致敬坚守岗位的铁路人

6nqCe-news 发布时间: 2020-07-12 01:44:48

“腾讯分分彩计划真的假的”OnAlexander’sdeparturefortheEast,AristotlereturnedtoAthens,wherehenowplacedhimselfattheheadofanewphilosophicalschool.Theensuingperiodofthirteenyears288wasfullyoccupiedbythedeliveryofpubliclectures,andbythecompositionofthoseencyclopaedicwritingswhichwillpreservehismemoryforever,along,perhaps,withmanyotherswhichhavenotsurvived.LikeAnaxagoras,hewasnotallowedtoendhisdaysinthecityofhisadoption.HisyouthfulattacksonIsocrateshadprobablymadehimmanyenemiesamongthatrhetor’spupils.ItissupposedbyGrote,butwarmlydisputedbyZeller,thathistrenchantcriticismsonPlatohadexcitedasimilaranimosityamongthesectariesoftheAcademy.178Anyhow,circumstanceshadunavoidablyassociatedhimwiththedetestedMacedonianparty,althoughhisposition,asametic,orresidentalien,debarredhimfromtakinganyactivepartinpolitics.WithAlexander’sdeaththestormbrokeloose.AchargewastrumpedupagainstAristotle,onthestrengthofhisunluckypoeminhonourofHermeias,whichwasdescribedasaninsulttoreligion.ThatsuchanaccusationshouldbechosenischaracteristicofAthenianbigotry,evenshouldtherebenotruthinthestorythatcertainphilosophicalopinionsofhiswerelikewisesingledoutforprosecution.Beforethecasecameonfortrial,Aristotleavailedhimselfoftheusualprivilegeallowedonsuchoccasions,andwithdrewtoChalcis,inorder,ashesaid,thattheAtheniansneednotsinasecondtimeagainstphilosophy.Buthisconstitution,naturallyafeebleone,wasnearlywornout.Ayearafterwardshesuccumbedtoastomachcomplaint,aggravated,ifnotproduced,byincessantmentalapplication.Hiscontemporary,Demosthenes,perishedaboutthesametime,andatthesameage,sixty-two.Withinlittlemorethanatwelvemonththeworldhadlostitsthreegreatestmen;andafterthreecenturiesofuninterruptedglory,Hellaswasleftunrepresentedbyasingleindividualofcommandinggenius.

Itis,afterall,veryquestionablewhetherhumanhappinesswouldbeincreasedbysuppressingthethoughtofdeathassomethingtobefeared.GeorgeEliot,inherLegendofJubal,certainlyexpressesthecontraryopinion.180Thefinestedgeofenjoymentwouldbetakenoffifweforgotitsessentiallytransitorycharacter.Thefreemanmay,inSpinoza’swords,thinkofnothinglessthanofdeath;buthecannotpreventthesunkenshadowfromthrowingallhisthoughtsoflifeintohigherandmoreluminousrelief.Theidealenjoymentaffordedbyliteraturewouldlosemuchofitszestwerewetodiscardallsympathywiththefearsandsorrowsonwhichourmortalconditionhasenableditsolargelytodraw—thelacrimaererum,whichLucretiushimselfhasturnedtosuchadmirableaccount.Andthewholetreasureofhappinessduetomutualaffectionmustgainbyourremembrancethatthetimegrantedforitsexerciseisalwayslimited,andmayatanymomentbebroughttoanend—orrather,suchan94effectmightbelookedforwerethisremembrancemoreconstantlypresenttoourminds.

