藏文化交流团访欧洲三国

blyav-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 02:08:23

“体彩七位数复式计算器【注册大礼】”ToappreciatethelaboursofPlotinus,wemust,firstofall,comparehiswholephilosophicmethodwiththatofhispredecessors.Now,Zellerhimselfhasshownquiteclearlythatinreachofthought,inpowerofsynthesis,inaccuracyofreasoning,notoneofthesecanbecomparedtothefounderofNeo-Platonismforasinglemoment.507WemaygostillfurtheranddeclarewithconfidencethatnophilosopherofequalspeculativegeniushadappearedinHellassinceChrysippus,or,verypossibly,sinceAristotle.TheonlygroundfordisputinghisclaimstotakerankwiththegreatmastersofHellenicthoughtseemstobethathissystemculminatesontheobjectivesideinsomethingwhichliesbeyondexistence,andonthesubjectivesideinamysticalecstasywhichisthenegationofreason.Wehaveshown,however,thatiftheOneisrepresentedastranscendingreality,soalsoistheIdeaofGoodwhichcorrespondstoitinPlato’sscheme;andthat343theOneisreachedifnotgraspedbyaprocessofreasoningwhich,althoughunsound,stilloffersitselfasreasoningalone,andmovesincompleteindependenceofanyrevelationorintuitionsuchasthosetowhichthegenuinesystemsofmysticismsofreelyresort.

Thetimearrivedwhenthislastlibertywastobetakenaway.Intheyear529,JustinianissuedhisfamousdecreeprohibitingthepublicteachingofphilosophyinAthens,andconfiscatingtheendowmentsdevotedtothemaintenanceofitsprofessors.Itisprobablethatthismeasureformedpartofacomprehensiveschemeforcompletingtheextirpationofpaganismthroughouttheempire.Forsometwocenturiespast,thetriumphofChristianityhadbeensecuredbyanunsparingexerciseoftheimperialauthority,asthetriumphofCatholicismoverheresywasnexttobesecuredwiththeaidoftheFrankishsword.Afewyearsafterwards,theprincipalrepresentativesoftheNeo-Platonicschool,includingtheDamasciusofwhomwehavealreadyspoken,andSimplicius,361thefamousAristoteliancommentator,repairedtothecourtofKhosruNuschirvan,theKingofPersia,withtheintentionofsettlinginhiscountryfortherestoftheirlives.Theyweresoonheartilysickoftheiradoptedhome.Khosruwasunquestionablyanenlightenedmonarch,greatlyinterestedinHellenicculture,andsincerelydesirousofdiffusingitamonghispeople.ItisalsocertainthatAgathias,ouronlyauthorityonthissubject,wasviolentlyprejudicedagainsthim.Butitmayverywellbe,asstatedbythathistorian530thatKhosrubynomeanscameuptotheexaggeratedexpectationsformedofhimbytheexiledprofessors.HehadbeendescribedtothemastheidealofaPlatonicruler,and,likeinexperiencedbookmen,theyacceptedthereportingoodfaith.Theyfoundthathecaredagreatdealmoreforscientificquestionsaboutthecauseofthetidesandthemodificationssuperinducedonplantsandanimalsbytransferencetoanewenvironment,thanaboutthemetaphysicsoftheOne.531Moreover,theimmoralityofOrientalsocietyandthecorruptionofOrientalgovernmentweresomethingforwhichtheyweretotallyunprepared.Better,theythought,todieatonce,sothatitwerebutonRomansoil,thantoliveonanyconditionsinsuchacountryasPersia.Khosruwasmostunwillingtolosehisguests,butonfindingthattheyweredeterminedtoleavehim,hepermittedthemtodepart,andevenmadeitamatterofexpressstipulationwiththeimperialgovernmentthattheyshouldbeallowedtoliveintheiroldhomeswithoutsufferinganymolestationonaccountoftheirreligiousopinions.532

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WemayalsosuspectthatPlatowasdissatisfiednotonlywiththepositiveresultsobtainedbySocrates,butalsowiththeSocraticmethodofconstructinggeneraldefinitions.Torisefromtheparttothewhole,fromparticularinstancestogeneralnotions,wasapopularratherthanascientificprocess;andsometimesitonlyamountedtotakingthecurrentexplanationsandmodifyingthemtosuittheexigenciesofordinaryexperience.Theresultingdefinitionscouldneverbemorethantentative,andaskilfuldialecticiancouldalwaysupsetthembyproducinganunlooked-forexception,orbydiscoveringanambiguityinthetermsbywhichtheywereconveyed.

