《海峡两岸》 20190831

iw4Xa-news 发布时间: 2020-07-07 04:13:28

“快3彩 池-裙0”Here,hadtheGovernmentbeenwise,theywouldhavestopped;buttheywerenotcontentedwithoutexperiencingathirddefeat.Thenextmorning,the20thofDecember,theyreturnedtothechargewithanindictmentagainstMr.HoneforpublishingaparodyontheAthanasianCreed,called"TheSinecurist'sCreed."TheoldChiefJusticewasagainonthebench,apparentlyasresolvedasever,andthistimethedefendant,onenteringthecourt,appearedpaleandexhausted,ashewellmight,forhehadputforthexertionsandpowersofmindwhichhadastonishedthewholecountryandexcitedthedeepestinterest.TheAttorney-Generalhumanelyofferedtopostponethetrial,butthedefendantpreferredtogoon.Heonlybeggedforafewminutes'delaytoenablehimtoputdownafewnotesontheAttorney-General'saddressafterthatwasdelivered;buttheChiefJusticewouldnotallowhimthistriflingfavour,butsaid,ifthedefendantwouldmakeaformalrequestforthepurpose,hewouldputoffthetrialforaday.Thiswouldhaveinjuredthecauseofthedefendant,bymakingitappearthathewasinsomedegreeworsted,and,fatiguedashewas,hereplied,promptly,"No!Imakenosuchrequest."WilliamHone,onthisthirdtrial,oncemoreseemedtoforgethispastfatigues,androsewithastrengththatcompletelycowedtheoldandfieryjudge.Hedidnotdesisttillhehadconvertedhisdictatorialmannerintoasuppliantone.AfterquotingmanyeminentChurchmenasdissentientsfromtheAthanasianCreed,andamongstthemWarburtonandTillotson,headded,"Evenhislordship'sfather,theBishopofCarlisle,hebelieved,tookasimilarviewofthiscreed."Thiswascomingtoonear;andthejudgesaid,"Whateverthatopinionwas,hehasgone,manyyearsago,wherehehashadtoaccountforhisbeliefandhisopinions.Forcommondelicacy,forbear.""O,mylord,"repliedthesatisfieddefendant,"Ishallcertainlyforbear."Thejudgehadprofitedbythelessonto-day:hegaveamuchmoretemperatechargetothejury,andtheyrequiredonlytwentyminutestoreturnthethirdandfinalvictoryofNotGuilty.NeverhadthisarbitraryGovernmentsufferedsowitheringadefeat.Thesensationthroughoutthecountrywasimmense.TheverynextdayLordEllenboroughsentinhisannouncementofretiringfrom[131]thebench,andinaveryshorttimeheretiredfromthisworldaltogether(December13,1818),itbeingasettledconvictionofthepublicmindthatthemortificationofsuchaputting-down,byamanwhomherosefromhissick-bedtoextinguish,tendedmateriallytohastenthatdeparture.

ButinspiteofBute'sincapacitytheexpeditionsplannedbyPittwereuniformlysuccessful.TheBritishfleetswereeverywherebusyattacking[174]theSpanishcolonies,andcuttingofftheSpanishshipsatsea.Afleethadbeendispatched,underAdmiralRodney,atthelatterendofthelastyear,againstMartinique,carryingnearlytwelvethousandmen,commandedbyGeneralMonckton.Theylandedonthe7thofJanuaryatCasdeNavires,besiegedandtookPortRoyal,thecapital,St.Pierre,and,finally,thewholeisland.ThiswasfollowedbythesurrenderofSt.Vincent,Grenada,andSt.Lucia,sothattheEnglishwerenowmastersofthewholeoftheCaribbees.Aportionofthissquadron,underSirJamesDouglas,thenproceededtojoinanexpedition,whichsailedfromPortsmouthonthe5thofMarch;thefleetcommandedbyAdmiralSirGeorgePococke,andthearmybytheEarlofAlbemarle.ThesquadronarrivedbeforeHavanaonthe4thofJune—KingGeorge'sbirthday—andeffectedalandingwithoutmuchdifficulty.

[Seelargerversion]

RichardHare,madeLordEnnismore,withpatronage.

