巧设计 “大宝”“小宝”都满意

rcTzu-news 发布时间: 2020-07-08 09:56:39

“北京pk赛车开奖直播”‘Happyishewhohaslearned

Eveninhismuch-admiredcriticismsontheactuallyexistingtypesofgovernmentourphilosophershowspracticalweaknessandvacillationofcharacter.Thereisagoodwordforthemall—formonarchy,foraristocracy,formiddle-classrule,andevenforpuredemocracy.183Thefifthbook,treatingof297politicalrevolutions,isunquestionablytheablestandmostinterestinginthewholework;butwhenAristotlequitsthedomainofnaturalhistoryforthatofpracticalsuggestions,withaviewtoobviatethedangerspointedout,hecanthinkofnothingbetterthantheoldadvice—tobemoderate,evenwheretheconstitutionswhichmoderationistopreservearebytheirverynaturesoexcessivethattheirreadjustmentandequilibrationwouldbeequivalenttotheirdestruction.Andinfact,Aristotle’sproposalsamounttothis—thatgovernmentbythemiddleclassshouldbeestablishedwherevertheidealaristocracyofeducationisimpracticable;orelseagovernmentinwhichtheclassinterestsofrichandpoorshouldbesonicelybalancedastoobviatethedangerofoligarchicordemocraticinjustice.HiserrorlayinnotperceivingthattheonlypossiblemeansofsecuringsuchahappymeanwastobreakthroughthenarrowcircleofGreekcitylife;tocontinuetheprocesswhichhadunitedfamiliesintovillages,andvillagesintotowns;toconfederategroupsofcitiesintolarger298states;andso,bystrikinganaverageofdifferentinequalities,tominimisetheriskofthoseincessantrevolutionswhichhadhithertosecuredthetemporarytriumphofalternatefactionsattheexpenseoftheircommoninterest.And,infact,thespontaneousprocessofaggregation,whichAristotledidnotforesee,hasalonesufficedtoremedytheevilswhichhesaw,butcouldnotdeviseanyeffectualmeansofcuring,andatthesametimehasbrednewevilsofwhichhisdiagnosisnaturallytooknoaccount.

Epicureanismwasessentiallyapracticalphilosophy.Thephysical,theological,andlogicalportionsofthesystemwerereasonedoutwithexclusivereferencetoitsethicalend,andtheirabsolutesubordinationtoitwasneverallowedtobeforgotten.ItisthereforewiththemoraltheoryofEpicurusthatwemustbegin.

Ifthesoulservedtoconnecttheeternalrealitieswiththefleetingappearancesbywhichtheywereatoncedarkened,relieved,andshadowedforth,itwasalsoabondofunionbetweenthespeculativeandthepracticalphilosophyofPlato;andindiscussinghispsychologywehavealreadypassedfromtheonetotheother.Thetransitionwillbecomestilleasierifwerememberthatthequestion,‘Whatisknowledge?’was,accordingtoourview,originallysuggestedbyatheoryreducingethicalsciencetoahedonisticcalculus,andthatalongwithitwouldariseanotherquestion,‘Whatispleasure?’Thislatterenquiry,thoughincidentallytouchedonelsewhere,isnotfullydealtwithinanyDialogueexceptthePhilêbus,whichweagreewithProf.JowettinreferringtoaverylateperiodofPlatonicauthorship.Butthelineofargumentwhichitpursueshadprobablybeenlongfamiliartoourphilosopher.Atanyrate,thePhaedo,theRepublic,andperhapstheGorgias,assume,asalreadyproved,thatpleasureisnotthehighestgood.Thequestionisoneonwhichthinkersarestilldivided.Itseems,indeed,tolieoutsidetherangeofreason,andthedisputantsareaccordinglyobligedtoinvoketheauthorityeitherofindividualconsciousnessorofcommonconsentonbehalfoftheirrespectiveopinions.Wehave,however,gotsofarbeyondtheancientsthatthedoctrineofegoistichedonismhasbeenabandonedbyalmosteverybody.Thesubstitutionofanother’spleasureforourownastheobjectofpursuitwasnotaconceptionwhichpresenteditselftoanyGreekmoralist,226althoughtheprincipleofself-sacrificewasmaintainedbysomeofthem,andespeciallybyPlato,toitsfullestextent.Pleasure-seekingbeinginseparablyassociatedwithselfishness,thelatterwasbestattackedthroughtheformer,andifPlato’slogicdoesnotcommenditselftoourunderstanding,wemustadmitthatitwasemployedindefenceofanoblecause.