Thus,sofaraswaspossibleinsuchalteredcircumstances,didtheRenaissanceofthesecondcenturyreproducethe271intellectualenvironmentfromwhichPlato’sphilosophyhadsprung.Inliterature,therewasthesameattentiontowordsratherthantothings;sometimestakingtheformofexactscholarship,afterthemannerofProdicus;sometimesoflooseandsuperficialdeclamation,afterthemannerofGorgias.TherewasthenaturalismofHippias,elaboratedintoasystembytheStoics,andpractisedasalifebythenewCynics.TherewasthehedonismofAristippus,inculcatedunderadilutedformbytheEpicureans.TherewastheoldIonianmaterialism,professedbyStoicsandEpicureansalike.TherewasthescepticismofProtagoras,revivedbyAenesidêmusandhisfollowers.TherewasthemathematicalmysticismofthePythagoreans,flourishinginEgyptinsteadofinsouthernItaly.TherewasthepurergeometryoftheAlexandrianMuseum,correspondingtotheschoolofCyrênê.Onallsides,therewasamassofvaguemoralpreaching,withoutanyattempttoexhibitthemoraltruthswhichweempiricallyknowaspartofacomprehensivemetaphysicalphilosophy.And,lastly,therewasanimmenseundefinedreligiousmovement,rangingfromtheologieswhichtaughtthespiritualityofGodandofthehumansoul,downtothemostirrationalandabjectsuperstition.Wesawinthelastchapterhow,correspondingtothisenvironment,therewasarevivedPlatonism,thatPlatonismwasinfactthefashionablephilosophyofthatage,justasitafterwardsbecamethefashionablephilosophyofanotherRenaissancethirteencenturieslater.ButitwasaPlatonismwiththebackboneofthesystemtakenout.Plato’sthoughtsallcentredinacarefullyconsideredschemeforthemoralandpoliticalregenerationofsociety.Now,withthedestructionofGreekindependence,andtheabsorptioneverywhereoffreecity-statesintoavastmilitaryempire,itmightseemasiftherealisationofsuchaschemehadbecomealtogetherimpracticable.TheRepublicwas,indeed,atthatmomentrealisingitselfunderaformadaptedtothealteredexigenciesofthetime;butnoPlatonistcouldasyetrecognise272intheChristianChurchevenanapproximatefulfilmentofhismaster’sdream.Failinganypracticalissue,thereremainedthespeculativesideofPlato’steaching.Hiswritingsdidnotembodyacompletesystem,buttheyofferedthematerialswhenceasystemcouldbeframed.Herethechoicelaybetweentwopossiblelinesofconstruction;andeachhad,infact,beenalreadyattemptedbyhisownimmediatedisciples.OnewasthePythagoreanmethodoftheOldAcademy,whatAristotlecontemptuouslycalledtheconversionofphilosophyintomathematics.WesawinthelastchapterhowtherevivedPlatonismofthefirstandsecondcenturiesenteredoncemoreonthesameperilouspath,apathwhichledfartherandfartherawayfromthetrueprinciplesofGreekthought,andofPlatohimselfwhenhisintellectstoodatitshighestpointofsplendour.Neo-Pythagoreanmysticismmeantanunreconcileddualismofspiritandmatter;andastheultimateconsequenceofthatdualism,itmeantthesubstitutionofmagicalincantationsandceremonialobservancesforthestudyofreasonandvirtue.Moreover,itreadilyallieditselfwithOrientalbeliefs,whichmeantanegationofnaturallawthattheGreekscouldhardlytolerate,and,undertheformofGnosticpessimism,abeliefintheinherentdepravityofNaturethattheycouldnottolerateatall.

theraceofmendeliver!

VIII.

