小巷总理:居民的琐事,我们的大事

rZu9V-news 发布时间: 2020-07-15 09:09:13

“腾讯视频只能看五分钟”

ThemostsuccessfuladoptionofBeccaria’sprinciplesofpunishmentoccurredinTuscany,undertheGrandDukeLeopold.Whenheascendedtheducalthrone,theTuscanswerethemostabandonedpeopleofallItaly.Robberiesandmurderswerenonethelessfrequentforallthegallows,wheels,andtortureswhichwereemployedtorepressthem.ButLeopoldin1786resolvedtotryBeccaria’splan,forwhichpurposehepublishedacode,proportioningpunishmentstocrimes,abolishingmutilationandtorture,reducingthenumberofactsoftreason,lesseningconfiscations,destroyingtherightofasylum,andaboveallabolishingcapitalpunishmentevenformurder.Theresultwas,saysacontemporary,thatTuscany,fromhavingbeenthelandofthegreatestcrimesandvillanies,became‘thebestorderedStateofEurope.’[22]DuringtwentyyearsonlyfivemurderswerecommittedinTuscany,whilstatRome,wheredeathcontinuedtobeinflictedwithgreatpomp,as[36]manyassixtywerecommittedwithinthespaceofthreemonths.[23]

Noinconveniencethatmayarisefromastrictobservanceoftheletterofpenallawsistobecomparedwiththeinconveniencesofsubjectingthemtointerpretation.Themomentaryinconvenienceintheformercaseinvolves,indeed,correctingthewordsofthelawwhicharethecauseoftheuncertainty,ataskbotheasyandnecessary;butthefatallicenceofarguing,thesourceofsomanyarbitraryandvenaldisputes,istherebyprevented.Whenafixedcodeoflaws,whichmustbeobservedtotheletter,leavestothejudgenofurthertroublethantoinquireintotheactionsofcitizensandtodecideontheirconformitytothewrittenlaw;whenthestandardofjustand[129]unjust,whichshouldequallydirecttheactionsoftheignorantcitizenasofthephilosophicalone,isnotamatterofcontroversybutoffact;thenarepeoplenolongersubjecttothepettytyranniesofmanymen,whichareallthemorecruelbyreasonofthesmallerdistancethatseparatesthesuffererfromtheinflictorofsuffering,andwhicharemoreperniciousthanthetyranniesofasingleman,inasmuchasthedespotismofmanyisonlycurablebythatofone,andadespot’scrueltyisproportioned,nottothepowerhepossesses,buttotheobstaclesheencounters.Underafixedcodeoflawscitizensacquirethatconsciousnessofpersonalsecurity,whichisjust,becauseitistheobjectofsocialexistence,andwhichisuseful,becauseitenablesthemtocalculateexactlytheevilconsequencesofamisdeed.Itistruetheywillalsoacquireaspiritofindependence,butnotsuchaspiritaswillseektoshakethelawsandproverebelliousagainstthechiefmagistrates,exceptagainstsuchofthemashavedaredtoapplythesacrednameofvirtuetoaspiritlesssubmissiontotheirownself-interestedandcapriciousopinions.Theseprincipleswilldispleasethosewhohaveassumedtherighttotransfertotheirsubordinatesthestrokesoftyrannytheythemselveshavesufferedfromtheirsuperiors.Ipersonallyshouldhaveeverythingtofear,ifthespiritoftyrannyandthespiritofreadingeverwenttogether.

Weshallsee,ifweopenhistories,thatlaws,which[118]areoroughttobecovenantsbetweenfreemen,havegenerallybeennothingbuttheinstrumentofthepassionsofsomefewmen,ortheresultofsomeaccidentalandtemporarynecessity.Theyhaveneverbeendictatedbyanunimpassionedstudentofhumannature,abletoconcentratetheactionsofamultitudeofmentoasinglepointofview,andtoconsiderthemfromthatpointalone—thegreatesthappinessdividedamongthegreatestnumber.Happyarethosefewnationswhichhavenotwaitedfortheslowmovementofhumancombinationsandchangestocauseanapproachtobetterthings,afterintolerableevils,buthavehastenedtheintermediatestepsbygoodlaws;anddeservingisthatphilosopherofthegratitudeofmankind,whohadthecourage,fromtheobscurityofhisdespisedstudy,toscatterabroadamongthepeoplethefirstseeds,solongfruitless,ofusefultruths.

