中共中央政治局常务委员会召开会议 习近平主持

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“河内一分彩后三人工计划”Wearehereinpresenceofaphenomenonlikethattowhichattentionwasinvitedinanearlychapterofthiswork.371Thebeliefinimmortality,entertainedunderagloomyandrepulsiveformbytheuneducated,istakenupbythehigherclasses,broughtintocontactwiththeirmoregenerousideas,broadened,deepened,purified,andfinallymadethebasisofanewreligion.Nevertheless,inthepresentinstanceatleast,allwasnotcleargain;andthefaithwhichsmilesonusfromstoriedsarcophagusandmuralrelief,orpleadsforoursympathyinepitaphsmoreenduringthanthehopewhich240theyenshrine,hadalsoitsgrotesqueandhideousside,foranexpressionofwhichwemustturntoliteratureagain.

WhiletheanalysisofHobbesgoesmuchdeeperthanAristotle’s,thegraspofhisreconstructivesynthesisiswiderandstrongerinatleastanequalproportion.Recognisingthegoodofthewholeasthesupremeruleofconduct,555hegivesanewinterpretationtotheparticularvirtues,anddisposesofthetheorywhichmadethemameanbetweentwoextremesnolesseffectuallythanhiscontemporarieshaddisposedofthesametheoryinitsapplicationtotheelementaryconstitutionofmatter.AndjustastheywereaidedintheirrevoltagainstAristotlebytherevivalofotherGreeksystems,soalsowashe.Theidentificationofjusticewithpublicinterest,thoughcommonlyattributedtoEpicurusalone,was,likematerialism,anideasharedbyhimwithStoicism,andwasprobablyimpressedonmodernthoughtbytheweightoftheirunitedauthority.AndwhenwefindthephilosopherofMalmesburymakingpublichappinessconsistinorderandtranquillity,wecannotbutthinkthatthiswasageneralisationfromtheStoicandEpicureanconceptionsofindividualhappiness;foritreproduces,underasocialform,thesameidealofpassionlessrepose.

Correspondingtotheuniversalspacewhichcontainsallparticularspaces,therewas,intheNeo-Platonicsystem,auniversalThoughtwhichcontainedallparticularthoughts,—theNousaboutwhichweheardsomuchinstudyingPlotinus.405Suchaconceptionisutterlystrangetothemodernmind,butitwasfamiliarenoughtoSpinoza;andwecanseehowitwouldbesuggestedbythecommonformsofreasoning.Thetendencyofsyllogismiseithertosubsumelowerunderhighernotionsuntilasummumgenusisreached,ortoresolveallsubjectsintoasinglepredicate,ortoconnectallpredicateswithasinglesubject.Theanalogiesofspace,too,wouldtellinthesamedirection,bringingnearertheideaofavastthought-seainwhichallparticularthoughts,orwhattoaCartesianmeantthesamething,allparticularminds,werecontained.AndNeo-PlatonismshowedhowthisuniversalMindorThoughtcould,likethespacewhichitsomuchresembled,beinterpretedastheproductofastillhigherprinciple.Tocompletetheparallelism,itremainedtoshowthatThought,whichbeforehadseemedessentiallyfinite,is,onthecontrary,co-infinitewithExtension.Howthiswasdonewillappearalittlefurtheron.

IV.