D'Estaing,whoexpectedtohavetakentheplacewithlittletrouble,greatlyalarmedlesttheEnglishshouldseizemostoftheFrenchWestIndianislandsinhisabsence,urgedanassaultcontrarytothewishesofLincoln,andthiswasmadeonthe9thofOctober.Theforces,fivethousandeighthundredinnumber,wereledonintwocolumns,buttheywerereceivedbysucharakingfirefromwallsandredoubts,andfromthebrigflankingtherightoftheBritishlines,thattheywerethrownbackinconfusion;andbeforeD'EstaingandLincolncouldrestoreorder,ColonelMaitlandmadeageneralsortiewithfixedbayonets,andthewholeattackingforcefledinutterrout.D'Estaingwouldnowremainnolonger,butre-embarkedhisforces,andsailedaway,totheunspeakablechagrinoftheAmericans,whoretreatedinallhaste,thegreaterpartofthemilitiabreakingupandreturninghome.TheDukeofCumberland,beingcalledsouthward,hadgotGeneralHawleyappointedtothecommandofthearmysentaftertheYoungPretender.Wadewasbecometoooldanddilatory,butHawleywasmuchfitterforahangmanthanageneral.HoraceWalpolesayshewascalled"theLordChiefJustice,"because,likeJeffreys,hehadapassionforexecutions;thatwhenthesurgeonssolicitedthebodyofadeserter,whichwasdanglingbeforeHawley'swindows,fordissection,hewouldonlyconsentonconditionthathehadtheskeletontoornamenttheguardroom.Hearingofhisapproach,CharlesdrewinhisforcesfromFalkirkunderLordGeorge,leftafewhundredmentoblockadeStirling,andconcentratedhisarmyontherenownedfieldofBannockburn.Onthe16thofJanuaryCharles,expectingHawley,drewuphisforces,butnoenemyappeared.Thenextday,stillperceivingnoHawley,headvancedtoPleanmuir,twomileseastofBannockburn,andonthewaytoTorwood.Noenemyyetappearing,theprincedeterminedtoadvanceandfindhimout.HawleywassoconfidentofdispersingtheHighlandrabbleatanymomentthathechose,thathehadneglectedeverymilitaryprecaution,hadfixednooutposts,andwasawayatCallanderHouse,atsomedistancefromthefield,comfortablytakingluncheonwithLadyKilmarnock,whosehusbandwasintherebelarmy,andwhowasexertingallherpowersofpleasingtodetainthefoolishgeneralaslongaspossible.Atlength,whentherebelshadcomeupsonearthattherewasonlyFalkirkMoorbetweenthearmies,Hawley,rousedbyfreshmessengers,camegallopingupwithouthishat,andintheutmostconfusion.Inthemiddleofthisruggedandunevenmoor,coveredwithheath,roseaconsiderableridge,anditappearedtobearacebetweenthetwoenemieswhichshouldgaintheadvantageofthesummit.OntheonesidegallopedtheEnglishcavalry,ontheotherspedtheHighlanders,strainingforthisimportantheight;butthefleet-footedGaelwonthegroundfromtheEnglishhorse,andHawley'shorsehaltedalittlebelowthem.Neitherofthearmieshadanyartillery,fortheHighlandershadlefttheirsbehindintheirrapidadvance,andHawley'shadstuckfastinthebog.Sofartheywereequal;buttheprince,bytakingasideroute,hadthrownthewindintheteethoftheEnglish,andastormofrainbeganwithconfoundingviolencetobeatintheirfaces.TheEnglishcavalryremained,asithadgallopedup,infront,commanded,sincethedeathofGardiner,byColonelLigonier,andtheinfantryformed,liketheHighlanders,intwolines,therightcommandedbyGeneralHuske,andtheleftbyHawley.Behind,asareserve,stoodtheGlasgowregimentandtheArgyllmilitia.Theorderbeinggiven,thecavalryunderLigonierchargedtheMacdonalds,whocoollywaitedtilltheEnglishhorsewaswithintenyardsofthem,whentheypouredsuchamurderousvolleyintothemasdroppedafrightfulnumberfromtheirsaddles,andthrewthewholelineintoconfusion.TheFrasersimmediatelypouredanequallygallingcross-fireintothestartledline,andthetwodragoonregimentswhichhadfledatColtbridgeandPrestonpanswaitednolonger,butwheelinground,gallopedfromthefieldattheirbestspeed.TheMacdonalds,seeingtheeffectoftheirfire,inspiteofLordGeorgeMurray'sendeavourstokeeptheminorder,rushedforward,loadingtheirpiecesastheyran,andfelluponHawley'stwocolumnsofinfantry.Havingdischargedtheirpieces,theyraninupontheEnglishwiththeirtargetsandbroadswords.Theleftsoongaveway,andHawley,whohadgotinvolvedinthecrowdofflyinghorse,hadbeensweptwiththemdownthehill,andthushadnomeansofkeepingthemtotheircolours.Ontherightoftheroyalarmy,however,theinfantrystoodfirm,andastheHighlanderscouldnotcrosstheravinetocometoclosequarterswithswordandtarget,theyinflictedsevereslaughteruponthem;andCobham'scavalryrallying,sooncametotheiraidandprotectedtheirflank,and[104]increasedtheeffectontheHighlanders,manyofwhombegantorun,imaginingthatthedaywaslost.Charles,fromhiselevatedpositionobservingthisextraordinarystateofthings,advancedattheheadofhissecondline,andcheckedtheadvanceoftheEnglishright,and,aftersomesharpfighting,compelledthemtoaretreat.Butinthiscaseitwasonlyaretreat,notaflight.Theseregimentsretired,withdrumsbeatingandcoloursflying,inperfectorder.Apursuitofcavalrymightstillhavebeenmade,buttheretreatoftheEnglishwassoprompt,thattheHighlanderssuspectedastratagem;anditwasonlywhentheirscoutsbroughtthemwordthattheyhadevacuatedFalkirkthattheyunderstoodtheirfullsuccess(January18,1746).