Somepersonshavemaintainedthatacrime,thatis,anactioncontrarytothelaws,ispunishablewherevercommitted,asifthecharacterofsubject[193]wereindelible,or,inotherwords,synonymouswith,nay,worsethan,thecharacterofslave;asifamancouldbethesubjectofonekingdomandtheresidentofanother,orasifhisactionscouldwithoutcontradictionbesubordinatetotwosovereignpowersandtotwolegalsystemsoftencontradictory.Sosomethinkthatacruelactiondone,say,atConstantinopleispunishableatParis,fortheabstractreasonthathewhooffendshumanitydeservestohavecollectivehumanityforhisenemy,andmeritsuniversalexecration;asifjudgesweretheavengersofhumansensibilityingeneral,andnotratherofthecovenantsthatbindmentogether.Theplaceofpunishmentistheplaceofthecrime,becausethere,andthereonly,isitacompulsorydutytoinjureanindividual,topreventaninjurytothepublic.Avillain,butonewhohasnotbrokenthecovenantsofthesocietyofwhichhewasnotamember,maybeanobjectoffear,andforthatreasonbeexpelledandexiledbythesuperiorpowerofthatsociety;buthecannotbelegallyandformallypunished,sinceitisforthelawstoavenge,nottheintrinsicmaliceofparticularactions,buttheviolationofcompacts.

Whocanprotecthimselffromcalumny,whenitisarmedbythestrongestshieldoftyranny,secrecy?Whatsortofgovernmentcanthateverbewhereineverysubjectarulersuspectsanenemy,andisobligedforthesakeofthegeneraltranquillitytorobeachindividualofitspossession?

Butatleast,itwillbethought,wehavebythistimearrivedatsomeprinciplesaboutpunishmentwhichcorrespondwiththeeternaltruthsofequity.IsnotEquality,forinstance,oneoftheprimaryessentialsofpunishment?Doesitnotstandasapenalaxiomwithalmostthesanctionofamorallawthatallmenshouldsufferequallyforequalcrimes?Yet,ifbyequalitybemeantthesamepunishment,thesamekindoflabour,thesametermofservitude,thesamepecuniaryfine—andthisistheonlythingitcanmean—whatmoreobviousthanthatthesamepunishmentforrichandpoor,foryoungandold,forstrongandweak,formenandwomen,foreducatedanduneducated,willbringtotheconstitutionofapenalcodetheutmostinequalitytheimaginationcanconceive?Beccariainsiststhatthelawcandonomorethanassignthesameextrinsicpunishmenttothesamecrime;thatis,thesamepunishment,regardlessofallotherexternalconsiderations;andhecallsfortheinflictionofthesamepunishmentonthenoblemanasonthecommoner.Letitbeso;butthesamepunishmentisnolongeranequalone;andhencefromthisverydemandforequalityspringsthedemandforitsveryopposite,forwhatBenthamcallstheequabilityofpunishment;thatis,consideration[77]forthedifferentcircumstancesofindividualcriminals.Sothatthesamenominalpunishmentnotbeingthesamerealone,equalityofpunishmentappearstobeachimera,andthelaw,whichpunishes,say,adistinguishedofficerlessseverelythanitpunishesacostermongerforthesamecrime,errsperhapsreallylessfromactualequalitythanifitcondemnedbothtopreciselythesamepunishment.

TorturewasdefinitelyandtotallyabolishedinPortugalin1776,inSwedenin1786,[24]andinAustriain1789.Inthelattercountry,indeed,ithadbeenabolishedbyMariaTheresasixteenyearsbeforeinherGermanandPolishprovinces;andthePenalCodeofJosephII.,publishedin1785,wasanadditionaltributetothecauseofreform.Secretorderswereevengiventothetribunalstosubstituteotherpunishmentsforhanging,yetsothatthegeneralpublicshouldbeunawareofthechange.TherewasthegreatestanxietythatitshouldnotbethoughtthatthischangewasoutofanydeferenceforBeccariaorhisschool.‘Intheabolitionofcapitalpunishment,’saidKaunitz,‘hisMajestypaysnoregardatalltotheprinciplesofmodernphilosophers,who,inaffectingahorrorofbloodshed,assertthatprimitivejusticehasnorighttotakefromamanthatlifewhichNatureonlycangivehim.Oursovereignhasonlyconsultedhisownconviction,thatthepunishmenthewishessubstitutedforthecapitalpenaltyismorelikelytobefeltbyreasonofitsduration,andthereforebetterfittedtoinspiremalefactorswithterror.’