SuchathinkerwasXenophanes,ofColophon.Driven,likePythagoras,fromhisnativecitybycivildiscords,hespentthegreaterpartofanunusuallyprotractedlifewanderingthroughtheGreekcoloniesofSicilyandSouthernItaly,andrecitinghisownverses,notalways,asitwouldappear,toaveryattentiveaudience.Elea,anItaliotecity,seemstohavebeenhisfavouriteresort,andtheschoolofphilosophywhichhefoundedtherehasimmortalisedthenameofthisotherwiseobscurePhocaeansettlement.EnoughremainsofhisversestoshowwithwhatterriblestrengthofsarcasmheassailedthepopularreligionofHellas.‘HomerandHesiod,’heexclaims,‘haveattributedtothegodseverythingthatisashameandreproachamongmen—theft,adultery,andmutualdeception.’12NorisXenophanescontentwithattacking15theseunedifyingstories,hestrikesattheanthropomorphicconceptionswhichlayattheirroot.‘Mortalsthinkthatthegodshavesenses,andavoiceandabodyliketheirown.Thenegroesfancythattheirdeitiesareblack-skinnedandsnub-nosed,theThraciansgivetheirsfairhairandblueeyes;ifhorsesorlionshadhandsandcouldpaint,theytoowouldmakegodsintheirownimage.’13Itwas,hedeclared,asimpioustobelieveinthebirthofagodastobelieveinthepossibilityofhisdeath.Thecurrentpolytheismwasequallyfalse.‘ThereisoneSupremeGodamonggodsandmen,unlikemortalsbothinmindandbody.’14TherecanbeonlyoneGod,forGodisOmnipotent,sothattheremustbenonetodisputehiswill.Hemustalsobeperfectlyhomogeneous,shapedlikeasphere,seeing,hearing,andthinkingwitheverypartalike,nevermovingfromplacetoplace,butgoverningallthingsbyaneffortlessexerciseofthought.HadsuchdaringheresiesbeenpromulgatedindemocraticAthens,theirauthorwouldprobablyhavesoonfoundhimselfandhisworkshandedovertothetendermerciesoftheEleven.HappilyatElea,andinmostotherGreekstates,thegodswerelefttotakecareofthemselves.Besidesthegeneralreligiousmovementwhichhadlongbeeninaction,andwasdailygainingstrengthfromtheincreasingbarbarisationoftheempire,therewas,atthisjuncture,aparticularcausetendingtobringGreekphilosophyintoclosealliancewiththemythologywhichithadformerlyrejectedanddenounced.ThiswastherapidriseandspreadofChristianity.StAugustinehassaidthatofallheathenphilosophersnonecamenearertotheChristianfaiththantheNeo-Platonists.528Nevertheless,itwasinthemthattheoldreligionfounditsonlyapologistsandthenewreligionitsmostactiveassailants.WehavealreadyalludedtotheelaboratepolemicofPorphyry.Halfacenturylater,thesameprinciplescouldboastofastillmoreillustriouschampion.TheemperorJulianwasimbuedwiththedoctrinesofNeo-Platonism,andwaswonbacktotheancientfaithbytheteachingofitsprofessors.

Itwasnaturalthatthebestmethodsofinterpretingsousefulasourceofinformationshouldbegreatlysoughtafter,andthattheyshouldbesystematisedintreatisesexpresslydevotedtothesubject.Onesuchwork,theOneirocriticaofArtemid?rus,isstillextant.Itwascomposedtowardstheendofthesecondcentury,asitsauthortellsus,atthedirectandrepeatedcommandofApollo.AccordingtoArtemid?rus,thegeneralbeliefinprophecyandintheexistenceofprovidencemuststandorfallwiththebeliefinpropheticdreams.Helookedonthecompilationofhisworkasthefulfilmentofareligiousmission,andhiswholelifewasdevotedtocollectingthematerialsforit.Hisgoodfaithis,wearetold,beyondquestion,hisindustryisenormous,andheevenexercisesconsiderablediscriminationinselectingandelucidatingthephenomenawhicharerepresentedtousas229manifestationsofasupernaturalinterestinhumanaffairs.Thushisbeliefsmaybetakenasafairgaugeoftheextenttowhicheducatedopinionhadatthattimebecomeinfectedwithvulgarsuperstition.351Euripidesgivesusaninterestingexampleofthestyleinwhichthisethicalapplicationofphysicalsciencecouldbepractised.WehaveseenhowEteoclêsexpresseshisdeterminationtodoanddareallforthesakeofsovereignpower.Hismother,Jocastê,gentlyrebukeshimasfollows:

Possiblytheworldmaymove,andpossiblyitmaybeatrest.Possiblyitmayberound,orelseitmaybetriangular,orhaveanyothershape.Possiblythesunandthestarsmaybeextinguishedatsetting,andbelightedafreshattheirrising:itis,however,equallypossiblethattheymayonlydisappearundertheearthandreappearagain,orthattheirrisingandsettingisduetoyetothercauses.Possiblythewaxingandwaningofthemoonmaybecausedbythemoon’srevolving;oritmaybeduetotheatmosphericchange,ortoanactualincreaseordecreaseinthemoon’ssize,ortosomeothercause.Possiblythemoonmayshinewithborrowedlight,oritmayshinewithitsown,experiencesupplyinguswithinstancesofbodieswhichgivetheirownlight,andofotherswhichhavetheirlightborrowed.FromtheseandsuchlikestatementsitappearsthatquestionsofnaturalscienceinthemselveshavenovalueforEpicurus.Whilstgrantingthatonlyonenaturalexplanationofphenomenaisgenerallypossible,yetinanyparticularcaseitisperfectlyindifferentwhichexplanationisadopted.169MeanwhileaseriesofStoicthinkershadalsobeenfeelingtheirwaytowardsacompromisewithPlatoandAristotle,which,sofarasitwent,wasastepinthedirectionofspiritualism.Wehaveseen,inaformerchapter,howoneofthegreatdistinguishingmarksofStoicism,ascomparedwiththesystemsimmediatelyprecedingit,wasthesubstitutionofapervadingmonismfortheirantithesisbetweenGodandtheworld,betweenheavenandearth,betweenreasonandsense.ItwillberememberedalsothatthismonisticcreedwasassociatedwithareturntotheHeracleiteantheorythattheworldisperiodicallydestroyedbyfire.Now,withreferencetothreeoutofthesefourpoints,Boêthus,aStoiccontemporaryofCarneades,returnedtotheAristoteliandoctrine.Whilestillholdingtothematerialismofhisownschool,includingabeliefinthecorporealnatureofthedivinity,heseparatedGodfromtheworld,andrepresentedhimasgoverningitsmovementsfromwithout;theworlditselfhemaintainedtobeeternal;andinthemindofmanherecognisedreasonornousasanindependentsourceofconviction.In163hiscosmology,Boêthuswasfollowedbyamorecelebratedmaster,Panaetius,whoalsoadoptedtheAristotelianrationalismsofarastodenythecontinuedexistenceofthesoulafterdeath,andtorepudiatethebeliefindivinationwhichStoicismhadborrowedfrompopularsuperstition;whileinpsychologyhepartiallyrestoredthedistinctionbetweenlifeandmindwhichhadbeenobliteratedbyhispredecessors.259ThedualistictheoryofmindwascarriedstillfurtherbyPosidonius,themosteminentStoicofthefirstcenturyB.C.Thisverylearnedandaccomplishedmaster,whilereturninginotherpointstoastricterorthodoxy,wasledtoadmitthePlatonicdistinctionbetweenreasonandpassion,andtomakeitthebasisofhisethicalsystem.260ButthePlatonisingtendenciesofPosidoniushadnomorepowerthanthoseofAntiochustoeffectatruespiritualisticrevival,sinceneithertheynoranyoftheircontemporarieshadanygeniusformetaphysicalspeculation;whiletheincreasedattentionpaidtoAristotledidnotextendtothefundamentalprinciplesofhissystem,which,evenwithinthePeripateticschool,weresomisconceivedastobeinterpretedinathoroughlymaterialisticsense.261

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  • 雨花郡主GpDIl

    Nosoonerdidthetwoimperialsystemslosetheirascendencythanthegermswhichtheyhadtemporarilyovershadowedsprangupintovigorousvitality,andformorethan4fivecenturiesdominatedthewholecoursenotonlyofGreekbutofEuropeanthought.Ofthesebyfarthemostimportantwasthenaturalisticidea,thebeliefthatphysicalsciencemightbesubstitutedforreligioussuperstitionsandlocalconventionsasanimpregnablebasisofconduct.Inaformerchapter1weendeavouredtoshowthat,whiletherearetracesofthisideainthephilosophyofHeracleitus,andwhileitsrootsstretchfarbackintotheliteratureandpopularfaithofGreece,itwasformulatedforthefirsttimebythetwogreatSophists,ProdicusandHippias,who,inthemomentousdivisionbetweenNatureandLaw,placedthemselves—Hippiasmoreparticularly—onthesideofNature.Twocausesledtothetemporarydiscreditoftheirteaching.Onewastheperversionbywhichnaturalrightbecamethewatchwordofthosewho,likePlato’sCallicles,heldthatnothingshouldstandbetweenthestrongmanandthegratificationofhisdesireforpleasureorforpower.TheotherwasthekeencriticismoftheHumanists,thefriendsofsocialconvention,whoheldwithProtagorasthatNaturewasunknowable,orwithGorgiasthatshedidnotexist,orwithSocratesthatherlawswerethesecretofthegods.ItwasinparticulartheoverwhelmingpersonalinfluenceofSocrateswhichtriumphed.HedrewawayfromtheSophiststheirstrongestdisciple,Antisthenes,andconvincedhimthatphilosophywasvaluableonlyinsofarasitbecamealife-renovatingpower,andthat,viewedinthislight,ithadnorelationtoanythingoutsideourselves.ButjustasSocrateshaddiscardedthephysicalspeculationsofformerteachers,soalsodidAntisthenesdiscardthedialecticwhichSocrateshadsubstitutedforthem,eventotheextentofdenyingthatdefinitionwaspossible.2Yetheseemstohavekeptafirmholdonthetwogreatideasthatwerethenetresultofallpreviousphilosophy,theideaofacosmos,thecommoncitizenshipofwhichmadeallmen5potentiallyequal,3andtheideaofreasonastheessentialprerogativeofman.4