Thetruthisthatwhileourphilosopherhadoneofthemostpowerfulintellectseverpossessedbyanyman,itwasanintellectstrictlylimitedtothesurfaceofthings.Hewasutterlyincapableofdiviningthehiddenforcesbywhichinorganicnatureandlifeandhumansocietyaremoved.Hehadneitherthegeniuswhichcanreconstructthepast,northegeniuswhichpartlymoulds,partlyforetellsthefuture.Butwhereverhehastoobserveortoreport,toenumerateortoanalyse,todescribeortodefine,toclassifyortocompare;andwhateverbethesubject,amolluscoramammal,amouseoranelephant;thestructureandhabitsofwildanimals;thedifferentstagesinthedevelopmentofanembryobird;thevariationsofasingleorganorfunctionthroughtheentirezoologicalseries;thehierarchyofintellectualfaculties;thelawsofmentalassociation;thespecifictypesofvirtuouscharacter;therelationofequitytolaw;therelationofreasontoimpulse;theidealsoffriendship;thedifferentmembersofahousehold;thedifferentordersinaState;thepossiblevariationsofpoliticalconstitutions,orwithinthesameconstitution;theelementsofdramaticorepicpoetry;themodesofpredication;theprinciplesofdefinition,classification,judgment,andreasoning;thedifferentsystemsofphilosophy;allvarietiesofpassion,allmotivestoaction,allsourcesofconviction;—therewefindanenormousaccumulationofknowledge,anunweariedpatienceofresearch,asweepofcomprehension,asubtletyofdiscrimination,anaccuracyofstatement,animpartialityofdecision,andanall-absorbingenthusiasmforscience,which,iftheydonotraisehimtothesupremelevelofcreativegenius,entitlehimtorankaverylittlewaybelowit.

ItwasfromtheinitiativeofSocratesthatlogicreceivedthisdirection.Byinsistingonthesupremeimportanceofdefinition,hedrewawayattentionfromthepropositionswhichaddtoourknowledge,andconcentrateditonthosewhichonlyfixwithprecisionthemeaningofwords.Yet,insodoinghewasinfluencedquiteasmuchbythespiritoftheolderphysicalphilosophy,whichhedenounced,asbythenecessitiesofthenewhumanisticculture,whichhehelpedtointroduce.Hisdefinitionswere,intruth,thereproduction,onaveryminutescale,ofthoseattemptstoformulatethewholeuniversewhichbusiedtheearliestIonianspeculation.FollowingthenaturaltendencyofGreekthought,andthepowerfulattractionofcosmicphilosophy,aneffortwasspeedilymadetogeneraliseandconnectthesepartialdefini378tionsuntiltheygrewintoasystemofuniversalclassification.Itwaswhen,undertheinfluenceofanewanalysis,thissystemthreatenedtofalltopieces,thatarudimentarydoctrineofjudgmentfirstmadeitsappearance.Thestructureofagrammaticalsentencewasusedtoexplainhowobjectiveideascould,inamanner,overlapandadheretooneanother.Hencepropositions,which,astheexpressionofgeneraltruths,weredestinedtobecomethebeginningandendofthought,remainedatfirststrictlysubordinatedtotheindividualconceptsthattheylinkedandreconciled.