DuringtherecessconsiderablechangestookplaceintheCabinet.LordHalifaxdiedonthe8thofJune;theEarlofSuffolksucceededhimasSecretaryofState,andtheremainderoftheGrenvillepartythereuponsupportedtheMinistry.Suffolkintroducedhisfriend,LordHyde,afterwardsEarlofClarendon,tothepostofChancelloroftheDuchyofLancaster,withanaugmentedsalary.TheadministrationofLordNorthwasconsiderablystrengthened,too,bytheabilitiesofThurlow,asAttorney-General,andofWedderburn,asSolicitor-General.ButtheadditiontotheCabinetofLordNorthwhichoccasionedthegreatestsurprise,wasthatoftheDukeofGrafton.HereceivedthePrivySeal.

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网友评论

  • 雨花郡主fi37d

    Toldwhatnotonguecouldspeak;

     ThechangeofMinistersandsomeadditionstothepeeragecausedseveralelections.Mr.LittletonwasraisedtotheUpperHousewiththetitleofLordHatherton,andMr.CharlesGrantasLordGlenelg.TheywerepromptlyreplacedbyConservatives.LordJohnRussellhavinglosthiselectionforSouthDevon,ColonelFoxmadewayforhimatStroud,whichboroughcontinuedtofurnishaseatforthenoblelordduringmanyyears.LordPalmerstonhadbeendefeatedinHampshireatthegeneralelection;butMr.KennedyretiredtomakewayforhimatTiverton,whichhadthehonourofbeingrepresentedbytheForeignSecretaryuntilhisdeath.LordMorpethhadtostandaseverecontestinYorkshire,buthewasreturnedbyalargemajority.

  • 雪灵芝hyhMx

  • 如萱紫儿TY1EG

    Thisproposal,which,atanearlierstageofthedispute,mighthavebeenlistenedto,wasoneatthisstagewhichwassuretoberejected,andwasonlyoneofthosemiserablehalfmeasureswhichcommonplacemindssofrequentlyputforthonlytodemonstratetheirinabilitytograsptheamplitudeoftheoccasion.Itwassupposedthatthemeasurehadbeenintendedtobelarger,butthattheBedfordpartyhadfallenonitinCouncil,andreducedittothesepitiabledimensions.YetwhenitwasintroducedintotheCommonsbyLordNorth,theBedfordpartylookedateachotherinconsternation,andsoonthetempestbrokelooseontheTreasurybenches.

