文艺界抗击疫情主题MV《坚信爱会赢》首发

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“河内一分彩漏洞”

III.Wealsomissinhimtheirsingle-mindeddevotiontophilosophyandtheirrigorousunityofdoctrine.TheAcragantinesagewasapartyleader(inwhichcapacity,tohisgreatcredit,hevictoriouslyupheldthepopularcause),arhetorician,anengineer,aphysician,andathaumaturgist.Thewell-knownlegendrelatingtohisdeathmaybetakenasanotundeservedsatireonthecolossalself-conceitofthemanwhoclaimeddivinehonoursduringhislifetime.Half-mysticandhalf-rationalist,hemadenoattempttoreconcilethetwoinconsistentsidesofhisintellectualcharacter.Itmaybecomparedtooneofthosegrotesquecombinationsinwhich,accordingtohismorphology,theheadsandbodiesofwidelydifferentanimalswereunitedduringthebeginningsoflifebeforetheyhadlearnedtofallintotheirproperplaces.Hebelievedinmetempsychosis,andprofessedtorememberthesomewhatmiscellaneousseriesofformsthroughwhichhisownpersonalityhadalreadyrun.Hehadbeenaboy,agirl,abush,abird,andafish.Nevertheless,asweshallpresentlysee,histheoryofNaturealtogetherexcludedsuchanotionasthesoul’sseparateexistence.Wehavenowtoconsiderwhatthattheoryactuallywas.ItwillberememberedthatParmenideshadaffirmedtheperpetuityandeternalself-identityofbeing,butthathehaddeprivedthisprofounddivinationofallpracticalvaluebyinterpretingitinasensewhichexcludeddiversityandchange.Empedoclesalsodeclarescreationanddestructiontobeimpossible,butexplainsthattheappearancessodenominatedarisefromtheunionandseparationoffoureverlastingsubstances—earth,air,fire,andwater.Thisisthefamousdoctrineofthefour29elements,which,adoptedbyPlatoandAristotle,waslongregardedasthelastwordofchemistry,andstillsurvivesinpopularphraseology.Itsauthormayhavebeenguidedbyanunconsciousreflectiononthecharacterofhisownphilosophicalmethod,forwasnothe,too,constructinganewsystemoutoftheelementssuppliedbyhispredecessors?Theyhadsuccessivelyfixedonwater,air,andfireastheprimordialformofexistence;headdedafourth,earth,andeffectedasortofreconciliationbyplacingthemallonanequalfooting.Curiouslyenough,theearliermonisticsystemhadarelativejustificationwhichhiscrudeeclecticismlacked.Allmattermayexisteitherinasolid,aliquid,oragaseousform;andallsolidmatterhasreacheditspresentconditionafterpassingthroughthetwootherdegreesofconsistency.Thatthethreemodificationsshouldbefoundcoexistinginourownexperienceisamereaccidentofthepresentrégime,andtoenumeratethemistosubstituteadescriptionforanexplanation,theusualfaultofeclecticsystems.Empedocles,however,besideshishappyimprovementonParmenides,madearealcontributiontothoughtwhen,asAristotleputsit,hesoughtforamovingaswellasforamaterialcause;inotherwords,whenheaskednotonlyofwhatelementstheworldiscomposed,butalsobywhatforcesweretheybroughttogether.Hetellsusoftwosuchcauses,LoveandStrife,theoneacombining,theotheradissociatingpower.Ifforthesehalf-mythologicalnameswereadattractiveandrepulsiveforces,theresultwillnotbeverydifferentfromourowncurrentcosmologies.Suchterms,whensousedastoassumetheexistenceofoccultqualitiesinmatter,drivingitspartsasunderordrawingthemclosetogether,are,intruth,ascompletelymythologicalasanyfigmentsofHellenicfancy.Unliketheirmodernantitypes,theEmpedocleangoddessesdidnotreigntogether,butsucceededoneanotherinalternatedominionduringprotractedperiodsoftime.ThevictoryofLovewascompletewhenallthingshadbeendrawnintoa30perfectsphere,evidentlytheabsoluteEleaticBeingsubjectedtoaHeracleiteanlawofvicissitudeandcontradiction.ForStrifelaysholdontheconsolidatedorb,andbyherdisintegratingactiongraduallyreducesittoaformlesschaos,till,atthecloseofanotherworld-period,theworkofcreationbeginsagain.YetgrowthanddecayaresoinextricablyintertwinedthatEmpedoclesfailedtokeepupthisidealseparation,andwascompelledtoadmitthesimultaneousactivityofbothpowersinoureverydayexperience,sothatNatureturnsouttobecomposedofsixelementsinsteadoffour,themindwhichperceivesitbeingconstitutedinapreciselysimilarmanner.ButLove,althoughonthewholevictorious,canonlygraduallygetthebetterofherretreatingenemy,andNature,asweknowit,istheresultoftheircontinuedconflict.Empedoclesdescribedtheprocessofevolution,asheconceivedit,insomewhatminutedetail.Twopointsonlyareofmuchinteresttous,hisallegedanticipationoftheDarwiniantheoryandhispsychology.Theformer,suchasitwas,hasoccasionallybeenattributedtoLucretius,buttheRomanpoetmostprobablycopiedEpicurus,althoughtheverybriefsummaryofthatphilosopher’sphysicalsystempreservedbyDiogenesLaertiuscontainsnoallusiontosuchatopic.Weknow,however,thatinAristotle’stimeatheoryidenticalwiththatofLucretiuswasheldbythosewhorejectedteleologicalexplanationsoftheworldingeneralandoflivingorganismsinparticular.Allsortsofanimalswereproducedbyspontaneousgeneration;onlythosesurvivedwhichwereaccidentallyfurnishedwithappliancesforprocuringnourishmentandforpropagatingtheirkind.ThenotionitselforiginatedwithEmpedocles,whosefancifulsuppositionshavealreadybeenmentionedinadifferentconnexion.Mostassuredlyhedidnotofferitasasolutionofproblemswhichinhistimehadnotyetbeenmooted,butasanillustrationoftheconfusionwhichprevailedwhenLovehadonlyadvancedalittlewayinherordering,harmonising,31unifyingtask.Prantl,writingafewyearsbeforetheappearanceofMr.Darwin’sbookontheOriginofSpecies,andthereforewithoutanyprejudiceonthesubject,observeswithtruththatthistheoryofEmpedocleswasdeeplyrootedinthemythologicalconceptionsofthetime.23Perhapshewasseekingforarationalisticexplanationofthecentaurs,minotaurs,hundred-handedgiants,andsoforth,inwhoseexistencehehadnot,likeLucretius,learnedcompletelytodisbelieve.Hisstrangesuppositionwasafterwardsfreedfromitsworstextravagances;butevenasstatedintheDeRerumNatura,ithasnoclaimwhatevertorankasaserioushypothesis.AnythingmoreunliketheDarwiniandoctrine,accordingtowhichallexistingspecieshavebeenevolvedfromlesshighly-organizedancestorsbythegradualaccumulationofminutedifferences,itwouldbedifficulttoconceive.Everythinkerofantiquity,withoneexception,believedintheimmutabilityofnaturalspecies.Theyhadexistedunchangedfromalleternity,orhadsprungupbyspontaneousgenerationfromtheearth’sbosomintheirpresentform.ThesolitarydissentientwasAnaximander,whoconjecturedthatmanwasdescendedfromanaquaticanimal.24Strangetosay,thisluckyguesshasnotyetbeenquotedasanargumentagainsttheAscidianpedigree.ItischieflytheenemiesofDarwinismwhoareeagertofinditanticipatedinEmpedoclesorLucretius.Byacuriousinversionoftraditionalism,itisfanciedthatamoderndiscoverycanbeupsetbyshowingthatsomebodysaidsomethingofthekindmorethantwothousandyearsago.Unfortunatelyauthorityhasnotthenegativevalueofdisprovingtheprincipleswhichitsupports.Wemustbecontenttoacceptthetruthsbroughttolightbyobservationandreasoning,evenattheriskoffindingourselvesinhumiliatingagreementwithaphilosopherofantiquity.25

