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sWhMJ-news 发布时间: 2020-07-11 11:43:45

“pk103位号【HECM】”NAPOLEONBUONAPARTE,LIEUTENANTOFARTILLERY.

[Seelargerversion]TheDukewithdrewmuchdissatisfiedwiththeturnaffairshadtaken,anddistrustfuloftheissue.InapartinginterviewwiththeEmperorofRussia,thelatterspokeatlengthinstrongdisapprobationoftherefusalofEnglandtoco-operateinputtingdownrevolution,andsaid,inconclusion,thatRussiawaspreparedforeveryeventuality."Shewasable,withthesupportofAustriaandPrussia,tocrushrevolutionbothinFranceandSpain;and,ifthenecessityshouldarise,shewasdeterminedtodoso."TheDukeheardhisImperialMajestytoanend,andthenventuredtoassurehimthattheonlythingforwhichGreatBritainpleadedwastherightofnationstosetupwhateverformofgovernmenttheythoughtbest,andtomanagetheirownaffairs,solongastheyallowedothernationstomanagetheirs.NeitherhenortheGovernmentwhichherepresentedwasblindtothemanydefectswhichdisfiguredtheSpanishConstitution;buttheyweresatisfiedthattheywouldberemediedintime.TheEmperorcouldnotgainsaythejusticeoftheseremarks,butneitherwashewillingtobepersuadedbythem;so,afterexpressinghimselfwellpleasedwiththesettlementoftheTurkishquestionwhichhadbeeneffected,heembracedtheDuke,andtheyparted.

LouisXVIII.,havingraisedanarmyofthirtythousandmen,thoughtthathecouldprotecthimself,andwasanxiousthatFrancemightbesparedtheexpenseofsupportingtheonehundredandfiftythousandmen.Accordingly,one-fifthofthearmywaswithdrawnin1817.InthefollowingyearaCongresswasheld,inthemonthofSeptember,atAix-la-Chapelle,atwhichtheEmperorsofRussiaandAustriaandtheKingofPrussiaattended;onthepartofFrance,theDukeofRichelieu;andofGreatBritain,theDukeofWellingtonandLordCastlereagh,whenitwasdeterminedthatacompleteevacuationofFrancemightandshouldtakeplacebythe20thofNovember,whenthethreeyearsterminated.AtthisCongressitwasdeterminedalsothat,besidesthesevenhundredmillionfrancsforthechargesincurredbytheAlliedarmies,anothersevenhundredmillionsshouldbepaidinindemnificationofdamagestoprivateindividualsinthedifferentcountriesoverrunbyFrance.TheseandotheritemsraisedthetotaltobepaidbyFranceforNapoleon'soutbreakoftheHundredDaystoaboutsixtymillionpoundssterling.

WELFENCASTLE,HANOVER.

Mr.Vansittartintroducedsomefinancialmeasureswhicheffectedamaterialsaving.HeproposedaplanforreducingtheinterestoftheNavyFiveperCents.tofourpercent.HoldersnotsignifyingtheirdissentweretohaveonehundredandfivepoundsinaNewFourperCent.stock,andpersonsdissentingweretobepaidoffinnumericalorder.Bythisschemeanannualsavingtothepublicofonemilliononehundredandfortythousandpoundswouldbeeffected;besidesafurthersavingofupwardsofninetythousandpoundsofannualcharge,whichwouldbegainedbysimilarreductionoftheIrishFiveperCents.Thehighpricesofthepublicfundsobviatedalldifficultyintheexecutionofthisfinancialoperation,andtheholdersoftheFiveperCent.stockfounditexpedienttoacquiesceintheMinister'sterms.Thedissentientswereinnumberonlyonethousandsevenhundredandseventy-eight,andthestockheldbythemamountedtotwomillionsixhundredandfifteenthousandninehundredandseventy-eightpounds,notafifteenthpartoftheFiveperCent.capital.Anotheroperationrelatedtowhatwascalled"TheDeadWeightAnnuity."Theamountofmilitaryandnavalpensionsandcivilsupernumerarieswasaboutfivemillionsannually.AccordinglyMr.Vansittartbroughtforwardanamendedschemeforrelievingtheimmediatepressureofthisdeadweightbyextendingitoveralongertermofyearsthanthenaturallivesoftheannuitants.Forthispurposeanannuityoftwomillioneighthundredthousandpoundswasappropriatedoutoftheexistingrevenueforforty-fiveyears,investedintrusteesforthedischargeofthethenpayments,whichforthatyearwereestimatedatfourmillionninehundredthousandpounds,subjecttoayearlydiminutionbydeaths.Itwascomputedthat,accordingtotheordinarydurationofhumanlife,theannuitiesforthelivesofthethenholderswouldbeequaltotheannuityoftwomillioneighthundredthousandpoundsforforty-fiveyears.Thetrusteeswerethereforeempoweredtosellfromtimetotimesuchportionsofthisannuityaswouldprovidethefundsrequiredforthepaymentofthedeadweight,accordingtoacomputationmadeoftheamountwhichwouldprobablybedueineachyear.TheBankofEnglandbecamethecontractorforaportionoftheannuity.Therewasnonoveltyofprincipleintheproject;itwasonlytheoldoneofanticipatingdistantresourcesbythrowingtheburdenoftheexistinggenerationonthenext.Ithadthefurtherdisadvantageofincurringauselessexpenseformanagement;whereastheSinkingFund,amountingatthetimetoaboutfivemillions,mighthavebeenappliedtoexistingexigencies,andarealsavingeffected.