  • 但法国IKsWS

    TheforeignexpeditionsplannedbytheGrenvilleMinistrywere,thisyear,attendedbydisgracefulresults,andthenewsoftheirfailurearrivedintimetoenablethenewMinistrytothrowadditionalodiumupontheirfoes.ThenewsoftheseizureofBuenosAyresbySirHomePophamandGeneralBeresfordhadinducedthelateCabinettooverlooktheirregularmannerinwhichtheirenterprisehadbeenundertaken.TheysentoutAdmiralSirC.StirlingtosupersedeSirHomePopham,whowastobebroughtbeforeacourt-martial,buthetookoutwithhimafreshbodyoftroops,underGeneralAuchmuty.ThesetroopslandedatMonteVideoonthe18thofJanuary,and,afterasharpcontestagainstsixthousandSpaniards,andthelossoffivehundredandsixtyBritishkilledandwounded,theplacewastakenonthe2ndofFebruary.SoonafterwardsGeneralWhitelockearrivedwithorderstoassumesupremecommandandtorecaptureBuenosAyres,whichtheinhabitantshadsucceededinrecovering.WhitelockereachedMonteVideotowardstheendofMay,andfoundtheBritisharmy,withwhathebrought,amountingtonearlytwelvethousandmen,infinecondition.WithsuchaforceBuenosAyreswouldhavesoonbeenreducedbyamanoftolerablemilitaryability.ButWhitelockeseemstohavetakennomeasurestoenablehistroopstocarrytheplacebyasuddenandbrilliantassault.Itwasnottillthe3rdofJulythathemanagedtojoinMajor-GeneralGore,whohadtakenpossessionofacommandingelevation[536]overlookingthecity.Thehopeofsuccesslayintherapiditywithwhichtheassaultwasmade:allthiswasnowlost.Therainpouredintorrents,andthemenhadnoshelter,andwerehalfstarved.AllthistimetheSpaniardshadbeenputtingthecityintoastateofdefence.Still,onthemorningofthe5thofJulytheorderwasissuedtostorm.Thetroopsadvancedinthreecolumnsfromdifferentsidesofthetown,headedseverallybyGeneralsAuchmuty,Lumley,andCraufurd.Whitelockesaidthatitcouldbeofnousetodelaytheadvancetowardsthecentreofthetownbyattackingtheenemyundercoveroftheirhouses;itcouldonlyoccasionthegreaterslaughter.Thecommand,therefore,wastodashforwardwithunloadedmuskets,trustingalonetothebayonet.MuchblamewascastonWhitelockeforthisorder,butthereseemsstrongreasoninit,consideringthewhollyuncoveredconditionofthetroopsagainstacoveredenemy,andthattheonlychancewasforeachdivisiontoforceitswayasrapidlyaspossibletocertainbuildingswheretheycouldensconcethemselves,andfromwhencetheycoulddirectanattackofshotandshellsontheSpaniards.GeneralAuchmuty,accordingly,rushedonagainsteveryobstacletothegreatsquare—PlazadeToros,orSquareofBulls—tookthirty-twocannon,alargequantityofammunition,andsixhundredprisoners.OtherregimentsofhisdivisionsucceededingettingpossessionofthechurchandconventofSantaCatalina,andoftheresidencia,acommandingpost;LumleyandCraufurdwerenotsofortunate.The88thwascompelledtoyield;andthe36th,greatlyreduced,andjoinedbythe5th—whichhadtakentheconventofSantaCatalina—madetheirwaytoSirSamuelAuchmuty'spositioninthePlazadeToros,dispersingabodyofeighthundredSpaniardsontheirwayandtakingtwoguns.Craufurd'sdivisioncapitulatedatfouro'clockintheafternoon.IntheeveningWhitelockeresolvedtocometoterms.Theconditionsofthetreatywere—thatGeneralWhitelocke'sarmy,withitsarms,equipage,andstores,wastobeconveyedacrosstheLaPlatatoMonteVideo;histroopsweretobesuppliedwithfood;andthatattheendoftwomonthstheBritishweretosurrenderMonteVideo,andretirefromthecountry.SuchwasthehumiliatingresultoftheattemptonBuenosAyres.NothingcouldexceedthefuryofallclassesathomeagainstWhitelockeonthearrivalofthenewsofthisdisgracefuldefeat.ItwasreportedthathehadmadethementaketheirflintsoutoftheirgunsbeforesendingthemintothemurderousstreetsofBuenosAyres;andhadhearrivedwithhisdespatches,hislifewouldnothavebeensafeforanhour.TherewasageneralbeliefthattheCourtwasprotectinghimfrompunishment;and,intruth,thedelaysinterposedbetweenhimandacourt-martialappearedtowarrantthis.Itwasnottillthe28thofJanuary,1808,thathewasbroughtbeforesuchacourtatChelseaHospital,whenhewascondemnedtobecashiered,aswhollyunfitandunworthytoservehisMajestyinanymilitarycapacitywhatever.