ToexplainhowtheNouscouldbeidenticalwithanumberofdistinctideaswasadifficultproblem.WeshallhavetoshowatamoreadvancedstageofourexpositionhowPlotinusendeavouredtosolveitwiththehelpofPlato’sSophist.Intheessaywherehistheoryisfirstputforward,hecutstheknotbyassertingthateachideavirtuallycontainseveryother,whileeachinitsactualandseparateexistenceis,sotospeak,anindependentNous.Butcorrelationisnotidentity;andtosaythateachideathinksitselfisnottoexplainhowthesamesubjectcanthink,andinthinkingbeidenticalwithall.Thepersonalidentityofthethinkingsubjectstillstandsinunreconciledoppositiontothemultitudeofthoughtswhichitentertains,whethersuccessivelyorinasingleintuition.Oftwothingsone:eithertheunityoftheNousorthediversityofitsideasmustbesacrificed.Plotinusevadesthealternativebyakindofthree-cardtrick.Sometimeshisidealunityistobefoundunderthenotionofconvergencetoacommoncentre,sometimesunderthenotionofparticipationinacommonproperty,sometimesunderthenotionofmutualequivalence.

Asaresultoftheforegoingcriticism,Aristotledistinguishesfourdifferentcausesorprinciplesbywhichallthingsaredeterminedtobewhattheyare—Matter,Form,Agent,andPurpose.226If,forexample,wetakeasaw,thematterissteel;theform,atoothedblade;theagentorcauseofitsassumingthatshape,asmith;thepurpose,todividewoodorstone.Whenwehaveenumeratedthesefourprinciples,wehavetoldeverythingthatcanbeknownaboutasaw.ButAristotlecouldnotkeepthelastthreeseparate;hegraduallyextendedthedefinitionofformuntilitabsorbed,orbecameidentifiedwith,agentandpurpose.227Itwaswhatweshouldcalltheideaoffunctionthatfacilitatedthetransition.Iftheveryessenceornatureofasawimpliesuse,activity,movement,howcanwedefineitwithouttellingitspurpose?Thetoothedbladeisonlyintelligibleasacutting,dividinginstrument.Again,howcamethesawintobeing?Whatshapedthesteelintothatparticularform?Wehavesaidthatitwasthesmith.Butsurelythatistoovague.Thesmithisaman,andmaybeabletoexerciseothertradesaswell.Supposehimtobeamusician,didhemakethesawinthatcapacity?No;andherecomesinadistinctionwhichplaysanimmensepartinAristotle’smetaphysics,whenceithaspassedintoourevery-dayspeech.Hedoesnotmakethesawquamusicianbutquasmith.Hecan,however,intheexerciseofhistradeassmithmakemanyothertools—knives,axes,andsoforth.Nevertheless,hadheonlylearnedtomakesawsitwouldbeenough.Therefore,hedoesnotmake335thesawquaaxe-maker,hemakesitquasaw-maker.Nor,again,doeshemakeitwithhiswholemindandbody,butonlywithjustthosethoughtsandmovementsrequiredtogivethesteelthatparticularshape.Now,whatarethesethoughtsbuttheideaofasawpresentinhismindandpassingthroughhiseyesandhands,tillitfixesitselfonthesteel?Theimmaterialformofasawcreatestherealsawwhichweuse.Letusapplytheprecedinganalogiestoanaturalobject;forexample,aman.WhatistheForm,thedefinitionofaman?Notabeingpossessingacertainoutwardshape,forthenamarblestatuewouldbeaman,whichitisnot;noryetacertainassemblageoforgans,forthenacorpsewouldbeaman,which,accordingtoAristotle,criticisingDemocritus,itisnot;butaliving,feeling,andreasoningbeing,theendofwhoseexistenceistofulfilallthefunctionsinvolvedinthisdefinition.So,also,thecreativecauseofamanisanotherman,whodirectlyimpressesthehumanformonthematerialsuppliedbythefemaleorganism.Inthesameway,everydefiniteindividualaggregatebecomeswhatitisthroughtheagencyofanotherindividualrepresentingthesametypeinitsperfectmanifestation.228