Atthesametime,ourseamen—whoweretherealandproperdefendersofthecountrybutweresomiserablypaidandsoabominablytreatedinmanyways,thattheycouldonlybecompelledintotheservicebytheodiousoperationofpressgangs—nowburstforthintomutiny.Theircomplaintsandresistancecompelledasmalladvanceandimprovement.Nonesincethenhadtakenplace.Thisadvanceofwagesdidnotamounttomorethaneightpence-halfpennyadaytoableseamenandsevenpencetoordinaryseamen.Andthelowpaywasbutthesmallestpartofthecomplaintofthesebravemen.Theycomplainedthatamostunfairsystemofprize-moneyhadprevailed,bywhichtheadmiralsandchiefofficerssweptoffmostofthemoneyandleftlittleornothingtothepettyofficersandthemen;thattheirtreatmentonboardwasbarbarous,unfeeling,anddegrading;thattheirprovisionswereofthevilestdescription,beingthedirectconsequenceofthecontractswithvillainouspurveyors,throughequallyrascallyNavyCommissioners,sothat,infact,theywereservedwithsuchsaltbeef,saltpork,andbiscuitasnodogwouldtouch.Nordidtheirlistofgrievancesonlytoorealendhere.InsteadofGovernmentpayingthepursersdirectsalaries,theywerepaidbydeductingtwoouncesfromeverypoundofprovisionsservedouttothemen.Thus,insteadofsixteenouncestothepound,theyreceivedonlyfourteenounces;andthesameruleappliedtothemeasurementofliquids—beerandgrog—servedouttothem.Thingshadcometosuchapassfromthesecauses,andtheneglectoftheircomplaintwassopersevering,thatthewholefleetdeterminedonamutiny.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主YDuwG

    DuringthisyearlittlewasdoneinAmerica.GeneralBradstreetdefeatedabodyoftheenemyontheRiverOnondaga,and,ontheotherhand,theFrenchtookthetwosmallfortsofOntarioandOswego.

     

  • 雪灵芝EMPLC

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  • 但法国qnUzK

    "TheClareelectionsuppliedthemanifestproofofanabnormalandunhealthyconditionofthepublicmindinIreland—themanifestproofthatthesenseofacommongrievanceandthesympathiesofacommoninterestwerebeginningtoloosenthetieswhichconnectdifferentclassesofmeninfriendlyrelationstoeachother,toweakentheforceoflocalandpersonalattachments,andtounitethescatteredelementsofsocietyintoahomogeneousanddisciplinedmass,yieldingwillingobediencetotheassumedauthorityofsuperiorintelligencehostiletothelawandtotheGovernmentwhichadministeredit.Thereisawidedistinction(thoughitisnotwillinglyrecognisedbyaheatedparty)betweenthehastyconcessiontounprincipledagitationandprovidentprecautionagainsttheexplosionofpublicfeelinggraduallyacquiringthestrengthwhichmakesitirresistible.'Concedenothingtoagitation,'isthereadycryofthosewhoarenotresponsible—thevigourofwhosedecisionsisoftenproportionatetotheirownpersonalimmunityfromdanger,andimperfectknowledgeofthetruestateofaffairs.AprudentMinister,beforehedeterminesagainstallconcession—againstanyyieldingorcompromiseofformeropinions—mustwellconsiderwhatitisthathehastoresist,andwhatarehispowersofresistance.Histaskwouldbeaneasyoneifitweresufficienttoresolvethathewouldyieldnothingtoviolenceortothemenaceofphysicalforce.InthiscaseoftheClareelection,andofitsnaturalconsequences,whatwastheeviltobeapprehended?Notforce,notviolence,notanyactofwhichlawcouldtakecognisance.Therealdangerwasinthepeaceableandlegitimateexerciseofafranchiseaccordingtothewillandconscienceoftheholder.Insuchanexerciseofthatfranchise,notmerelypermitted,butencouragedandapprovedbyconstitutionallaw,wasinvolvedarevolutionoftheelectoralsysteminIreland—thetransferofpoliticalpower,sofarasitwasconnectedwithrepresentation,fromonepartytoanother.Theactualtransferwastheleastoftheevil;theprocessbywhichitwastobeeffected—therepetitionineachcountyofthescenesoftheClareelection—thefifty-poundfree-holders,thegentrytoamanpollingoneway,theiralienatedtenantryanother—allthegreatinterestsofthecountybrokendown—'theuniversaldesertion'(IamquotingtheexpressionsofMr.Fitzgerald)—theagitatorandthepriestlaughingtoscornthebaffledlandlord—thelocalheavingandthroesofsocietyoneverycasualvacancyinacounty—theuniversalconvulsionatageneralelection—thiswasthedangertobeapprehended;thoseweretheevilstoberesisted.Whatwasthepowerofresistance?'Alterthelaw,andremodelthefranchise,'wastheready,theimprovidentresponse.Ifithadbeendesiredtoincreasethestrengthofaformidableconfederacy,and,byrallyingrounditthesympathiesofgoodmenandofpowerfulpartiesinGreatBritain,toinsureforitasignaltriumph,toextinguishthehopeofeffectinganamicableadjustmentoftheCatholicquestion,andofapplyingacorrectivetotherealevilsandabusesofelectivefranchise,thebestwaytoattaintheseperniciousendswouldhavebeentoproposetoParliament,onthepartoftheGovernment,theabruptextinctionoftheforty-shillingfranchiseinIreland,togetherwiththecontinuedmaintenanceofcivildisability."