OuraccountofNeo-Platonismhas,withtheexceptionofafewillustrations,beenderivedexclusivelyfromtheearlieressaysofPlotinus.Hissubsequentwritingsareexceedinglyobscureandtedious,andtheyaddlittlebywayeitherofdevelopmentordefencetotheoutlineswhichhehadsketchedwithamaster’shand.Whatevermaterialstheymaysupplyforabetterappreciation,whetherofhisphilosophyorofhisgeneralcharacterasathinker,willmostprofitablyfindtheirplaceinthefinalsurveyofbothwhichweshallnowattempttogive.HathJusticeturnedapprovingeyesonhim;

76

‘Iwouldhaveyouconsiderthathewhoappearstoyoutobetheworstofthosewhohavebeenbroughtupinlawsandhumanitieswouldappeartobeajustmanandamasterofjusticeifheweretobecomparedwithmenwhohadnoeducation,orcourtsofjustice,orlaws,oranyrestraintsuponthemwhichcompelledthemtopractisevirtue—withthesavages,forexample,whomthepoetPherecratesexhibitedonthestageatthelastyear’sLenaeanfestival.Ifyouwerelivingamongmensuchastheman-hatersinhischorus,youwouldbeonlytoogladtomeetwithEurybatesandPhrynondas,andyouwouldsorrowfullylongtorevisittherascalityofthispartoftheworld.’68

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  • 雨花郡主OZtg8

    Eveninhismuch-admiredcriticismsontheactuallyexistingtypesofgovernmentourphilosophershowspracticalweaknessandvacillationofcharacter.Thereisagoodwordforthemall—formonarchy,foraristocracy,formiddle-classrule,andevenforpuredemocracy.183Thefifthbook,treatingof297politicalrevolutions,isunquestionablytheablestandmostinterestinginthewholework;butwhenAristotlequitsthedomainofnaturalhistoryforthatofpracticalsuggestions,withaviewtoobviatethedangerspointedout,hecanthinkofnothingbetterthantheoldadvice—tobemoderate,evenwheretheconstitutionswhichmoderationistopreservearebytheirverynaturesoexcessivethattheirreadjustmentandequilibrationwouldbeequivalenttotheirdestruction.Andinfact,Aristotle’sproposalsamounttothis—thatgovernmentbythemiddleclassshouldbeestablishedwherevertheidealaristocracyofeducationisimpracticable;orelseagovernmentinwhichtheclassinterestsofrichandpoorshouldbesonicelybalancedastoobviatethedangerofoligarchicordemocraticinjustice.HiserrorlayinnotperceivingthattheonlypossiblemeansofsecuringsuchahappymeanwastobreakthroughthenarrowcircleofGreekcitylife;tocontinuetheprocesswhichhadunitedfamiliesintovillages,andvillagesintotowns;toconfederategroupsofcitiesintolarger298states;andso,bystrikinganaverageofdifferentinequalities,tominimisetheriskofthoseincessantrevolutionswhichhadhithertosecuredthetemporarytriumphofalternatefactionsattheexpenseoftheircommoninterest.And,infact,thespontaneousprocessofaggregation,whichAristotledidnotforesee,hasalonesufficedtoremedytheevilswhichhesaw,butcouldnotdeviseanyeffectualmeansofcuring,andatthesametimehasbrednewevilsofwhichhisdiagnosisnaturallytooknoaccount.

     Themoderndoctrineofevolution,whilerelyinglargelyonthefertilityofmultipliedchances,isnotobligedtoassumesuchanenormousnumberofsimultaneouscoincidencesasEpicurus.Theascriptionofcertaindefiniteattractionsandrepulsionstotheultimateparticlesofmatterwouldalonerestricttheirpossiblemodesofaggregationwithincomparativelynarrowlimits.Then,again,theworldseemstohavebeenbuiltupbysuccessivestages,ateachofwhichsomenewforceorcombinationofforcescameintoplay,afirmbasishavingbeenalreadysecuredforwhatevervariationstheywerecapableofproducing.Thusthesolarsystemisastateofequilibriumresultingfromtheactionoftwoverysimpleforces,gravitationandheat.Onthesurfaceoftheearth,cohesionandchemicalaffinityhavebeensuperadded.Whenafreshequilibriumhadresultedfromtheirjointenergy,themorecomplexconditionsoflifefoundfreescopefortheirexercise.Thetransformationsoflivingspeciesweresimilarlyeffectedbyvariationonvariation.And,finally,inonespecies,thesatisfactionofitsanimalwantssetfreethosemorerefinedimpulsesbywhich,aftermanyexperiments,civilisationhasbeenbuiltup.Obviouslythetotalsumofadaptationsnecessarytoconstituteouractualworldwillhavetheprobabilitiesofitsoccurrenceenormouslyincreasedifwesupposethemoregeneralconditionstobeestablishedpriorto,andincompleteindependenceof,thelessgeneral,insteadoflimitingourselves,liketheancientatomists,toonevastsimultaneousshuffleofallthematerialanddynamicalelementsinvolved.