OnpassingfromSenecatoEpictêtus,wefindthatthereligiouselementhasreceivedaconsiderableaccessionofstrength,soconsiderable,indeed,thatthesimpleprogressoftimewillnotaltogetheraccountforit.SomethingisduetothesuperiordevoutnessoftheEasternmind—EpictêtuswasaPhrygian,—andstillmoretothedifferenceinstationbetweenthetwophilosophers.Asanoble,Senecabelongedtotheclasswhichwasnaturallymostinclinedtoadoptanindependentattitudetowardsthepopularbeliefs;asaslave,Epictêtusbelongedtotheclasswhichwasnaturallymostamenabletotheirauthority.Itwas,however,noaccidentthatphilosophyshould,atadistanceofonlyageneration,berepresentedbytwosuchwidelycontrastedindividuals;forthewholetendencyofRomancivilisationwas,aswehaveseen,tobringtheOrientalelementandtheservileelementofsocietyintoever-increasingprominence.NothingprovestheascendencyofreligiousconsiderationsinthemindofEpictêtusmorestronglythanhisaversionfromthephysicalenquirieswhichwereeagerlyprosecutedbySeneca.Natureinterestshimsolelyasamanifestationofdivinewisdomandgoodness.Asaconsequenceofthisintensifiedreligiousfeeling,theStoictheoryofnaturallawistransformed,withEpictêtus,intoanexpressionoffilialsubmissiontothedivinewill,whiletheStoicteleologybecomesanenumerationoftheblessingsshoweredbyprovidenceonman.Inthelatterrespect,hisstandpointapproachesveryneartothatofSocrates,who,althoughafree-bornAtheniancitizen,belonged,likehim,tothepoorerclasses,andsympathiseddeeplywiththeirfeelingofdependenceonsupernaturalprotection,—aremarkwhichalsoappliestothehumbleday-labourer244Cleanthes.Epictêtusalsosharestheidea,characteristicofthePlatonicratherthanoftheXenophonticSocrates,thatthephilosopherisentrustedwithamissionfromGod,withoutwhichitwouldbeperilousforhimtoundertaketheofficeofateacher,andwhich,inthedischargeofthatoffice,heshouldkeepconstantlybeforehiseyes.ButthedialecticalelementwhichwithSocrateshadfurnishedsostrongacounterpoisetotheauthoritativeandtraditionalsideofhisphilosophy,isalmostentirelywantinginthediscoursesofhisimitator,andthelittleofitwhichheadmitsisvaluedonlyasameansofsilencingtheSceptics.Ontheotherhand,theweaknessandinsignificanceofhumannature,consideredontheindividualside,areabundantlyillustrated,andcontemptuousdiminutivesarehabituallyusedinspeakingofitscomponentparts.378ItwouldseemthattheattitudeofprostrationbeforeanoverwhelmingexternalauthoritypreventedEpictêtusfromlookingveryfavourablyonthedoctrineofindividualimmortality;andevenifheacceptedthatdoctrine,whichseemsinthehighestdegreeimprobable,itheldamuchlessimportantplaceinhisthoughtsthaninthoseofCiceroandSeneca.Itwouldseem,also,thattheStoicmaterialismwasbetrayingitsfundamentalincompatibilitywithahopeoriginallyborrowedfromtheidealismofPlato.Norwasthisrenunciationinconsistentwiththeethicaldualismwhichdrewasharplineofdistinctionbetweenfleshandspiritintheconstitutionofman,forthesuperiorityofthespiritarosefromitsidentitywiththedivinesubstanceintowhichitwasdestinedtobereabsorbedafterdeath.379