Aftereliminatingallthesourcesofmiseryduetofollyandvice,Epicurushadstilltodealwithwhat,inhisopinion,werethemostformidableobstaclestohumanhappiness,dreadofthedivineangeranddreadofdeath,eitherinitself,orastheentranceonanotherlife.Tomeetthese,hecompiled,forwecanhardlysayconstructed,anelaboratesystemofphysicalphilosophy,havingforitsobjecttoshowthatNatureisentirelygovernedbymechanicalcauses,andthatthesoulperisheswiththebody.Wehavealreadymentionedthatforscienceassuchandapartfromitsethicalapplicationsheneithercarednorpretendedtocareintheleast.Itseems,therefore,rathersurprisingthathecouldnotmanage,liketheScepticsbeforehim,togetridofsupernaturalismbyasomewhatmoreexpeditiousmethod.Theexplanationseemstobethattogivesomeaccountofnaturalphenomenahadbecome,inhistime,anecessityforeveryoneaspiringtofoundaphilosophicalsystem.AbrilliantexamplehadbeensetbyPlatoandAristotle,ofwhomtheformer,too,hadapparentlyyieldedtothepopulardemandratherthanfollowedthebentofhisowngenius,inturningasidefromethicstophysics;andZenohadsimilarlyincludedthewholeofknowledgeinhisteaching.TheoldGreekcuriosityrespectingthecausesofthingswasstillalive;andasimilarcuriositywasdoubtlessawakeningamongthosepopulationstowhomGreekcivilisationhadbeencarriedbycolonisation,commerce,andconquest.Now,thosescientificspeculationsarealwaysthe76mostpopularwhichcanbeshowntohavesomebearingonreligiousbelief,eitherinthewayofconfirmationorofopposition,accordingasfaithordoubthappenstobemostintheascendent.Fiftyyearsago,amongourselves,noworkonnaturalphilosophycouldhopeforalargecirculationunlessitwasfilledwithteleologicalapplications.Atpresent,liberalopinionsaregainingground;andthosetreatisesaremosteagerlystudiedwhichtendtoprovethateverythinginNaturecanbebestexplainedthroughtheagencyofmechanicalcausation.Atneitherperiodisitthefactsthemselveswhichhaveexcitedmostattention,buttheirpossiblebearingonourowninterests.AmongthecontemporariesofEpicurus,thetwocurrentsofthoughtthatinmorerecenttimeshaveenjoyedanalternatetriumph,seemtohaveco-existedasforcesofaboutequalstrength.Theoldsuperstitionswererejectedbyallthinkingmen;andtheonlyquestionwasbywhatnewfaiththeyshouldbereplaced.Poetsandphilosophershadalikelabouredtobringaboutareligiousreformationbyexhibitingthepopularmythologyinitsgrotesquedeformity,andbyconstructingsystemsinwhichpuremonotheismwasmoreorlessdistinctlyproclaimed.Butitsuitedthepurpose,perhapsitgratifiedthevanityofEpicurustotalkasiftheworkofdeliverancestillremainedtobedone,asifmenwerestillgroaningundertheincubusofsuperstitionswhichhealonecouldteachthemtoshakeoff.Heseems,indeed,tohaveconfoundedtheoldandthenewfaithsunderacommonopprobrium,andtohaveassumedthatthepopularreligionwasmainlysupportedbyStoicarguments,orthattheStoicoptimismwasnotlessproductiveofsuperstitiousterrorsthanthegloomypolytheismwhichitwasdesignedtosupersede.152

Again,tosupposethatthesoulsharesinthechangesofthebodyisincompatiblewiththeself-identitywhichmemoryreveals.Tosupposethatitisanextendedsubstanceisincompatiblewithitssimultaneouspresence,asanindivisiblewhole,ateverypointtowhichitsactivityreaches;aswellaswiththecircumstancethatalloursensations,thoughreceivedthroughdifferentorgans,arereferredtoacommoncentreofconsciousness.Ifthesensoriumisafluidbodyitwillhavenomorepowerofretainingimpressionsthanwater;295while,ifitisasolid,newimpressionswilleithernotbereceivedatall,oronlywhentheoldimpressionsareeffaced.