  • 雪灵芝aH52c

    WellmayM.HavetsayoftheAcademicians:‘cesonteuxetnonlespartisansd’Epicurequisontleslibrespenseursdel’antiquitéouquil’auraientvouluêtre;maisilsnelepouvaientpas.’250Theycouldnot,fortheirprincipleswereasinconsistentwithanabsolutenegationaswithanabsoluteaffirmation;whileinpracticetheirrulewas,aswehavesaid,conformitytothecustomofthecountry;theconsequenceofwhichwasthatScepticsandEpicureanswereequallyassiduousintheirattendanceatpublicworship.Itis,therefore,withperfectdramaticappropriatenessthatCiceroputstheargumentsofCarneadesintothemouthofCotta,thePontifexMaximus;and,althoughhimselfanaugur,takesthenegativesideinadiscussionondivinationwithhisbrotherQuintus.Andourothergreatauthorityonthescepticalside,SextusEmpiricus,isnotlessemphaticthanCottainprotestinghisdevotiontothetraditionalreligionoftheland.251

  • 如萱紫儿lufJ4

    WeperceiveapreciselysimilarchangeoftoneoncomparingthetwogreathistorianswhohaverespectivelyrecordedthestruggleofGreeceagainstPersia,andthestruggleofimperialAthensagainstSpartaandherallies.Thoughbornwithinfifteenyearsofoneanother,HerodotusandThucydidesarevirtuallyseparatedbyanintervaloftwogenerations,forwhilethelatterrepresentsthemostadvancedthoughtofhistime,theformerlivedamongtraditionsinheritedfromtheageprecedinghisown.Now,Herodotusisnotmoreremarkablefortheearnestpietythanfortheclearsenseofjusticewhichrunsthroughhisentirework.Hedrawsnodistinctionbetweenpublicandprivatemorality.Whoevermakeswaronhisneighbourswithoutprovocation,orruleswithouttheconsentofthegoverned,is,accordingtohim,inthewrong,althoughheiswellawarethatsuchwrongsareconstantlycommitted.Thucydidesknowsnothing74ofsupernaturalinterferenceinhumanaffairs.AfterrelatingthetragicalendofNicias,heobserves,notwithoutascepticaltendency,thatofalltheGreeksthenliving,thisunfortunategeneralleastdeservedsuchafate,sofaraspietyandrespectabilityofcharacterwent.Iftherearegodstheyholdtheirpositionbysuperiorstrength.ThatthestrongshouldenslavetheweakisauniversalandnecessarylawofNature.TheSpartans,whoamongthemselvesaremostscrupulousinobservingtraditionalobligations,intheirdealingswithothersmostopenlyidentifygainwithhonour,andexpediencywithright.Evenifthehistorianhimselfdidnotsharetheseopinions,itisevidentthattheywerewidelyentertainedbyhiscontemporaries,andheexpresslyinformsusthatGreekpoliticalmoralityhaddeterioratedtoafrightfulextentinconsequenceofthecivildiscordsfomentedbytheconflictbetweenAthensandSparta;while,inAthensatleast,asimilarcorruptionofprivatemoralityhadbegunwiththegreatplagueof430,itschiefsymptombeingamaddesiretoextracttheutmostpossibleenjoymentfromlife,forwhichpurposeeverymeanswasconsideredlegitimate.OnthispointThucydidesisconfirmedandsupplementedbytheevidenceofanothercontemporaryauthority.AccordingtoAristophanes,theancientdisciplinehadinhistimebecomeverymuchrelaxed.Therichwereidleandextravagant;thepoormutinous;youngmenweregrowingmoreandmoreinsolenttotheirelders;religionwasderided;allclasseswereanimatedbyacommondesiretomakemoneyandtospenditonsensualenjoyment.Only,insteadoftracingbackthisprofounddemoralisationtoachangeinthesocialenvironment,Aristophanesattributesittodemagogues,harassinginformers,andpopularpoets,butabovealltothenewculturethencomingintovogue.Physicalsciencehadbroughtinatheism;dialectictraininghaddestroyedthesanctityofethicalrestraints.When,however,thereligiousandvirtuousSocratesisputforwardasatypeofbothtend75encies,ourconfidenceinthecomicpoet’saccuracy,ifnotinhisgoodfaith,becomesseriouslyshaken;andhiswholetonesovividlyrecallstheanalogousinvectivesnowhurledfrompressandpulpitagainsteveryphilosophictheory,everyscientificdiscovery,everysocialreformatvariancewithtraditionalbeliefsorthreateningthesinisterinterestswhichhavegatheredroundiniquitousinstitutions,thatatfirstwefeeltemptedtofollowGroteinrejectinghistestimonyaltogether.Sofar,however,astheactualphenomenathemselvesareconcerned,andapartfromtheirgeneratingantecedents,Aristophanesdoesbutbringintomorepicturesqueprominencewhatgraverobserversarecontenttoindicate,andwhatPlato,writingagenerationlater,treatsasanunquestionablereality.Noristhefactofaloweredmoraltonegoingalongwithacceleratedmentalactivityeitherincredibleorunparalleled.Modernhistoryknowsofatleasttwoperiodsremarkableforsuchaconjunction,theRenaissanceandtheeighteenthcentury,theformerstainedwitheveryimaginablecrime,thelatterimpurethroughout,andlapsingintoblood-thirstyviolenceatitsclose.Moralprogress,likeeveryothermodeofmotion,hasitsappropriaterhythm—itsepochsofsevererestraintfollowedbyepochsofrebelliouslicense.Andwhen,asanaggravationofthereactionfromwhichtheyperiodicallysuffer,ethicalprincipleshavebecomeassociatedwithamythologywhosedecay,atfirstretarded,isfinallyhastenedbytheiractivity,itisstilleasiertounderstandhowtheymayshareinitsdiscredit,andonlyregaintheirascendencybyallyingthemselveswithapurifiedformoftheoldreligion,untiltheycanbedisentangledfromthecompromisingsupportofallunverifiedtheorieswhatever.WehaveeveryreasontobelievethatGreeklifeandthoughtdidpassthroughsuchacrisisduringthesecondhalfofthefifthcenturyB.C.,andwehavenowtodealwiththespeculativeaspectsofthatcrisis,sofarastheyarerepresentedbytheSophists.

  • 但法国AsWQ3

     

  • 大笨蛋UOACp

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  • 扒皮成hfBk4

    ItwillnowbebetterunderstoodwhencearosethehostilityoftheStoicstopleasure,andhowtheycouldspeakofitinwhatseemssuchaparadoxicalstyle.Itwassubjectivefeelingasopposedtoobjectivelaw;itwasrelative,particular,andindividual,asopposedtotheirformalstandardofright;anditwascontinuallydrawingmenawayfromtheirtruenaturebyactingasatemptationtovice.Thus,probablyforthelastreason,CleanthescouldspeakofpleasureascontrarytoNature;whilelessrigorousauthoritiesregardeditasabsolutelyindifferent,beingaconsequenceofnaturalactions,notanessentialelementintheirperformance.Andwhentheiropponentspointedtotheuniversaldesireforpleasureasaproofthatitwasthenaturalendofanimatedbeings,theStoicsansweredthatwhatNaturehadinviewwasnotpleasureatall,butthepreservationoflifeitself.48