Passingfromlifetomind,wefindEmpedoclesteachinganevenmorepronouncedmaterialismthanParmenides,inasmuchasitisstatedinlanguageofsuperiorprecision.Oursoulsare,accordingtohim,madeupofelementslikethosewhichconstitutetheexternalworld,eachofthesebeingperceivedbyacorrespondingportionofthesamesubstanceswithinourselves—firebyfire,waterbywater,andsoonwiththerest.Itisamistaketosupposethatspeculationbeginsfromasubjectivestandpoint,thatmenstartwithaclearconsciousnessoftheirownpersonality,andproceedtoconstructanobjectiveuniverseafterthesamepattern.DoubtlesstheyaretoopronetopersonifytheblindforcesofNature,andEmpedocleshimselfhasjustsupplieduswithanexampleofthistendency,buttheyerrstillmorebyreadingoutwardexperienceintotheirownsouls,bymaterialisingtheprocessesofconsciousness,andresolvinghumanpersonalityintoalooseconfederacyofinorganicunits.EvenPlato,whodidmorethananyoneelsetowardsdistinguishingbetweenmindandbody,endedbylayingdownhispsychologyonthelinesofanastronomicalsystem.Meanwhile,tohaveseparatedtheperceptionofanobjectfromtheobjectitself,ineversoslightadegree,wasanimportantgaintothought.33WemustnotomittonoticeahypothesisbywhichEmpedoclessoughttoelucidatethemechanismofsensation,andwhichwassubsequentlyadoptedbytheatomicschool;indeed,aswillpresentlybeshown,wehavereasontobelievethatthewholeatomictheorywasdevelopedoutofit.Heheldthatemanationswerebeingcontinuallythrownofffromthesurfacesofbodies,andthattheypenetratedintotheorgansofsensethroughfinepassagesorpores.Thismayseemacrudeguess,butitisatanyratemuchmorescientificthanAristotle’sexplanation.Accordingtothelatter,possibilitiesoffeelingareconvertedintoactualitiesbythepresenceofanobject.Inotherwords,wefeelwhenandbecausewedo;asafeassertion,buthardlyanadditiontoourpositiveknowledgeofthesubject.

Twophilosophersonlycanbenamedwho,inmoderntimes,haverivalledorapproachedthemoraldignityofSocrates.Likehim,Spinozarealisedhisownidealofagoodandhappylife.Likehim,GiordanoBruno,withoutahopeoffuturerecompense,chosedeathratherthanalifeunfaithfultothehighesttruth,anddeath,too,underitsmostterribleform,notthepainlessextinctionbyhemlockinflictedinaheathencity,buttheagonisingdissolutionintendedbyCatholiclovetoserveasaforetasteofeverlastingfire.Yetwithneithercantheparallelbeextendedfurther;forSpinoza,wiselyperhaps,refusedtofacethestormswhichapublicprofessionandpropagationofhisdoctrinewouldhaveraised;andthewaywardcareerofGiordanoBrunowasnotinkeepingwithitsheroicend.ThecomplexanddistractingconditionsinwhichtheirlotwascastdidnotpermitthemtoattainthatstatuesquecompletenesswhichmarkedtheclassicageofGreeklifeandthought.Thosetimesdevelopedawilderenergy,amorestubbornendurance,asweeterpuritythananythattheancientworldhadknown.Butuntilthescatteredelementsarerecombinedinastillloftierharmony,oursleeplessthirstforperfectioncanbesatisfiedatonespringalone.Periclesmustremaintheidealofstatesmanship,Pheidiasofartisticproduction,andSocratesofphilosophicpower.

ItistothesecondtheorythatPlotinusevidentlyleans.HowevercloselyhislifemayhavebeenconformedtothePythagoreanmodel—apointwithrespecttowhichwehave306nothingbetterthantheveryprejudicedstatementsofPorphyrytorelyon—thereisnotraceofPythagoreanasceticisminhiswritings.HereafterweshallseehowhostilehewastoGnosticpessimism.Intheprecedingessay,hehadalreadyspecifiedadmirationforphysicalbeautyasafirstandnecessarystepinthesoul’sascenttoacontemplationofspiritualrealities;451andnowitisundertheguidanceofPlato’slaterspeculationsthatheproceedstoaccountforherdescentfromthathigherworldtotherestraintsofmatterandofsense.