X.Here,then,wefind,chieflyamongtherusticpopulation,areligionintimatelyassociatedwithmorality,andincludingthedoctrineofretributionafterdeath.Butthissimplefaith,thoughwelladaptedtothefewwantsofitsoriginalvotaries,couldnotberaisedtotheutmostexpansionandpurityofwhichitwassusceptiblewithoutbeingbroughtintovivifyingcontactwiththatotherOlympianreligionwhich,aswehaveseen,belongedmorepeculiarlytotherulingaristocracy.Thepoormaybemoremoralthantherich,andthecountrythanthetown;neverthelessitisfromdwellersincities,andfromthehigherclasses,includingastheydoalargepercentageofeducated,open-mindedindividuals,thattheimpulsestomoralprogressalwaysproceed.Ifthenarrownessandhardnessofprimitivesocialarrangementswereovercome;ifjusticewasdisengagedfromthetiesofblood-relationship,andtemperedwithconsiderationforinevitableerror;ifdeadlyfeudswereterminatedbyahabitualappealtoarbitration;iftheworshipofonesupremeidealwassubstitutedforablindsympathywiththeebbandflowoflifeonearth;ifthenumericalstrengthofstateswasincreasedbygivingsheltertofugitives;ifaHellenicnationwascreatedandheldtogetherbyacommonliteratureandacommoncivilisation,byoraclesaccessibletoall,andbyperiodicalgamesinwhicheveryfree-bornGreekcouldtakepart;and,lastly,ifabrighterabodethantheslumberousgardenofPersephonêwasassignedafterdeathtothegodlikeheroeswhohadcomeforthfromathricerepeatedordealwithsoulsunstainedbysin;55—allthiswasduetothemilitaryratherthantotheindustrialclasses,tothespiritthatbreathesthroughHomer69ratherthantothetamerinspirationofHesiod’smuse.ButifjusticewasraisedtoanOlympianthrone;ifrighteousprovidence,nolessthancreativepower,becameaninalienableattributeofZeus;iflyricpoetry,fromArchilochustoSimonidesandPindar,isonelonghymnofprayerandpraiseeverturnedupwardinadoringlovetotheDivine;wemustrememberthatThemiswasasynonymeforEarth,andthatPrometheus,theoriginalfriendofhumanity,forwhosebenefitheinventedeveryusefulart,auguryincluded,washerson.TheseedsofimmortalhopewerefirstplantedinthefructifyingbosomofDêmêtêr,andlife,aforsakenAriadnê,tookrefugeinthemysticalembracesofDionysusfromthememoryofapromisethathadalluredhertobetray.Thus,wemayconjecturethatbetweenhallandfarm-house,betweentheOlympianandtheChthonianreligions,therewasaconstantreactiongoingon,duringwhichethicalideaswerecontinuallyexpanding,andextricatingthemselvesfromthesuperstitiouselementsassociatedwiththeirearliesttheologicalexpression.

文章推荐:

毕节百里杜鹃:村道建设打通产业“脉搏”

广元旺苍:“三会一课”让党的组织生活“活力迸发”

成都青羊区城管6月1日—15日坚持24小时上班 为考生护航

淡季不淡,寒冬不寒 贵州冬季旅游优惠暖人心

2013贵州打击制假贩假专项治理

成都市成华区召开天府旅游名县创建工作专题推进会

贵州:创新不动产登记服务方式 全力保障企事业复工复产

网友评论

  • 雨花郡主v8Oak

    Ontheotherhand,ifStoicismdidnotmakemenpitiful,itmadetheminfinitelyforgiving.Variouscausesconspiredtobringaboutthisresult.Ifallaresinners,andifallsinsareequal,noonehasaright,underpretenceofsuperiorvirtue,tocastastoneathisfellows.SuchisthepointofviewinsistedonwithespecialemphasisbySeneca,who,moreperhapsthanotherphilosophers,hadreasontobeconscioushowfarhispracticefellshortofhisprofessions.94But,speakinggenerally,pridewastheverylastfaultwithwhichtheStoicscouldbecharged.Bothinancientandmoderntimes,satiristshavebeenpronetoassumethateverydiscipleofthePorch,indescribinghisidealofawiseman,wasactuallydescribinghimself.Nomisconceptioncouldbemorecomplete.Itislikesupposingthat,becauseChristcommandedhisfollowerstobeperfectevenastheirheavenlyFatherisperfect,everyChristianforthatreasonthinkshimselfequal43toGod.ThewisemanoftheStoicshad,bytheirownacknowledgment,neverbeenrealisedatall;hehadonlybeenapproachedbythreecharacters,Socrates,Antisthenes,andDiogenes.95‘Maythesagefallinlove?’askedayoungmanofPanaetius.‘Whatthesagemaydo,’repliedthemaster,‘isaquestiontobeconsideredatsomefuturetime.Meanwhile,youandI,whoareveryfarfrombeingsages,hadbettertakecarenottoletourselvesbecometheslavesofadegradingpassion.’96

     WeperceiveapreciselysimilarchangeoftoneoncomparingthetwogreathistorianswhohaverespectivelyrecordedthestruggleofGreeceagainstPersia,andthestruggleofimperialAthensagainstSpartaandherallies.Thoughbornwithinfifteenyearsofoneanother,HerodotusandThucydidesarevirtuallyseparatedbyanintervaloftwogenerations,forwhilethelatterrepresentsthemostadvancedthoughtofhistime,theformerlivedamongtraditionsinheritedfromtheageprecedinghisown.Now,Herodotusisnotmoreremarkablefortheearnestpietythanfortheclearsenseofjusticewhichrunsthroughhisentirework.Hedrawsnodistinctionbetweenpublicandprivatemorality.Whoevermakeswaronhisneighbourswithoutprovocation,orruleswithouttheconsentofthegoverned,is,accordingtohim,inthewrong,althoughheiswellawarethatsuchwrongsareconstantlycommitted.Thucydidesknowsnothing74ofsupernaturalinterferenceinhumanaffairs.AfterrelatingthetragicalendofNicias,heobserves,notwithoutascepticaltendency,thatofalltheGreeksthenliving,thisunfortunategeneralleastdeservedsuchafate,sofaraspietyandrespectabilityofcharacterwent.Iftherearegodstheyholdtheirpositionbysuperiorstrength.ThatthestrongshouldenslavetheweakisauniversalandnecessarylawofNature.TheSpartans,whoamongthemselvesaremostscrupulousinobservingtraditionalobligations,intheirdealingswithothersmostopenlyidentifygainwithhonour,andexpediencywithright.Evenifthehistorianhimselfdidnotsharetheseopinions,itisevidentthattheywerewidelyentertainedbyhiscontemporaries,andheexpresslyinformsusthatGreekpoliticalmoralityhaddeterioratedtoafrightfulextentinconsequenceofthecivildiscordsfomentedbytheconflictbetweenAthensandSparta;while,inAthensatleast,asimilarcorruptionofprivatemoralityhadbegunwiththegreatplagueof430,itschiefsymptombeingamaddesiretoextracttheutmostpossibleenjoymentfromlife,forwhichpurposeeverymeanswasconsideredlegitimate.OnthispointThucydidesisconfirmedandsupplementedbytheevidenceofanothercontemporaryauthority.AccordingtoAristophanes,theancientdisciplinehadinhistimebecomeverymuchrelaxed.Therichwereidleandextravagant;thepoormutinous;youngmenweregrowingmoreandmoreinsolenttotheirelders;religionwasderided;allclasseswereanimatedbyacommondesiretomakemoneyandtospenditonsensualenjoyment.Only,insteadoftracingbackthisprofounddemoralisationtoachangeinthesocialenvironment,Aristophanesattributesittodemagogues,harassinginformers,andpopularpoets,butabovealltothenewculturethencomingintovogue.Physicalsciencehadbroughtinatheism;dialectictraininghaddestroyedthesanctityofethicalrestraints.When,however,thereligiousandvirtuousSocratesisputforwardasatypeofbothtend75encies,ourconfidenceinthecomicpoet’saccuracy,ifnotinhisgoodfaith,becomesseriouslyshaken;andhiswholetonesovividlyrecallstheanalogousinvectivesnowhurledfrompressandpulpitagainsteveryphilosophictheory,everyscientificdiscovery,everysocialreformatvariancewithtraditionalbeliefsorthreateningthesinisterinterestswhichhavegatheredroundiniquitousinstitutions,thatatfirstwefeeltemptedtofollowGroteinrejectinghistestimonyaltogether.Sofar,however,astheactualphenomenathemselvesareconcerned,andapartfromtheirgeneratingantecedents,Aristophanesdoesbutbringintomorepicturesqueprominencewhatgraverobserversarecontenttoindicate,andwhatPlato,writingagenerationlater,treatsasanunquestionablereality.Noristhefactofaloweredmoraltonegoingalongwithacceleratedmentalactivityeitherincredibleorunparalleled.Modernhistoryknowsofatleasttwoperiodsremarkableforsuchaconjunction,theRenaissanceandtheeighteenthcentury,theformerstainedwitheveryimaginablecrime,thelatterimpurethroughout,andlapsingintoblood-thirstyviolenceatitsclose.Moralprogress,likeeveryothermodeofmotion,hasitsappropriaterhythm—itsepochsofsevererestraintfollowedbyepochsofrebelliouslicense.Andwhen,asanaggravationofthereactionfromwhichtheyperiodicallysuffer,ethicalprincipleshavebecomeassociatedwithamythologywhosedecay,atfirstretarded,isfinallyhastenedbytheiractivity,itisstilleasiertounderstandhowtheymayshareinitsdiscredit,andonlyregaintheirascendencybyallyingthemselveswithapurifiedformoftheoldreligion,untiltheycanbedisentangledfromthecompromisingsupportofallunverifiedtheorieswhatever.WehaveeveryreasontobelievethatGreeklifeandthoughtdidpassthroughsuchacrisisduringthesecondhalfofthefifthcenturyB.C.,andwehavenowtodealwiththespeculativeaspectsofthatcrisis,sofarastheyarerepresentedbytheSophists.