     ItiswellknownthatSpinozadrawsasharplineofdemarcationbetweenthetwoattributesofExtensionandThought,which,withhim,correspondtowhatareusuallycalledbodyandmind.Neitherattributecanactontheother.Mindreceivesnoimpressionsfrombody,nordoesbodyreceiveanyimpulsesfrommind.ThispropositionfollowsbyrigorouslogicalnecessityfromthePlatonicprinciplethatmindisindependentofbody,combinedwiththeStoicprinciplethatnothingbutbodycanactonbody,generalisedintothewiderprinciplethatinteractionimplieshomogeneityofnature.Accordingtosomecritics,Spinoza’steachingonthispointconstitutesafatalflawinhisphilosophy.How,itisasked,canweknowthatthereisanysuchthingasbody(orextension)ifbodycannotbeperceived,—forperceiveditcertainlycannotbewithoutactingonourminds?Theideaofinfinitesubstancesuggestsawayoutofthe408difficulty.‘Ifindinmyself,’Spinozamightsay,‘theideaofextension.Infact,mymindisnothingbuttheideaofextension,ortheideaofthatidea,andsoonthroughasmanyself-reflectionsasyouplease.Atthesametime,mind,orthought,isnotitselfextended.DescartesandthePlatonistsbeforehimhaveprovedthusmuch.ConsequentlyIcanconceiveextensionasexistingindependentlyofmyself,and,moregenerally,ofallthought.ButhowcanIbesurethatitactuallydoessoexist?Inthiswise.Anexaminationofthoughtleadsmetothenotionofsomethinginwhichitresides—asubstancewhoseattributeitis.Buthavingonceconceivedsuchasubstance,Icannotlimitittoasingleattribute,nortotwo,nortoanyfinitenumber.Limitationimpliesaboundary,andtherecanbenoboundaryassignedtoexistence,forexistencebyitsverydefinitionincludeseverythingthatis.Accordingly,whatevercanbeconceived,inotherwordswhatevercanbethoughtwithoutinvolvingacontradiction,—animportantreservationwhichIbegyoutoobserve,—mustnecessarilyexist.Nowextensioninvolvesnocontradiction,thereforeitexists,—exists,thatistosay,asanattributeoftheinfinitesubstance.And,byparityofreasoning,theremustbeanideaofextension;forthisalsocanexistwithoutinvolvingacontradiction,asthesimplestintrospectionsufficestoshow.YouaskmewhythenIdonotbelieveingorgonsandchimaeras.Ianswerthatsince,inpointoffact,theydonotexist,Ipresumethattheirnotioninvolvesacontradiction,althoughmyknowledgeofnaturallawisnotsufficientlyextendedtoshowmewherethecontradictionlies.Butperhapssciencewillsomedaybeabletopointoutineveryinstanceofanon-existingthing,wherethecontradictionlies,nolesssurelythanitcannowbepointedoutinthecaseofimpossiblegeometricalfigures.’Inshort,whileotherpeopletravelstraightfromtheirsensationstoanexternalworld,Spinozatravelsroundtoitbytheideaofaninfinitesubstance.564