     TheEnglishlayallnightontheirarms,and,asdaydawned,begantoentrenchtheirposition.Ifeverageneralneededtopushonhisadvantageitwasnow.EverydaywasconsumingBurgoyne'sstores;everydaywasaugmentingtheforcesoftheenemy.ThecountrywasclosedtoBurgoyne;itwasopenwithallitsresourcestotheAmericans.Yethelaythere,asifparalysed,fromthe20thofSeptembertothe7thofOctober.ThereasonofthisfataldelayissaidtohavebeenthatBurgoynehadreceivedaletterfromGeneralSirHenryClintonatNewYork,informinghimthathemustexpectnoco-operationfromGeneralHowe,butthathehimselfwouldtaketheresponsibilityofmakingadiversioninhisfavourbyattackingtheFortsMontgomeryandClinton,onthelowerpartoftheHudson.Burgoyne,onreceivingthisintelligence,sentClintonwordthathewouldremainwherehewastillthe12thofOctober—afatalresolve,asacalculationofhisstoresshouldhaveshownhim,whichtheactsoftheAmericanswerecertaintorendercalamitous.Elatedatbeingabletostandtheirgroundinsomedegree,thisnovelandalmostsolesuccessinthewarhadraisedthespiritsoftheColonialsasbyamiracle.Theypouredinonallsides,andArnold,everreadyinresource,suggestedtoGatesanenterprisetobeeffectedwhileBurgoynewaslyingstillandconsuminghisownvictuals.

  • 大笨蛋4ZRl7

    v

  • 扒皮成dQsO5

    Thenextmorning,the6thofDecember,theretreatcommenced;butthesoldiersandtheinferiorofficerslittledreamedthatitwasaretreat.TheyimaginedthattheyweregoingtofighttheDukeofCumberland,andmarchedoutinhighspirits.Themorningwasfoggy,andforsometimethedelusionwaskeptup;butwhenthefogclearedaway,andtheyperceivedthattheywereretracingtheirformerroute,theirdisappointmentandragebecameexcessive.TheretreatwasrapidlycontinuedthroughPreston,andontoLancaster,whichtheyreachedonthe13th.Onthe18thOglethorpeandCumberland,accompaniedbyamobofcountrysquiresandmountedfarmers,attackedLordGeorgeMurray'srearnearPenrith;butthecountrymenwerespeedilyputtoflightbyachargeoftheGlengarryclan,andOglethorpefellbacktothemainbody.Theycameupagain,however,intheeveningnearthevillageofClifton,andLordGeorgeperceived,bythefitfullightofthemoon,theenemyformingbehindthestonewalls,andliningeveryhedge,orchard,andouthouse.Justastheroyaltroopscommencedtheirchargetheywerestoppedbyacross-fireoftheconcealedHighlanders,and,whilstaffectedbythissurprise,LordGeorgecried,"Claymore!claymore!"andrushingdownuponthemwiththeMacphersonsofCluny,attackedthemswordinhand.BeingsupportedbytheStuartsofAppin,theycompelledtheEnglishtoretreat.