Wemustnowbringthislongandcomplicated,butitishopednotuninteresting,studytoaclose.Wehaveaccompaniedphilosophytoapointwhereitentersonanewfield,andembracesthemessufficientlyimportanttoformthesubjectofaseparatechapter.Thecontributionsmadebyitsfirstcultivatorstoourpositiveknowledgehavealreadybeensummarised.Itremainstomentionthattherewasnothingofatrulytranscendentalcharacterabouttheirspeculations.Whateverextensionwemaygivetothatterriblebugbear,theUnknowable,theydidnottrespassonitsdomain.Heracleitusandhiscompeers,whilepenetratingfarbeyondthehorizonoftheirageandcountry,keptverynearlywithinthelimitsofapossibleexperience.Theyconfusedsomeconceptionswhichwehavelearnedtodistinguish,andseparatedotherswhichwehavelearnedtocombine;buttheywerethelinealprogenitorsofourhighestscientificthought;andtheyfirstbrokegroundonapathwherewemustcontinuetoadvance,ifthecosmoswhichtheywonforusisnottobeletlapseintochaosanddarknessagain.

Inthefaceofsuchfacts,tosay,asMr.Froudedoes,thatEpicureanismwas‘thecreedofthemenofscience’inthetimeofJuliusCaesar111—anassertiondirectlycontradictedbyLange112—isperhapsonlyofapiecewithMr.Froude’susualinaccuracywhenwritingaboutancienthistory;butsuchdeclarationsasthatofMr.FredericPollock,thattheEpicureansystem56‘wasagenuineattemptatascientificexplanationoftheworld;andwasinitsdaythesolitaryprotestagainstthecontemptofphysicswhichprevailedintheotherpost-Aristotelianschools;’113ofProf.Trezza,thattheEpicureanschool‘summedupinitselfthemostscientificelementsofGreekantiquity;’114ofDr.Woltjer,that‘withrespecttothelawsandprinciplesofscience,theEpicureanscamenearestofalltheancientstothescienceofourowntime;’115andfinally,ofM.ErnestRenan,thatEpicureanismwas‘thegreatscientificschoolofantiquity,’116areabsolutelyamazing.TheeminentFrenchcriticjustquotedhaselsewhereobserved,withperfectjustice,thatthescientificspiritisthenegationofthesupernatural;andperhapshearguesthatthenegationofthesupernaturalmust,reciprocally,bethescientificspirit.Butthisisonlytruewhensuchanegationisarrivedatinductively,afteradisinterestedsurveyofthefacts.Epicurusstartedwiththedenialofsupernaturalinterferenceasapracticalpostulate,andthenhuntedaboutforwhateverexplanationsofnaturalphenomenawouldsuithisforegoneconclusion.Moreover,anenquirerreallyanimatedbythescientificspiritstudiesthefactsfortheirownsake;hestudiesthemastheyactuallyare,notrestingcontentwithalternativeexplanations;andhestudiesthemtothefullestextentofwhichhispowersarecapable.Epicurus,onthecontrary,declaresthatphysicswouldnotbeworthattendingtoifthemindcouldbesetfreefromreligiousterrorsinanyothermanner;117hewillnotlethimselfbetieddowntoanyonetheoryifthereareothersequallyinconsistentwithdivineagencytobehad;118andwhenhisdemandsinthisrespectaresatisfied,thatis,whentheappearancesvulgarlyascribedtosupernaturalcausationhavebeenprovidedwithnaturalcauses,heleavesoff.NowitwasbythissideofPlatonismthatAristotlealsohadbeenmostdeeplyfascinated.Whileconstantlycriticisingtheidealtheory,hehad,intruth,accepteditunderamodifiedform.Hisuniversalclassificationisderivedfromthedialecticmethod.Hispsychologyandtheologyareconstructedon287thespiritualisticbasisoftheAcademy,andoutofmaterialswhichthefounderoftheAcademyhadsupplied.ItwasthereforenaturalthatPlotinusshouldavailhimselflargelyoftheStagirite’shelpinendeavouringtoreproducewhatatraditionofsixcenturieshadobscuredorconfused.ToreconcilethetwoAtticmasterswas,asweknow,acommonschoolexercise.Learnedcommentatorshad,indeed,placedtheirdisagreementbeyondalldispute.Butthereremainedthesimplercourseofbringingtheircommonstandpointintogreaterprominence,andcombiningtheirtheorieswherethisseemedpossiblewithouttooopenlyrenouncingtherespectduetowhatalmostallconsideredthesuperiorauthorityofPlato.TowhichofthetwomastersNeo-PlatonismreallyowedmostisaquestionthatmustbepostponeduntilwehavemadeourselvesacquaintedwiththeoutlinesofthesystemastheyappearintheworksofPlotinus.