  • 草莓果dCwkN

     Suchaviewwasessentiallyunfavourabletotheprogressofscience,assigning,asitdid,ahigherdignitytomeagreandveryquestionableabstractionsthantothefar-reachingcombinationsbywhichaloneweareenabledtounraveltheinmosttextureofvisiblephenomena.Insteadofusingreasontosupplementsense,Aristotleturneditintoamoresubtleanduniversalkindofsense;andifthisdisastrousassimilationwastoacertainextentimposeduponhimbythetraditionsofAthenianthought,itharmonisedadmirablywiththedescriptiveandsuperficialcharacterofhisownintelligence.Muchwasalsoduetothemethodofgeometry,whichinhistimehadalreadyassumedtheformmadefamiliartousbyEuclid’sElements.Theemploymentofaxiomssidebysidewithdefinitions,might,indeed,havedrawnhisattentiontotheexistenceandimportanceofjudgmentswhich,inKantianterminology,arenotanalyticbutsynthetic—thatis,whichaddtothecontentofanotioninsteadofsimplyanalysingit.Butalthoughhementionsaxioms,andstatesthatmathematicaltheoremsarededucedfromthem,nosuspicionoftheiressentialdifferencefromdefinitions,orofthetypicalsignificancewhichtheyweredestinedtoassumeinthetheoryofreasoning,seemsevertohavecrossedhismind;otherwisehecouldhardlyhavefailedtoaskhowwecomebyourknowledgeofthem,andtowhattheycorrespondinNature.Onthewhole,385itseemslikelythathelookedonthemasananalysisofourideas,differingonlyfromdefinitionproperbythegeneralityofitsapplication;forhenamesthelawofcontradictionasthemostimportantofallaxioms,andthatfromwhichtheothersproceed;277nexttoitheplacesthelawofexcludedmiddle,whichisalsoanalytical;andhisonlyotherexampleis,thatifequalsbetakenfromequalstheremaindersareequal,ajudgmentthesyntheticcharacterofwhichisbynomeansclear,andhasoccasionallybeendisputed.278

  • 绿卡纸lbxI7

     Wemust,however,observethat,underlyingallthesepoeticalimaginations,thereisadeeperandwiderlawofhumannaturetowhichtheyunconsciouslybearwitness—theintimateconnexionofreligiousmysticismwiththepassionoflove.Bythiswedonotmeantheconstantinterferenceoftheonewiththeother,whetherforthepurposeofstimulation,aswiththenaturalisticreligions,orforthepurposeofrestraint,aswiththeethicalreligions;butwemeanthattheyseemtodividebetweenthemacommonfundofnervousenergy,sothatsometimestheirmanifestationsareinextricablyconfounded,asincertaindebasedformsofmodernChristianity;sometimestheyutterlyexcludeoneanother;andsometimes,whichisthemostfrequentcaseofany,theoneistransformedintotheother,theirsubstantialidentityandcontinuitybeingindicatedveryfranklybytheiruseofthesamelanguage,thesameritual,andthesameaestheticdecoration.Andthiswillshowhowthedecayofreligiousbeliefmaybeaccompaniedbyanoutbreakofmorallicence,withoutourbeingobligedtodrawtheinferencethatpassioncanonlybeheldincheckbyirrationalbeliefs,orbyorganisationswhosesupremacyisfataltoindustrial,political,andintellectualprogress.For,ifourviewofthecasebecorrect,thepassionwasnotreallyrestrained,butonlyturnedinadifferentdirection,andfrequentlynourishedintohystericalexcess;sothat,withtheinevitabledecayoftheology,itreturnstoitsoldhaunts,bringingwithitsevendevilsworsethanthefirst.Afterthe220CrusadescametheCourtsofLove;aftertheDominicanandFranciscanmovements,theRenaissance;afterPuritanism,theRestoration;afterJesuitism,theRegency.Noristhisall.Thepassionofwhichwearespeaking,whenabnormallydevelopedandunbalancedbysevereintellectualexercise,ishabituallyaccompaniedbydeliriousjealousy,bycruelty,andbydeceit.Ontakingtheformofreligion,theinfluenceofitsevilassociatesimmediatelybecomesmanifestinthesuppressionofaliencreeds,inthetorturesinflictedontheiradherents,andinthemaximthatnofaithneedbekeptwithaheretic.Persecutionhasbeenexcusedonthegroundthatanymeanswerejustifiableforthepurposeofsavingsoulsfrometernaltorment.Buthowcameittobebelievedthatsuchaconsequencewasinvolvedinamereerrorofjudgment?Thefaithdidnotcreatetheintolerance,buttheintolerancecreatedthefaith,andsogaveanidealisedexpressiontothejealousfuryaccompanyingapassionwhichnospiritualalchemycanpurifyfromitsoriginalaffinities.Itisnotbyturningthismostterribleinstincttowardsasupernaturalobjectthatweshouldcombatit,butbydevelopingtheactiveandmasculineinpreferencetotheemotionalandfemininesideofournervousorganisation.136

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