     AstillmoresignalvictorywaswonbyAdmiralDuncanintheautumn.Onthe11thofOctober,theAdmiral,whohadbeenwatchingtheDutchfleetintheTexel,foundthatduringastormithadstolenout,andwasonitswaytojointheFrenchfleetatBrest.Therewereelevensailoftheline,andfourfifty-sixgunships,commandedbyAdmiraldeWinter.Duncanhadsixteensailoftheline.Notwithstandingoursuperiorityofnumbers,theDutchfoughtwiththeiraccustomedvalour,butDuncanranhisshipsbetweenthemandthedangerouscoast,topreventtheirregainingtheTexel,andsobatteredthemthattheywerecompelledtostrike.Eightsailoftheline,twofifty-sixgunships,andtwofrigatesremainedinourhands;buttheDutchhadstooditoutsostoutly,thatthevesselswerefewofthemcapableofbeingagainmadeserviceable.Thelossinkilledandwoundedonbothsideswasgreat.DuncanwaselevatedtothepeerageforthisvictoryofCamperdown,andthedangerofimmediateinvasionwasatanend.

  • 大笨蛋G8SbQ

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  • 绿卡纸5uo1t

    Onthe24thofApril,accordingly,thekingproposed,inaspeechfromthethrone,themeasuretotheHousesinthesewords.BothHousessentaddressesofaffection,andthebillwasintroducedintotheHouseofLords;anditwastherecontendedthatitwastoovague,nopersonbeingdirectlynamed,exceptthequeen.Toremedythisthekingsentanewmessage,namingthefiveprincesoftheroyalhouse,withthepowerofnominatingothersinthecaseofthedeathsofanyofthem.Still,onthesecondreading,LordLytteltondeclaredthatthisleftitperfectlyuncertainwhowouldbecomeregent;andhemovedanaddresstothekingtonamewhichoneofthepersonsspecifiedhewouldnominateasregent.ButheretheDukeofRichmondasked,whetherthequeenwerenaturalised;andifnot,whethershewerecapableofactingasregent.Heasked,also,whowere,strictlyspeaking,theroyalfamily?TheEarlofDenbighreplied,"Allwhowereprayedfor;"buttheDukeofBedfordcontendedthatthoseonlyintheorderofsuccessionconstitutedtheroyalfamily.ThiswentatoncetoexcludethePrincessDowagerofWales,theking'smother;andHalifax,Bedford'scolleague,agreedwithhim.Amidstallthisconfusion,LordHalifaxhastenedawaytotheking,andadvisedhimtohavethenameofhismotheromitted,lesttheLordsshouldstrikeitout,andthusmakeitappearapublicinsult.Thepoorbewilderedking,takenbysurprise,said,"Iwillconsent,ifitwillsatisfymypeople."

     ButMinistersweretoosensibleoftheunconstitutionalcharacteroftheirdeedstorestsatisfiedwiththemerejustificationofanacceptedreport.ABillofIndemnitywasintroducedtocover"allpersonswhohadin1817takenanypartinapprehending,imprisoning,ordetainingincustodypersonssuspectedofhightreason,ortreasonablepractices,andinthesuppressionoftumultuousandunlawfulassemblies."ThusMinisterswereshieldedundergeneralterms,andtoavoidallappearanceofpersonalmovementinthismatterbythoseintheCabinetthemostimmediatelyactive,theBillwasintroducedbytheDukeofMontrose,theMasteroftheHorse.

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