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“幸运飞艇八码得志”

TheEpicureanphilosophywas,infact,thefirsttogainafootinginRome;andittherebyacquiredapositionofcomparativeequalitywiththeotherschools,towhichitwasnotreallyentitled,butwhichithaseversincesucceededinmaintaining.Thenewdoctrinefelllikeasparkonamassofcombustiblematerial.TheRomanswerefullofcuriosityaboutNatureandherworkings;fullofcontemptforthedegradingEtruscansuperstitionswhichhamperedthemateveryturn,andthefalsityofwhichwasprovingtoomuchevenfortheofficialgravityoftheirstate-appointedinterpreters;fullofimpatienceattheGreekmythologywhichwasbeginningtosubstituteitselfforthesevereabstractionsoftheirownmorespiritualfaith;265fullofloathingfortheAsiaticorgieswhichwerebeingintroducedintothehighestsocietyoftheirowncity.Epicureanismofferedthemacompleteandeasilyintelligibletheoryoftheworld,whichatthesametimecameasadeliverancefromsupernaturalterrors.Theconsequencewasthatitsdifferentpartswerethrownoutofperspective,andtheirrelativeimportancealmostreversed.Originallyframedasanethicalsystemwithcertainphysicalandtheologicalimplications,itwasinterpretedbyLucretius,andapparentlyalsobyhisRomanpredecessors,266asascientificandanti-religioussystem,withcertainreferencestoconductneitherveryprominentlybroughtforwardnorverydistinctlyconceived.168AndweknowfromthecontentsofthepapyrusrollsdiscoveredatHerculaneum,thatthosewhostudiedthesysteminitsoriginalsourcespaidparticularattentiontothevoluminousphysicaltreatisesofEpicurus,aswellastothetheologicalworksofhissuccessors.NorwasthischangeoffrontlimitedtoEpicureanism,if,aswemaysuspect,therationalisticdirectiontakenbyPanaetiuswasdue,atleastinpart,toasimilardemandonthesideofhisRomanadmirers.

TopaintSocratesathishighestandhisbest,itwasnecessarytobreakthroughthenarrowlimitsofhishistoricindividuality,andtoshowhow,hadtheybeenpresentedtohim,hewouldhavedealtwithproblemsoutsidetheexperienceofahome-stayingAtheniancitizen.Thefounderofidealism鈥 攖hatistosay,therealisationofreason,thesystematicapplicationofthoughttolife鈥 攈adsucceededinhistaskbecausehehadembodiedthenoblestelementsoftheAthenianD锚mos,orderliness,patriotism,self-control,andpublicityofdebate,togetherwithareceptiveintelligenceforimprovementseffectedinotherstates.But,justastheimpulsewhichenabledthosequalitiestotelldecisivelyonGreekhistoryatamomentofinestimableimportancecamefromtheAthenianaristocracy,withitsDoriansympathies,itsadventurousambition,anditskeenattentiontoforeignaffairs,soalsodidPlato,carryingthesamespiritintophilosophy,bringthedialecticmethodintocontactwitholderandbroadercurrentsofspeculation,andemployittorecognisethewholespiritualactivityofhisrace.

V.

Itwas,nodoubt,fortheseandsimilarreasonsthatallthemostvigorousintellectsofHellasrangedthemselveseitherontheStoicorontheScepticside,leavingthehalfheartedcompromiseofEpicurustothosewhocouldnotthinkoutanyonetheoryconsistently,orwho,liketheRomansatfirst,werenotacquaintedwithanysystembuthis.Henceforth,duringaperiodofsomecenturies,thewholephilosophicmovementisdeterminedbytheinteractionofthesetwofundamentalforces.ThefirsteffectoftheirconflictwastoimposeonScepticismanimportantmodification,illustratingitsessentiallyparasiticcharacter.Wehaveseenit,asageneraltendencyoftheGreekmind,clingingtotheverytextureofmythology,accompanyingtheearliestsystematiccompilationoffacts,aidingthehumanisticattacksonphysicalscience,associatedwiththefirstgreatreligiousreaction,operatingasthedialecticofdialecticitself,andfinallyassumingtheformofashadowymorality,inrivalrywithandimitationofethicalsystemsbasedonapositiveandsubstantialdoctrine.WehavenowtotraceitsmetamorphosisintoacriticalsystemextendingitsramificationsinparallelismwiththeimmensedogmaticstructureofStoicism,andsimultaneouslyendeavouringtoreachthesamepracticalresultsbyamoreelasticadaptation144totheinfirmitiesofhumanreasonandtheuncertaintiesofsensibleexperience.Assuch,weshallalsohavetostudyitsinfluenceoverthemostplasticofRomanintellects,thegreatoratorinwhosewritingsGreekphilosophywasreclothedwithsomethingofitsancientcharm,sothatmanywhoweredebarredfromadmissiontothegrovesandporticoesofAthenshavecaughtanechoofthehighdebateswhichoncestirredtheirrecesses,astheytrodtheshadyslopesofTusculumunderhisvisionaryguidance,orfollowedhissearchingeyesoverthebluewaterstoPompeii,whilehereasonedonmindanditsobject,onsenseandknowledge,ondoubtandcertainty,withLucullusandHortensius,onthesunlightBaianshore.ItisthehistoryoftheNewAcademythatweshallnowproceedtotrace.