  • 雪灵芝NPqQC

    Asthelastofthesamefamilywhodiedcameandtookhisplace,ageafterage,onthisladder,itfollowedinevitablythattheyallsuccessivelyreachedthedepthofhell.Theholymanwhobeheldthisthing,askedthereasonofthisterribledamnation,andespeciallyhowitwasthattheseigneurwhomhehadknownandwhohadlivedalifeofjusticeandwell-doingshouldbethuspunished.Andheheardavoicesaying,80‘ItisbecauseofcertainlandsbelongingtothechurchofMetz,whichweretakenfromtheblessedStephenbyoneofthisman’sancestors,fromwhomhewasthetenthindescent,andforthiscauseallthesemenhavesinnedbythesameavariceandaresubjectedtothesamepunishmentineternalfire.’157

  • 如萱紫儿ua2Kr

    CHAPTERV.THESPIRITUALISMOFPLOTINUS.

  • 但法国Bd8ke

     

  • 大笨蛋s6IuB

    v

  • 扒皮成xUHIV

     AfterexplainingatconsiderablelengthwhatBeingisnot,Aristotlenowproceedstoascertainwhatitis.Hetellsusthatjustasallnumberquanumbermustbeeitheroddoreven,soallBeingquaBeingmusthavecertainuniversalattributes.Thesehesetshimselftodiscover.WhenDescarteslongafterwardsenteredonasomewhatsimilarinquiry,hefellbackonthefactsofhisownindividualconsciousness.Aristotle,onthecontrary,appealstothecommonconsciousnessofmankindasembodiedinordinarylanguage.Inhowmanysensesdowesaythatathingis?ThefirstansweriscontainedinhisfamousTenCategories.239These342arenotwhatsomehavesupposedthemtobe,summageneraofexistence,butsummageneraofpredication.Inotherwords,theyarenotaclassificationofthings,butoftheinformationwhichitispossibletoreceiveaboutasinglething,moreespeciallyabouttherichestandmostconcretethingknowntous—ahumanbeing.Ifwewanttofindoutallaboutathingweask,Whatisit?Ofwhatsort?Howlarge?Towhatdoesitbelong?Whereandwhencanwefindit?Whatdoesitdo?Whathappenstoit?Andiftheobjectofourinvestigationsbealivingthing,wemayadd,Whatareitshabitsanddispositions?Thequestionhasbeenraised,howAristotlecametothinkofthesetenparticularcategories,andawonderfulamountofrubbishhasbeenwrittenonthesubject,whileapparentlynoscholarcouldseewhatwasstaringhiminthefaceallthetime,thatAristotlegotthembycollectingallthesimpleformsofinterrogationsuppliedbytheGreeklanguage,240andwritingouttheirmostgeneralexpressions.

  • 草莓果akUuy

     Subjecttotheconstraintofmightylaws;

  • 绿卡纸7074h

    WehaveillustratedthepositionofCicerobyreferencetothemasterwho,morethananyotherGreekphilosopher,seemstohavesatisfiedhisidealofperfectwisdom.WemustnowobservethatnothingisbettercalculatedtoshowhowinadequatewastheviewonceuniversallytakenofSocrates,andstill,perhaps,takenbyallwhoarenotscholars,thanthatitshouldbeapplicableinsomanypointstoCiceroaswell.For,whiletheinfluenceoftheoneonhumanthoughtwasthegreatesteverexercisedbyasingleindividual,theinfluenceoftheotherwaslimitedtotheaccelerationofamovementalreadyinfullactivity,andmoreovertendingonthewholeinaretrogradedirection.TheimmeasurablesuperiorityoftheAthenianliesinhisdialecticalmethod.Itwasnotbyamereeliminationofdifferencesthathehopedtoestablishageneralagreement,butbyreasoningdownfromadmittedprinciples,whichwerethemselvestobetheresultofscientificinductionbroughttobearonacomprehensiveandever-wideningareaofexperience.Hencehisscepticism,whichwasdirectedagainstauthority,tendedasmuchtostimulateenquiryasthatoftheRomandeclaimer,whichwasdirectedagainstreason,tendedtodeadenortodepressit.Hence,also,thepoliticalphilosophyofSocrateswasasrevolutionaryasthatofhisimitatorwasconservative.Bothwere,inacertainsense,aristocrats;butwhilethearistocracy176oftheelegantrhetoricianmeantacliqueofindolentandincapablenobles,thatofthesturdycraftsmanmeantabandofhighly-trainedspecialistsmaintainedinpowerbythechoice,theconfidence,andthewillingobedienceofanintelligentpeople.AndwhilethereligionofCicerowasablindrelianceonprovidencesupplementedbypriestcraftinthisworld,withthehope,ifthingscametotheworst,ofasaferetreatfromtroubleinthenext;thereligionofSocrateswasanactiveco-operationwiththeuniversalmind,anattempttomakereasonandthewillofGodprevailonearth,withthehope,iftherewasanyfuturestate,ofcarryingoninittheintellectualwarfarewhichalonehadmadelifeworthlivinghere.Nolessacontrastcouldbeexpectedbetweentheoratorwhoturnedtophilosophyonlyfortheoccupationofaleisurehour,orforrelieffromthepangsofdisappointedambition,andthethinkerwhogaveherhiswholeexistenceastheelectapostleandmartyrofhercreed.

     

标签列表