.Withitwepassfromtheorytopractice,frommetaphysicsandlogictomoralphilosophy.But,aswesawintheprecedingchapter,Aristotleisnotapracticalgenius;forhimthesupremeinterestoflifeisstilltheacquisitionofknowledge.Theorisingactivitycorrespondstothecelestialworld,inwhichtherecanbeneitheroppositionnorexcess;whilepassioncorrespondstothesublunarysphere,whereorderisonlypreservedbythebalancingofantitheticalforces;andthemoderatinginfluenceofreason,tothecontrolexercisedbythehigheroverthelowersystem.

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