Thesimpledreadofdeath,consideredasafinalannihilationofourexistence,remainedtobedealtwith.TherewasnopartofhisphilosophyonwhichEpicuruslaidsomuchstress;heregardeditassettingthesealonthoseconvictions,afirmgraspofwhichwasessentialtothesecurityofhumanhappiness.Nothingelseseemeddifficult,ifoncetheworstenemyofourtranquillityhadbeenovercome.Hisargumentissummedupintheconciseformula:whenweare,deathisnot;whendeathis,wearenot;thereforedeathisnothingtous.175Thepleasuresoflifewillbenoloss,forweshallnotfeelthewantofthem.Thesorrowofourdearestfriendswillbeindifferenttousintheabsenceofallconsciousness90whatever.Totheconsiderationthat,howevercalmlywemayfaceourownannihilation,thelossofthosewhomweloveremainsasterribleasever,Lucretiusrepliesthatweneednotmournforthem,sincetheydonotfeelanypainattheirownextinction.176

ThetruthisthatcriticsseemtohavebeenmisledbyasuperficialanalogybetweenthespiritualisticrevivalaccomplishedbyPlotinus,andtheRomanticrevivalwhichmarkedthebeginningofthepresentcentury.Thetwomovementshave,nodoubt,severaltraitsincommon;butthereisthisgreatdifferencebetweenthem,thatthelatterwas,whattheformerwasnot,areactionagainstindividualism,agnosticism,andreligiousunbelief.Therightanalogywillbefoundnotbylookingforwardbutbylookingback.ItwillthenbeseenthattheNeo-Platonistswerewhattheirtraditionalnameimplies,disciplesofPlato,andnotonlyofPlatobutof194Aristotleaswell.Theystoodinthesamerelationtothesystemswhichtheyopposedasthatinwhichthetwogreatfoundersofspiritualismhadstoodtothenaturalisticandhumanistschoolsoftheirtime—ofcoursewithwhatevermodificationsofacommonstandpointwerenecessitatedbythesubstitutionofadecliningforaprogressivecivilisation.LikePlatoalso,theywereprofoundlyinfluencedbythePythagoreanphilosophy,withitscuriouscombinationofmysticalasceticismandmathematics.And,tocompletetheanalogy,theytoofoundthemselvesinpresenceofapowerfulreligiousreaction,againsttheexcessesofwhich,likehim,theyatfirstprotested,althoughwithlessthanhisauthority,andonly,likehim,tobeatlastcarriedawaybyitsresistlesstorrent.Itistothestudyofthisreligiousmovementthatwemustnowaddressourselves,beforeenteringonanexaminationofthelatestformassumedbyGreekphilosophyamongtheGreeksthemselves.

Whenthepowerandvalueoftheseprimitivespeculationscannolongerbedenied,theiroriginalityissometimesquestionedbythesystematicdetractorsofeverythingHellenic.Thalesandtherest,wearetold,simplyborrowedtheirtheorieswithoutacknowledgmentfromastorehouseofOrientalwisdomonwhichtheGreeksaresupposedtohavedrawnasfreelyasColeridgedrewonGermanphilosophy.SometimeseachsystemisaffiliatedtooneofthegreatAsiaticreligions;sometimestheyarealltracedbacktotheschoolsofHindostan.Itisnaturalthatnotwocriticsshouldagree,whentherivalexplanationsarebasedonnothingstrongerthansuperficialanalogiesandaccidentalcoincidences.Dr.Zellerinhiswonderfullylearned,clear,andsagaciousworkonGreekphilosophy,hascarefullysiftedsomeofthehypothesesreferredto,andshownhowdestitutetheyareofinternalorexternalevidence,andhowutterlytheyfailtoaccountforthefacts.Theoldestandbestauthorities,PlatoandAristotle,knewnothingaboutsuchaderivationofGreekthoughtfromEasternsources.Isocratesdoes,indeed,mentionthatPythagorasborrowedhisphilosophy7fromEgypt,butIsocratesdidnotevenpretendtobeatruthfulnarrator.NoGreekoftheearlyperiodexceptthoseregularlydomiciledinSusaseemstohavebeenacquaintedwithanylanguagebuthisown.FewtravelledveryfarintoAsia,andofthosefew,onlyoneortwowerephilosophers.Democritus,whovisitedmoreforeigncountriesthananymanofhistime,speaksonlyofhavingdiscussedmathematicalproblemswiththewisemenwhomheencountered;andeveninmathematicshewasatleasttheirequal.9ItwaspreciselyatthegreatestdistancefromAsia,inItalyandSicily,thatthesystemsarosewhichseemtohavemostanalogywithAsiaticmodesofthought.CanwesupposethatthetradersofthosetimeswereinanywayqualifiedtotransportthespeculationsofConfuciusandtheVedastosuchadistancefromtheirnativehomes?WithfarbetterreasonmightoneexpectaGermanmerchanttocarryaknowledgeofKant’sphilosophyfromK?nigsbergtoCanton.ButamoreconvincingargumentthananyistoshowthatGreekphilosophyinitshistoricalevolutionexhibitsaperfectlynaturalandspontaneousprogressfromsimplertomorecomplexforms,andthatsystemgrewoutofsystembyastrictlylogicalprocessofextension,analysis,andcombination.Thisiswhat,chieflyundertheguidanceofZeller,weshallnowattempttodo.