Totheobjectionthathissuspensiveattitudewouldrenderactionimpossible,Arcesilausrepliedthatanymentalrepresentationwassufficienttosetthewillinmotion;andthat,inchoosingbetweendifferentcourses,probabilitywasthemostrationalmeansofdetermination.Butthetaskofreducingprobableevidencetoasystemwasreservedforastillablerdialectician,whodidnotappearonthesceneuntilacenturyafterhistime.ArcesilausiscommonlycalledthefounderoftheMiddle,CarneadesthefounderoftheNewAcademy.Thedistinctionis,however,purelynominal.Carneadesfoundednothing.Hisprincipleswereidenticalwiththoseofhispredecessor;andhisclaimtobeconsideredthegreatestoftheGreekscepticsisduetohishavinggiventhoseprinciplesawiderapplicationandamoresystematicdevelopment.TheStoicsregardeditasaspecialdispensationofprovidence149thatChrysippus,theorganisinggeniusoftheirschool,shouldhavecomebetweenitstwomostformidableopponents,beingthusplacedinapositiontoanswertheobjectionsoftheoneandtorefutebyanticipationthoseoftheother.232ItmightseemtolessprejudicedobserversthatthethinkerwhosecausebenefitedmostbythisarrangementwasCarneades.Parodyingawell-knowniambic,heusedtosay:

ThedistinctivefeaturesofEpicureanismhave,intruth,neverbeencopied,noraretheyeverlikelytobecopied,byanymodernsystem.Itarose,aswehaveseen,fromacombinationofcircumstanceswhichwillhardlyberepeatedinthefuturehistoryofthought.Astheheatandpressureofmoltengraniteturnsandstoneintoslate,soalsothemightysystemsofPlatoandAristotle,comingintocontactwiththeirreligious,sensual,empirical,andscepticalsideofAtticthought,forcedittoassumethatsortoflaminatedtexturewhichcharacterisesthetheoreticalphilosophyofEpicurus.And,attheverysamemoment,thedisappearanceofallpatriotismandpublicspiritfromAthenianlifeallowedtheolderelementsofAtheniancharacter,itsamiableegoism,itsloveoffrugalgratifications,itsaversionfrompurelyspeculativeinterests,tocreateanewandlooserbondofsocialunionamongthosewhowereindifferenttothevulgarobjectsofambition,butwhomtheaustererdoctrinesofStoicismhadfailedtoattract.Epicureanismwasessentiallyapracticalphilosophy.Thephysical,theological,andlogicalportionsofthesystemwerereasonedoutwithexclusivereferencetoitsethicalend,andtheirabsolutesubordinationtoitwasneverallowedtobeforgotten.ItisthereforewiththemoraltheoryofEpicurusthatwemustbegin.