     Itwasnaturalthatthebestmethodsofinterpretingsousefulasourceofinformationshouldbegreatlysoughtafter,andthattheyshouldbesystematisedintreatisesexpresslydevotedtothesubject.Onesuchwork,theOneirocriticaofArtemid?rus,isstillextant.Itwascomposedtowardstheendofthesecondcentury,asitsauthortellsus,atthedirectandrepeatedcommandofApollo.AccordingtoArtemid?rus,thegeneralbeliefinprophecyandintheexistenceofprovidencemuststandorfallwiththebeliefinpropheticdreams.Helookedonthecompilationofhisworkasthefulfilmentofareligiousmission,andhiswholelifewasdevotedtocollectingthematerialsforit.Hisgoodfaithis,wearetold,beyondquestion,hisindustryisenormous,andheevenexercisesconsiderablediscriminationinselectingandelucidatingthephenomenawhicharerepresentedtousas229manifestationsofasupernaturalinterestinhumanaffairs.Thushisbeliefsmaybetakenasafairgaugeoftheextenttowhicheducatedopinionhadatthattimebecomeinfectedwithvulgarsuperstition.351

  • 雪灵芝mAj1f

    If,inthephilosophyofEpictêtus,physicsandmoralitybecomeentirelyidentifiedwithreligion,religion,ontheotherhand,remainsentirelynaturalandmoral.Itisanoffering245notofprayerbutofpraise,aservicelessofceremoniesandsacrificesthanofvirtuousdeeds,astudyofconscienceratherthanofprophecy,afaithnotsomuchinsupernaturalportentsasinprovidentiallaw.380ButinarrivingatMarcusAurelius,wehaveoversteppedthelinewhichdividesrationalreligionfromsuperstition.Instancesofthegoodemperor’sastonishingcredulityhavealreadybeengivenandneednotberepeated.Theyareenoughtoshowthathislavishexpenditureonpublicworshipwasdictatedbysomethingmorethanaregardforestablishedcustoms.Weknow,indeed,thatthehecatombswithwhichhisvictorieswerecelebratedgaveoccasiontoprofanemerrimenteveninthesocietyofthatperiod.Ononeoccasion,apetitionwaspassedfromhandtohand,purportingtobeaddressedtotheemperorbythewhiteoxen,anddeprecatinghissuccessonthegroundthatifhewontheywerelost.381YetthesameMarcusAurelius,inspeakingofhispredecessorAntoninus,expresslyspecifiespietywithoutsuperstitionasoneofthetraitsinhischaracterwhichweremostdeservingofimitation.382And,undoubtedly,thementalconditionofthosewhowerecontinuallyinanagonyoffearlesttheyshouldincurthedivinedispleasurebysomepurelyarbitraryactoromission,orwhosupposedthatthegodsmightbebribedintofurtheringtheiriniquitousenterprises,wasbeyondallcomparisonfurtherremovedfromtruewisdomthantheconditionofthosewhobelievedthemselvestobefavouredbyparticularmanifestationsofthedivinebeneficence,perhapsasarecompensefortheirearnestattemptstoleadajustandholylife.Wemayconclude,then,thatphilosophy,whileinjuriouslyaffectedbythesupernaturalistmovement,stillprotecteditsdisciplesagainstthemorevirulentformsofsuperstition,andbyenteringintocombinationwiththepopularbelief,raisedittoahigherleveloffeelingandofthought.Itwasnot,however,byStoicismthatthefinalreconciliationofancientreligionwithphilosophycouldbe246accomplished,butbycertainolderformsofspeculationwhichwenowproceedtostudy.

  • 如萱紫儿DsHDb

    TheconfusionofInduction,properlysocalled,andEliminationunderasinglename,islargelyduetothebadexamplesetbyBacon.HefounditstatedintheAnalyticsthatallconceptsandgeneralpropositionsareestablishedeitherbysyllogismorbyinduction;andhefoundsomeveryusefulruleslaiddownintheTopics,notansweringtowhatheunderstoodbytheformermethod;hethereforesummarilydubbedthemwiththenameofInduction,whichtheyhavekepteversince,totheincalculableconfusionofthought.

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  • 绿卡纸l45vu

     Andneitherisembitteredbydefeat;

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