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  • 雨花郡主jk92X

    ItseemstousthatHegel,inhisanxietytocrusheveryhistoricalprocessintothenarrowsymmetryofafavouritemetaphysicalformula,hasconfoundedseveralentirelydistinctconceptionsunderthecommonnameofsubjectivity.First,thereistherightofprivatejudgment,theclaimofeachindividualtohaveavoiceintheaffairsoftheState,andtohavethefreemanagementofhisownpersonalconcerns.Butthis,sofarfrombeingmodern,isoneoftheoldestcustomsoftheAryanrace;andperhaps,couldwelookbacktotheoldesthistoryofotherracesnowdespoticallygoverned,weshouldfinditprevailingamongthemalso.Itwasnonewnorunheard-ofprivilegethatRousseauvindicatedforthepeoplesofhisowntime,buttheirancientbirthright,takenfromthembythegrowthofacentralisedmilitarysystem,justasithadbeenformerlytakenfromthecitycommunitiesoftheGraeco-Romanworld.Inthisrespect,Platogoesagainstthewhole248spiritofhiscountry,andnoperiodofitsdevelopment,noteventheageofHomer,wouldhavesatisfiedhim.

     InestimatingtheintellectualcharacterofPlotinus,wemustalsorememberthatthetheoryoftheabsoluteOneoccupiesarelativelysmallplaceinhisspeculations;while,ataroughcomputation,thepurelymysticalportionsofhiswritings—bywhichweunderstandthoseinwhichallusionismadetopersonalandincommunicableexperiencesofhisown315—donotamounttomorethanonepercent.ofthewhole.Ifthesehaveattractedmoreattentionthanalltherestputtogether,thereasonprobablyisthattheyofferanagreeablerelieftothearidscholasticismwhichfillssomuchoftheEnneads,andthattheyaretheonlyveryoriginalcontributionmadebyPlotinustoGreekliterature.Butthesignificanceofawritermustnotalwaysbemeasuredbyhismostoriginalpassages,andthisiseminentlytrueofourphilosopher.HisgreatmeritwastomakethespiritualismofPlatoandAristotlemoreintelligibleandinterestingthanithadbeenbefore,andtofurnishreasonwitharallying-pointwhenitwasthreatenedwithutterdestructionbythereligiousrevivaloftheempire.

  • 雪灵芝It9ao

    Oncecreditedwithacontinuedexistence,thedepartedspiritwouldnotremainintheHadesortheElysiumprovidedforitbythejusticeorthepiety,ofthesurvivor,butpersistedinreturningtothisworldandmanifestingamostuncomfortableinterestinitsaffairs;or,evenifwillingtoremainatrest,itwasliabletobedraggedbackbyincantations,andcompelledtorevealthesecretsoffuturityatthebiddingofanunprincipledmagician.Whatscienceandgoodfeelingcombinedhaveprovedunabletokeepdownamongourselves,naturallyragedwithunmitigatedvirulenceatatimewhentheprimitivebarbarismandsuperstitionwereonlycoveredoverbyacrustofculturewhichatmanypointswasgrowingthinnereveryday.AmongLatinwriters,theyoungerPliny,Suetonius,andApuleius,amongGreekwriters,Plutarch,Pausanias,MaximusTyrius,Philostratus,andDionCassius,affordunequivocalevidenceoftheirbeliefandthebeliefoftheircontemporariesinghostlyapparitions;andLucian,whilerejectingghost-storiesonhisownaccount,speaksasiftheywereimplicitlyacceptedeveninphilosophicalcircles.372Stillmoreabundantistheevidenceprovingthefrequencyofattemptsmadetoevokespiritsbymeansofmagicalincantations.Horace’sCanidiaboaststhatshecanraisethedeadevenaftertheirbodieshavebeenburned.373Lucandescribestheprocessofconjuringupaghostatlength;anditisthoughtthatheinsertedthewholesceneinhispoemasasatireontheemperorNero,whoisknowntohavebeenaddictedtosuchpractices,aswerealsohissuccessors,DidiusJulianus,Caracalla,andElagabalus.AndthatthesameartwascultivatedbyprivatepersonsisclearfromtheallusionsmadetoitbyQuintilian,Apuleius,Tertullian,andHeliod?rus.374