WehaveseenhowCarneades,alikeinhistheoryofprobabilityandinhisethicaleclecticism,haddepartedfromtheextremescepticalstandpoint.Hissuccessor,Clitomachus,wascontentwithcommittingthedoctrinesofthemastertowriting.AfurtherstepwastakenbythenextScholarch,Philo,whoisknownastheLarissaean,inordertodistinguishhimfromhismorecelebratednamesake,theAlexandrianJew.ThisphilosopherassertedthatthenegationsoftheNewAcademywerenottobetakenasaprofessionofabsolutescepticism,butmerelyasacriticismontheuntenablepretensionsoftheStoa.Hisownpositionwasthat,asamatteroffact,wehavesomecertainknowledgeoftheexternalworld,butthatnologicalaccountcanbegivenoftheprocessbywhichitisobtained—wecanonlysaythatsuchanassurancehasbeennaturallystampedonourminds.254Thisisthetheoryofintuitionsorinnateideas,stillheldbymanypersons;and,assuch,itmarksareturntopurePlatonism,havingbeenevidentlysuggestedbythesemi-mythologicalfanciesofthe161MenoandthePhaedrus.WithPhiloaswiththoseScotchprofessorswholongafterwardstookupsubstantiallythesameposition,theleadingmotivewasapracticalone,thenecessityofplacingmoralityonsomestrongergroundthanthatofmereprobability.Neitherhenorhisimitatorssawthatifethicalprinciplesareself-evident,theyneednoobjectivesupport;iftheyarederivativeandcontingent,theycannotimparttometaphysicsacertaintywhichtheydonotindependentlypossess.ThereturntotheoldAcademicstandpointwascompletedbyamuchmorevigorousthinkerthanPhilo,hispupil,opponent,andeventualsuccessor,Antiochus.SofarfromattemptinganycompromisewiththeSceptics,thisphilosopheropenlydeclaredthattheyhadledtheschoolawayfromitstruetraditions;andclaimedforhisownteachingthemeritofreproducingtheoriginaldoctrineofPlato.255Inreality,hewas,asZellerhasshown,aneclectic.256ItisbyargumentsborrowedfromStoicismthathevindicatesthecertaintyofhumanknowledge.Pushingthepracticalpostulatetoitslogicalconclusion,hemaintains,notonlythatweareinpossessionofthetruth,butalso—whatPhilohaddenied—thattruebeliefsbearontheirfacetheevidencebywhichtheyaredistinguishedfromillusions.Admittingthatthesensesareliabletoerror,heassertsthepossibilityofrectifyingtheirmistakes,andofreasoningfromasubjectiveimpressiontoitsobjectivecause.TheScepticalnegationoftruthhemeetswiththefamiliarargumentthatitissuicidal,fortobeconvincedthattherecanbenoconvictionisacontradictioninterms;whiletoarguethattruthisindistinguishablefromfalsehoodimpliesanillogicalconfidenceinthevalidityoflogicalprocesses;besidesinvolvingtheassumptionthattherearefalseappearancesandthattheyareknowntousassuch,whichwouldbeimpossibleunlesswewereinapositiontocomparethemwiththecorresponding162truths.257Forhisownpart,AntiochusadoptedwithoutalterationtheempiricaltheoryofChrysippus,accordingtowhichknowledgeiselaboratedbyreflectionoutofthematerialssuppliedbysense.HisphysicswerealsothoseofStoicismwithaslightPeripateticadmixture,butwithoutanymodificationoftheirpurelymaterialisticcharacter.InethicsheremainedtruertotheAcademictradition,refusingtofollowtheStoicsintheirabsoluteisolationofvirtuefromvice,andofhappinessfromexternalcircumstances,involvingasitdidtheequalityofalltransgressionsandtheworthlessnessofworldlygoods.ButthedisciplesofthePorchhadmadesuchlargeconcessionstocommonsensebytheirtheoriesofpreferenceandofprogress,thatevenheretherewasverylittlelefttodistinguishhisteachingfromtheirs.258

ThatPlatoputforwardtheethicaltheoryoftheProtagorasinperfectgoodfaithcannot,wethink,bedoubted;althoughinotherwritingshehasrepudiatedhedonismwithcontemptuousaversion;anditseemsequallyevidentthatthiswashisearliestcontributiontopositivethought.OfallhistheoriesitisthesimplestandmostSocratic;forSocrates,inendeavouringtoreclaimthefoolishorvicious,oftenspokeasifself-interestwastheparamountprincipleofhumannature;although,hadhisassumptionbeenformulatedasanabstractproposition,hetoomighthaveshrunkfromitwithsomethingoftheuneasinessattributedtoProtagoras.AndfrominternalevidenceofanotherdescriptionwehavereasontothinkthattheDialogueinquestionisacomparativelyjuvenileproduction,rememberingalwaysthattheperiodofyouthwasmuchmore189protractedamongtheGreeksthanamongourselves.Onealmostseemstorecognisethehandofaboyjustoutofcollege,whodelightsindrawingcaricaturesofhisteachers;andwho,whilehelooksdownonclassicalscholarshipincomparisonwithmorelivingandpracticaltopics,isnotsorrytoshowthathecandiscussadifficultpassagefromSimonidesbetterthantheprofessorsthemselves.

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  • 雨花郡主sEoSs

    Meanwhiletherecognisedmethodsforlookingintofuturitycontinuedtoenjoytheiroldpopularity,andthatwhichreliedonindicationsaffordedbytheentrailsofsacrificeswaspractisedwithunabatedconfidencedowntothetimeofJulian.342Evenfaithinnaturallaw,whereitexisted,accommodateditselftotheprevalentsuperstitionbytakingtheformofastrology;anditiswellknownwhatreliancetheemperorTiberius,forhistimeasingularlyenlightened224man,placedonpredictionsderivedfromobservationofthestarryheavens.