AstrongfeelingagainstthepillorywasarousedbythesentencepassedagainstLordCochranein1814,bywhich,forsupposedcomplicityinaplottoraisethepriceoftheFunds,hewascondemnedtoayear’simprisonment,toafineof1000l.,andtostandinthepillory.AbillfortheabolitionofthepilloryaccordinglypassedtheCommonstheverynextyear,butLordEllenboroughsucceededagaininbringingtheUpperHousetoapause:thepilloryforsoothwasasoldas1269;itwasspokenofbytheoldhistorians;itwasnotconfinedtothiscountry,forDuCangespokeofitontheContinent.Forthesereasonsthepilloryremainedalegalpunishmentdowntothefirstyearofthepresentreign.BythepresentEnglishlawapersonconvictedofmoreoffencesthanonemaybesentencedforeachoffenceseparately,thepunishmentofeachonein[106]successiontakingeffectontheexpirationoftheother.Bythislaw(whichtheCriminalCodeCommissionersproposetoalter)imprisonmentmaybespreadoverthewholeofalifetime.OnthispointtheChineselawagainoffersamodel,foritenactsthatwhentwoormoreoffencesareprovedagainstaman,theyshallallbeestimatedtogether,andthepunishmentofallthelesseroffencesbeincludedinthatoftheprincipalcharge,notinadditiontoitSoalsoiftheoffencesarechargedatdifferenttimes,andthepunishmentofonehasbeenalreadydischarged,thereisnofurtherpunishmentfortheothersubsequentcharges,unlesstheybechargesofgreatercriminality,inwhichcaseonlythedifferencebetweenthepunishmentscanbelegallyincurred.[63]Butthisofcoursepresupposesadefinitescaleofcrimesandpunishments.

Thus,thetwowriterstowhomBeccariaowedmostwereMontesquieuandHelvetius.The‘LettresPersanes’oftheformer,whichsatirisedsomanythingsthenincustom,containedbutlittleaboutpenallaws;buttheideaistherestartedforthefirsttimethatcrimesdependbutlittleonthemildnessorseverityofthepunishmentsattachedtothem.‘Theimagination,’saysthewriter,‘bendsofitselftothecustomsofthecountry;andeightdaysofprisonoraslightfinehaveasmuchterrorforaEuropeanbroughtupinacountryofmildmannersasthelossofanarmwouldhaveforanAsiatic.’[4]The‘EspritdesLois,’bythesameauthor,probablycontributedmoretotheformationofBeccaria’sthoughtsthanthe‘LettresPersanes,’foritisimpossibletoreadthetwelfthbookofthatworkwithoutbeingstruckbytheresemblanceofideas.The‘DeL’Esprit’ofHelvetiuswascondemnedbytheSorbonneas‘acombinationofallthevariouskindsofpoisonscatteredthroughmodernbooks.’Yetitwasoneofthemostinfluentialbooksofthetime.WefindHumerecommendingittoAdamSmithforitsagreeablecompositionfatherthanforitsphilosophy;andawriterwhohadmuchincommonwithBeccariadrew[8]fromitthesameinspirationthathedid.ThatwriterwasBentham,whotellsusthatwhenhewasabouttwenty,andonavisittohisfatherandstepmotherinthecountry,hewouldoftenwalkbehindthemreadingabook,andthathisfavouriteauthorwasHelvetius.

Neitherthenoblenortherichmanoughttobeabletopayapriceforinjuriescommittedagainstthefeebleandthepoor;elseriches,which,underthe[206]protectionofthelaws,aretheprizeofindustry,becomethenourishmentoftyranny.Wheneverthelawssufferamanincertaincasestoceasetobeapersonandtobecomeathing,thereisnoliberty;forthenyouwillseethemanofpowerdevotingallhisindustrytogatherfromthenumberlesscombinationsofcivillifethosewhichthelawgrantsinhisfavour.Thisdiscoveryisthemagicsecretthatchangescitizensintobeastsofburden,andinthehandofthestrongmanformsthechainwherewithtofettertheactionsoftheimprudentandtheweak.Thisisthereasonwhyinsomegovernments,thathaveallthesemblanceofliberty,tyrannylieshiddenorinsinuatesitselfunforeseen,insomecornerneglectedbythelegislator,whereinsensiblyitgainsforceandgrows.