  • 如萱紫儿ugzwF

    Amortalsoul:sinceneitherman

  • 但法国1lgOC

    NaturistSünde,GeististTeufel.’

     WehavenowreachedapointwhereGreekphilosophyseemstohaveswungbackintothepositionwhichitoccupiedthreehundredyearsbefore,towardsthecloseofthePeloponnesianWar.Thegroundisagaindividedbetweennaturalistsandhumanists,theoneschoolofferinganencyclopaedictraininginphysicalscienceandexactphilology,theotherliterary,sceptical,andlimitingitsattentiontothemoreimmediateinterestsoflife;butbothagreeinginthesupremeimportanceofconduct,anddifferingchieflyastowhetheritsbasisshouldorshouldnotbesoughtinaknowledgeoftheexternalworld.Materialismisagainintheascendant,tothisextentatleast,thatnoothertheoryiscontemplatedbythestudentsofphysicalscience;whilethepromiseofaspiritualisticcreedistobefound,ifatall,intheschoolwhosescepticismthrowsitbackonthesubjectivesphere,theinvisibleandimpalpableworldofmind.Theattitudeofphilosophytowardsreligionhas,indeed,undergoneamarkedchange;fortheStoicnaturalistscountthemselvesamongthe159moststrenuoussupportersofbeliefsandpracticeswhichtheirSophisticpredecessorshadcontemned,whilethehumanistcriticismiscautiouslyguardedbyatleastanexternalconformitytoestablishedusage;butthePlatonicdoctrineofimmortalityhasdisappearedwiththedogmaticspiritualismonwhichitrested;andfaithinsuperiorbeingstendstodissociateitselffrommorality,ortobecomeidentifiedwithasimplebeliefinthefixityofnaturallaw.

  • 大笨蛋pXsYB

    v

  • 扒皮成AZFsX

    WecannottelltowhatextentthedivergenceswhichafterwardsmadePlatoandAristotlepassfortypesofthemostextremeintellectualoppositionwerealreadymanifestedduringtheirpersonalintercourse.172Thetraditionisthattheteachercomparedhispupiltoafoalthatkickshismotherafterdrainingherdry.Thereisacertainroughtruthaswellasroughwitabouttheremark;buttheauthoroftheParmenidescouldhardlyhavebeenmuchaffectedbycriticismsontheidealtheorywhichhehadhimselfreasonedoutwithequalcandourandacuteness;andif,aswesometimesfeeltemptedtoconjecture,thosecriticismswerefirstsuggestedtohimbyAristotleinconversation,itwillbestillmoreevidentthattheywerereceivedwithoutoffence.173

     

  • 草莓果uizPj

     Theantitheticalstructureofthewholesystemisreproducedeveninthefirstsyllogisticfigure,wherethereisasimilaroppositionbetweenthefirstmood,bywhichaloneuniversalaffirmativescanbeobtained,andtheremainingthree,whoseconclusionsareeithernegativeorparticular,orboth.Andthecomplicatedrulesfortestingthevalidityofthosesyllogismsinwhichthepremisesaredistinguishedasnecessary,actual,andpossible,arestillmoreobviouslybasedonAristotle’sfalsemetaphysicaldistinctions;sothatwiththeoverthrowofthosedistinctionslargeportionsoftheAnalyticslosetheirentirevalueformodernstudents.

  • 绿卡纸4rhRK

     

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