     Sofar,virtuewaswiththeGreekswhatitmustinevitablybewithallmenatfirst,chieflyself-regarding,arefinedformofprudence.Moreover,other-regardingvirtuesgavelessscopeforreflection,beingoriginallycomprehendedunderobediencetothelaw.Butthereweretwocircumstanceswhichcouldnotlongescapetheirnotice;first,thatfraudandviolenceareoften,atleastapparently,profitabletothosewhoperpetratethem,afactbitterlyremarkedbyHesiod;50andsecondly,thatsocietycannotholdtogetherwithoutjustice.ItwaslongbeforeGovernmentsgrewupwillingandabletoprotecttheirsubjectsfrommutualaggressions,nordoespositivelawcreatemorality,butimpliesit,andcouldnotbeworkedwithoutit.Norcouldinternationalobligationsbeenforcedbyasuperiortribunal;hencetheyhaveremaineddowntothepresentdayafertilethemeforethicaldiscussion.Itisatthispointthatmoralityformsajunctionwithreligion,thehistoryofwhichishighlyinteresting,butwhichcanherebe64onlybrieflytraced.TheOlympiandivinities,asplacedbeforeusbyHomer,areanythingbutmoral.Theirconducttowardseachotheristhatofadissolutenobility;towardsmenitisthatofunscrupulouspartisansandpatrons.Aloyaladherencetofriendsandgratitudeforsacrificialofferingsaretheirmostrespectablecharacteristics,raisingthemalreadyalittleabovethenature-powerswhencetheywerederived.Now,markhowtheyfirstbecomemoralised.Itisbybeingmadewitnessestoanoath.Anyonewhoiscalledintotestifytoapromisefeelsaggrievedifitisbroken,lookingonthebreachasaninsulttohisowndignity.AstheThirdCommandmentwellputsit,hisnamehasbeentakeninvain.Thusithappenedthatthesamegodswholefteveryothercrimeunpunished,visitedperjurywithsevereandspeedyretribution,continuedevenaftertheoffender’sdeath.51Respectforacontractistheprimaryformofmoralobligation,andstillseemstopossessapeculiarholdoveruneducatedminds.Weseeeverydayhowmanypersonswillabstainfromactionswhichtheyknowtobeimmoralbecausetheyhavegiventheirwordtothateffect,notbecausetheactionsthemselvesarewrong.Andforthatreasonlawcourtswouldbemorewillingtoenforcecontractsthantoredressinjuries.If,then,onepersoninflicteddamageonanother,hemightafterwards,inordertoescaperetaliationfromtheinjuredparty,orfromhisfamily,engagetogivesatisfaction,andthecourtwouldcompelhimtoredeemhispromise.52Thuscontract,byprocuringredressforeveryspeciesofwrong,wouldgraduallyextenditsownobligatorycharactertoabstinencefrominjuryingeneral,andthedivinesanctionsprimarilyinvokedonbehalfofoathswouldbeextended,withthem,overthewholedomainofmoralconduct.

  • 雪灵芝Tmvzl

    Itwasnotmerelytheimmortality,itwastheeternityofthesoulthatPlatotaught.Forhimtheexpectationofalifebeyondthegravewasidentifiedwiththememoryofanante-natalexistence,andthetwomuststandorfalltogether.WhenShelley’sshipwreckedmotherexclaimstoherchild:—

  • 如萱紫儿kEGIE

  • 但法国IeKMU

    Itwasnotmerelytheimmortality,itwastheeternityofthesoulthatPlatotaught.Forhimtheexpectationofalifebeyondthegravewasidentifiedwiththememoryofanante-natalexistence,andthetwomuststandorfalltogether.WhenShelley’sshipwreckedmotherexclaimstoherchild:—

     42

  • 大笨蛋M7baI

    v

  • 扒皮成DGaIF

    V.