Whenthepowerandvalueoftheseprimitivespeculationscannolongerbedenied,theiroriginalityissometimesquestionedbythesystematicdetractorsofeverythingHellenic.Thalesandtherest,wearetold,simplyborrowedtheirtheorieswithoutacknowledgmentfromastorehouseofOrientalwisdomonwhichtheGreeksaresupposedtohavedrawnasfreelyasColeridgedrewonGermanphilosophy.SometimeseachsystemisaffiliatedtooneofthegreatAsiaticreligions;sometimestheyarealltracedbacktotheschoolsofHindostan.Itisnaturalthatnotwocriticsshouldagree,whentherivalexplanationsarebasedonnothingstrongerthansuperficialanalogiesandaccidentalcoincidences.Dr.Zellerinhiswonderfullylearned,clear,andsagaciousworkonGreekphilosophy,hascarefullysiftedsomeofthehypothesesreferredto,andshownhowdestitutetheyareofinternalorexternalevidence,andhowutterlytheyfailtoaccountforthefacts.Theoldestandbestauthorities,PlatoandAristotle,knewnothingaboutsuchaderivationofGreekthoughtfromEasternsources.Isocratesdoes,indeed,mentionthatPythagorasborrowedhisphilosophy7fromEgypt,butIsocratesdidnotevenpretendtobeatruthfulnarrator.NoGreekoftheearlyperiodexceptthoseregularlydomiciledinSusaseemstohavebeenacquaintedwithanylanguagebuthisown.FewtravelledveryfarintoAsia,andofthosefew,onlyoneortwowerephilosophers.Democritus,whovisitedmoreforeigncountriesthananymanofhistime,speaksonlyofhavingdiscussedmathematicalproblemswiththewisemenwhomheencountered;andeveninmathematicshewasatleasttheirequal.9ItwaspreciselyatthegreatestdistancefromAsia,inItalyandSicily,thatthesystemsarosewhichseemtohavemostanalogywithAsiaticmodesofthought.CanwesupposethatthetradersofthosetimeswereinanywayqualifiedtotransportthespeculationsofConfuciusandtheVedastosuchadistancefromtheirnativehomes?WithfarbetterreasonmightoneexpectaGermanmerchanttocarryaknowledgeofKant鈥 檚philosophyfromK?nigsbergtoCanton.ButamoreconvincingargumentthananyistoshowthatGreekphilosophyinitshistoricalevolutionexhibitsaperfectlynaturalandspontaneousprogressfromsimplertomorecomplexforms,andthatsystemgrewoutofsystembyastrictlylogicalprocessofextension,analysis,andcombination.Thisiswhat,chieflyundertheguidanceofZeller,weshallnowattempttodo.

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TheideaofNature,oroftheuniverse,orofhumanhistoryasawhole鈥 攂utforitsevilassociationswithfanaticismandsuperstition,weshouldgladlysaythebeliefinGod鈥 攊sonetheethicalvalueofwhichcanbemoreeasilyfeltthananalysed.WedonotagreewiththemostbrilliantoftheEnglishPositivistsinrestrictingitsinfluencetotheaestheticemotions.106Theelevatinginfluenceoftheseshouldbefully51recognised;buttheplaceduetomoreseverelyintellectualpursuitsinmoraltrainingisgreaterfar.Whateverstudiestendtowithdrawusfromthepettycircleofourpersonalinterestsandpleasures,areindirectlyfavourabletothepreponderanceofsocialoverselfishimpulses;andtheservicethusrenderedisamplyrepaid,sincetheseverystudiesnecessitatefortheircontinuancealargeexpenditureofmoralenergy.Itmightevenbecontendedthattheinfluenceofspeculationonpracticeisdeterminedbythepreviousinfluenceofpracticeonspeculation.Physicallawsactasanarmaturetothelawofduty,extendingandperpetuatingitsgrasponthemindsofmen;butitwasthroughthemagnetismofdutythattheirconfusedcurrentswerefirstdrawnintoparallelismandharmonywithitsattraction.Wehavejustseenhow,fromthispointofview,theinterpretationofevolutionbyconsciencemightbesubstitutedfortheinterpretationofconsciencebyevolution.Yetthosewhobasemoralityonreligion,orgivefaithprecedenceoverworks,havediscernedwithasurethoughdiminstinctthedependenceofnobleandfar-sightedactiononsomeparamountintellectualinitiativeandcontrol;inotherwords,thehighestethicalidealsareconditionedbythehighestphilosophicalgeneralisations.BeforetheGreekscouldthinkofeachmanasacitizenoftheworld,andasboundtoallotherrationalbeingsbyvirtueofacommonoriginandacommonabode,itwasfirstnecessarythattheyshouldthinkoftheworlditselfasanorderlyandcomprehensivewhole.Andwhatwasonceacreative,stillcontinuestoworkasaneducatingforce.Ouraspirationstowardsagreementwithourselvesandwithhumanityasawholearestrengthenedbythecontemplationofthatsupremeunitywhich,evenifitbebuttheglorifiedreflectionofourindividualorgenericidentity,stillremainstheideainandthroughwhichthoselesserunitieswerefirstcompletelyrealised鈥 攖heideawhichhasoriginatedallman鈥 檚mostfruitfulfaiths,andwillatlastabsorbthemall.Meanwhileourhighestdevotioncanhardlyfindmorefitting52utterancethanintheprayerwhichoncerosetoaStoic鈥 檚lips:鈥

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