     

  • 草莓果KnUnb

    Aneffortwasmadetodecidethelong-agitatedquestionoftheemancipationoftheJewsintheSessionof1849.Onthe19thofFebruaryLordJohnRussellmovedthattheHouseofCommonsshouldgointocommitteeforthepurposeofconsideringtheoathstakenbymembersofParliament,exceptingtheRomanCatholicoath,settledin1829.Theoathofallegiance,hesaid,becameamockerywhenCardinalYorkdied,therebeingnodescendantsofJamesII.inexistence;hethereforeproposedtoabolishit.Theoathofabjuration,whichwasaimedagainstPapalaggression,hadnownopracticaleffectbuttoexcludetheJewsfromParliament,whichitdidbythewords"onthetruefaithofaChristian,"whichwerenevermeanttoexcludeJews,butonlytogivegreatersolemnitytotheoath.Heproposed,therefore,toomitthesewordswhentheoathwastenderedtoaJew,andthishethoughtwouldcompletethemeasureofreligiousliberty.TheHouseresolvedbyalargemajority—214to111—togointocommitteeonthesubject.HethenmovedaresolutionthatitwasexpedienttoaltertheParliamentaryoathssoas"tomakeprovisioninrespectofthesaidoathsforthereliefofherMajesty'ssubjectsprofessingtheJewishreligion."ABillfoundedonthisresolutionwasbroughtinbyLordJohnRussell.Thesecondreadingwascarriedbyamajorityof278to185.Thethirdreading,afteranimportantdebate,wascarriedbyamajorityof66.IntheHouseofLordsthesecondreadingwasmovedonthe26thofJuly,bytheEarlofCarlisle,inanablespeech,inwhichheobservedthattheJews,thoughadmittedtomunicipalprivileges,weretheonlyreligiouscommunitydebarredfrompoliticalrights;buttherewasnot,asfarashecouldsee,asinglevalidobjectionuponwhichtheycouldberefused.TheEarlofEglintonobjectedtotheiradmissiononreligiousgrounds;soalsodidtheArchbishopofCanterburyandtheBishopofExeter.TheformerarguedthatournationalChristianity,towhichweowedourgreatness,wouldbegrievouslydisparagedbythemeasure.ThelattercondemneditasaviolationofthedistinctcontractbetweentheSovereignandthenation—thattheCrownshouldmaintain"totheutmostthelawsofGodandthetrueprofessionoftheGospel."TheArchbishopofDublin(Whately),alwaysthepowerfulchampionofreligiousfreedom,[603]contendedontheotherhandthatitwasinconsistentwiththeprinciplesandrepugnanttothegeniusofChristianitythatcivildisqualificationsandpenaltiesshouldbeimposedonthosewhodidnotconformtoit.Theirlordshipsmusteitherretracetheirsteps,andexcludefromofficeallwhodidnotbelongtotheEstablishedChurch,ortheymust,inconsistency,consenttotheabrogationofthislastrestriction.TheBillwasrejectedbyamajorityof25—thenumbersbeing,forthesecondreading,70;againstit,95.

     [210]

  • 绿卡纸HB3Lo

    ThatnightCharlesandhischiefofficerslayatCullodenHouse,theseatoftheableandpatrioticLord-President,DuncanForbes;butthetroopswereobligedtolieonthemooramidtheheather,whichservedthembothforbedsandfuel,thecoldbeingverysevere.Theywereupearlyinthemorning,andformedinorderofbattleon[106]DrummossieMuir,thepartoftheheathofCullodenneartoCullodenHouse.Noenemy,however,appeared,andtherethepoorhungrymenlayformostofthedaywithnootherfoodthanabiscuitperman.Acouncilofwarbeingcalled,Lochielstatedthisfactasapleafordelay;LordJohnDrummond,theDukeofPerth,andothers,wereofthesameopinion;butLordGeorgeMurraydeclaredformakinganightmarch,andsurprisingtheduke'sarmywhilstitwouldlie,astheysupposed,asleepinadrunkendebauch.Charles,whohadthesameidea,buthadnotyetbroachedit,embracedLordGeorgewithardour,declaringitofallthingshisownwish.Theideawasadopted,yettheslightestmilitarywisdomwouldhaveshownthemthefutilityofthescheme.Themenwereinageneralstate,notonlyoffamine,butofdiscontent,fromthenon-paymentoftheirarrears.Thenightwasdark,andthemensoonbegantostumblethroughbogandmire,makingtheirmarchheavy,andcausingthemtocurseandswear.Itwassoonfoundthattheyweresofeebleandincapableofwalking,even,tosaynothingoffightingafterafourteenorfifteenmiles'march,onemptystomachs,thatitwasimpossibletomaketherearkeepupwiththevan.TheyhadcalculatedonbeingatNairnattwoo'clock,butitwasthathourbeforetheyhadallpassedKilravockHouse,onlyfourmilesfromtheEnglishcamp.ItwasclearthatitwouldbedaylightlongbeforetheyreachedNairn,andtheycouldonlygettheretobeslaughteredinhelplessness,fortheywouldbetootiredeithertofightorrunaway.Itwasthereforeagreedtoreturn.