     WhilePlatoidentifiedtheindividualwiththecommunitybyslurringoverthepossibledivergenceoftheirinterests,hestillfurthercontributedtotheirlogicalconfusionbyresolvingtheegointoamultitudeofconflictingfacultiesandimpulsessupposedtorepresentthedifferentclassesofwhichaStateismadeup.Hisopponentsheldthatjusticeandlawemanatefromtherulingpowerinthebodypolitic;andtheywerebroughttoadmitthatsupremepowerisproperlyvestedinthewisestandbestcitizens.Transferringtheseprinciplestotheinnerforum,hemaintainedthatapsychologicalaristocracycouldonlybeestablishedbygivingreasonasimilarcontrolovertheanimalpassions.141Atfirstsight,thisseemedtoimplynomorethanareturntothestandpointofSocrates,orofPlatohimselfintheProtagoras.Themanwhoindulgeshisdesireswithinthelimitsprescribedbyaregardfortheirsafesatisfactionthroughhiswholelife,maybecalledtemperateandreasonable,butheisnotnecessarilyjust.If,how233ever,weidentifytheparamountauthoritywithinwiththeparamountauthoritywithout,weshallhavetoadmitthatthereisafacultyofjusticeintheindividualsoulcorrespondingtotheobjectivejusticeofpoliticallaw;andsincethesupremevirtueisagreedonallhandstobereason,wemustgoastepfurtherandadmitthatjusticeisreason,orthatitisreasonabletobejust;andthatbyconsequencetheheightofinjusticeistheheightoffolly.Moreover,thisfallacioussubstitutionofjusticefortemperancewasfacilitatedbythecircumstancethatalthoughtheformervirtueisnotinvolvedinthelatter,thelatteristoaverygreatextentinvolvedintheformer.Self-controlbynomeanscarrieswithitarespectfortherightsofothers;butwheresuchrespectexistsitnecessitatesaconsiderableamountofself-control.

  • 草莓果itpmR

     Endurance,foresight,strength,andskill.’

  • 绿卡纸jwClf

    EveryvarietyofopinioncurrentamongtheSophistsreducesitself,inthelastanalysis,totheirfundamentalantithesisbetweenNatureandLaw,thelatterbeingsomewhatambiguouslyconceivedbyitssupportersaseitherhumanreasonorhumanwill,ormoregenerallyasbothtogether,combiningtoasserttheirself-dependenceandemancipationfromexternalauthority.ThisantithesiswasprefiguredinthedistinctionbetweenChthonianandOlympiandivinities.Continuingafterwardstoinspiretherivalryofopposingschools,CynicagainstCyrenaic,StoicagainstEpicurean,ScepticagainstDogmatist,itwasbutpartiallyovercomebythemediatorialschemesofSocratesandhissuccessors.ThencameCatholicism,equallyadversetothepretensionsofeitherparty,andheldthemdown101underitssuffocatingpressureformorethanathousandyears.

     Platowasbornintheyear429,oraccordingtosomeaccounts427,anddied347B.C.Fewincidentsinhisbiographycanbefixedwithanycertainty;butforourpurposethemostgeneralfactsarealsothemostinteresting,andaboutthesewehavetolerablytrustworthyinformation.HisfamilywasoneofthenoblestinAthens,beingconnectedonthefather’ssidewithCodrus,andonthemother’swithSolon;whiletwoofhiskinsmen,CritiasandCharmides,wereamongthechiefsoftheoligarchicparty.Itisuncertainwhetherheinheritedanyconsiderableproperty,noristhequestiononeofmuchimportance.ItseemsclearthatheenjoyedthebesteducationAthenscouldafford,andthatthroughlifehepossessedacompetencesufficienttorelievehimfromthecaresofmaterialexistence.Possiblythepreferencewhichheexpressed,whenfaradvancedinlife,formoderatehealthand190wealtharosefromhavingexperiencedthoseadvantageshimself.Ifthebustswhichbearhisnamearetobetrusted,hewasremarkablybeautiful,and,likesomeotherphilosophers,verycarefulofhispersonalappearance.Perhapssomereminiscencesoftheadmirationbestowedonhimselfmaybemingledwiththosepicturesofyouthfullovelinessandofitsexcitingeffectontheimaginationsofoldermenwhichgivesuchgraceandanimationtohisearliestdialogues.Weknownotwhetherasloverorbelovedhepassedunscathedthroughthestormsofpassionwhichhehassopowerfullydescribed,norwhetherhisapparentlyintimateacquaintancewiththemisduetodivinationortoregretfulexperience.Wemaypassbyinsilencewhateverisrelatedonthissubject,withthecertaintythat,whethertrueornot,scandalousstoriescouldnotfailtobecirculatedabouthim.

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