     GreatBritainbearsaheavyburdenoftaxation,yetshedoesnotseemtofeelit.ManyyearsagoMr.Disraeli,intheHouseofCommons,calledtheNationalDebta"flea-bite."Itisnotquitesolightamatterasthat;still,itdoesnotseemtorenderhersteplessfirm,norretardherprogress,norgivehermuchtrouble.ItisamatterofwondertoforeignershowtheBritishpeoplemanagetohavesomuchmoneyafterpayingsosmartlyintheshapeoftaxes,andspendingsomuchonfood,clothing,andhouseholdaccommodation.Thesecretliesinthewonderfulindustryandthriftinthemassesofthepeople.Theyworkhard,livewell,andwastelittle.ThenumberofpeoplewholiveinGreatBritainwithoutlabouringinanywayfortheirsupportwithheadorhandisverysmall.Of5,812,000malestwentyyearsof[424]ageandupwards,in1831,nolessthan5,466,000wereengagedinsomecallingorprofession.Theprogressivewell-beingofthemiddleclassesofEnglandhasbeenindicatedverysatisfactorilybytheimprovedcharacteroftheirdwellings.Ifthecountryismorehealthfulthanthecity,onecausemaybefoundinthelesscrowdedstateofthehabitations.Inthecountrytheproportionwasaboutfiveandahalfpersonsonanaverageineachhouse;inLondonaboutathirdmore.InScotlandtheproportionwassixtotenin1831,andinIrelanditwassixtotwelve,takingthecapitalineachcaseasrepresentingtheurbanpopulation.ThenumberofinhabitedhouseswhichEnglandcontainedin1821was1,952,000;inIrelandthenumberwas1,142,602;inScotlanditwas341,474.In1841thenumberswere—England,2,753,295;Ireland,1,328,839;Scotland,503,357.ThelargeincreaseinScotlandisaccountedforbythefactthatinthereturnsof1841"flats"weresetdownashouses,whichwasnotthecaseinthefirstreturn.Thetaxoninhabitedhousesratedinthreeclassesfrom£10to£20,from£20to£40,andfrom£40andupwards.From1821to1833thehousesratedat£40andupwardsincreasedinEnglandfrom69,000to84,000.Theothertwoclassesofhousesincreasedinaboutthesameproportion.Thehousedutywasrepealedin1834.Therewasadutyonbrickstill1850,bywhichmeansthequantityconsumedwasascertained,andtheincreasebetween1821and1847was130percent.Betweentheyears1821and1841theuseofcarriageswithfourwheelsincreased60percent.—doubletheratiooftheincreaseofthepopulation.Inthemeantimehiredcarriageshadincreasedfrom20,000to33,000.ColonelSykes,atameetingoftheStatisticalSociety,countedthecostofkeepingafour-wheeledprivatecarriage,includingservants,at£250ayear.Thismaybetoohighanestimate;buttakingfour-wheeledandtwo-wheeledcarriagestogether,Mr.Porterthoughttheaverageexpensewasnotlessthan£100ayearforeach,whichwouldgivemorethan£5,000,000forthisluxuryin1821,morethan£9,000,000for1831,andmorethan£10,000,000for1841—aproofofwealthwhichnoothercountryinEuropecouldshow.

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