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  • 雨花郡主nuhAl

     Therearesomecrimeswhichareatthesametimeofcommonoccurrenceandofdifficultproof.Inthemthedifficultyofproofisequivalenttoaprobabilityofinnocence;andtheharmoftheirimpunitybeingsomuchthelesstobeconsideredastheirfrequencydependsonprinciplesotherthantheriskofpunishment,thetimeforinquiryandtheperiodofprescriptionoughtbothtobeproportionatelyless.Yet[161]casesofadulteryandpederasty,bothofdifficultproof,arepreciselythoseinwhich,accordingtoreceivedprinciples,tyrannicalpresumptionsofquasi-proofsandhalf-proofsareallowedtoprevail(asifamancouldbehalf-innocentorhalf-guilty,inotherwords,half-punishableorhalf-acquittable);inwhichtortureexercisesitscruelswayoverthepersonoftheaccused,overthewitnesses,andevenoverthewholefamilyofanunfortunatewretch,accordingtothecoldlywickedteachingofsomedoctorsoflaw,whosetthemselvesupastheruleandstandardforjudgestofollow.

  • 雪灵芝KqjrG

    Theknowledgeofthetruerelationsbetweenasovereignandhissubjects,andofthosebetweendifferentnations;therevivalofcommercebythelightofphilosophicaltruths,diffusedbyprinting;andthesilentinternationalwarofindustry,themosthumaneandthemostworthyofrationalmen—thesearethefruitswhichweowetotheenlightenmentofthiscentury.Buthowfewhaveexaminedandcombatedthecrueltyofpunishments,andtheirregularitiesofcriminalprocedures,apartoflegislationso[119]elementaryandyetsoneglectedinalmostthewholeofEurope;andhowfewhavesought,byareturntofirstprinciples,todissipatethemistakesaccumulatedbymanycenturies,ortomitigate,withatleastthatforcewhichbelongsonlytoascertainedtruths,theexcessivecapriceofill-directedpower,whichhaspresenteduptothistimebutonelongexampleoflawfulandcold-bloodedatrocity!Andyetthegroansoftheweak,sacrificedtothecrueltyoftheignorantortotheindolenceoftherich;thebarbaroustortures,multipliedwithaseverityasuselessasitisprodigal,forcrimeseithernotprovedorquitechimerical;thedisgustinghorrorsofaprison,enhancedbythatwhichisthecruellestexecutionerofthemiserable—namely,uncertainty;—theseoughttostartlethoserulerswhosefunctionitistoguidetheopinionofmen’sminds.

  • 如萱紫儿FdhMu

    AndanadvocatetotheParliamentofParisthusexpressedhimself,inrefutationofBeccaria:—

  • 但法国nC6xv

    [153]

     Somecrimestenddirectlytothedestructionofsocietyortothesovereignwhorepresentsit;othersaffectindividualcitizens,byimperillingtheirlife,theirproperty,ortheirhonour;whilstothers,again,areactionscontrarytothepositiveornegativeobligationswhichbindeveryindividualtothepublicweal.

  • 大笨蛋z6IBU

    v

  • 扒皮成nbx0R

     Weshallsee,ifweopenhistories,thatlaws,which[118]areoroughttobecovenantsbetweenfreemen,havegenerallybeennothingbuttheinstrumentofthepassionsofsomefewmen,ortheresultofsomeaccidentalandtemporarynecessity.Theyhaveneverbeendictatedbyanunimpassionedstudentofhumannature,abletoconcentratetheactionsofamultitudeofmentoasinglepointofview,andtoconsiderthemfromthatpointalone—thegreatesthappinessdividedamongthegreatestnumber.Happyarethosefewnationswhichhavenotwaitedfortheslowmovementofhumancombinationsandchangestocauseanapproachtobetterthings,afterintolerableevils,buthavehastenedtheintermediatestepsbygoodlaws;anddeservingisthatphilosopherofthegratitudeofmankind,whohadthecourage,fromtheobscurityofhisdespisedstudy,toscatterabroadamongthepeoplethefirstseeds,solongfruitless,ofusefultruths.

  • 草莓果NII3R

    Romilly’sfirstideawithrespecttothereformofthecriminallawwasasufficientlyhumbleone.Itwasnothingmorethantoraisetheamountofthevalueoftheproperty,thetheftofwhichshouldexposeamantodeath.Twelvepence,asfixedbythestatuteofElizabeth,originallysignifiedamuchgreatertheftthanithadcometosignifyafteralapseoftwocenturies.Romillyhadatfirstnoideaofremovingthedeathpenaltyfortheft;hisonlyhopewastogetitaffixedtoagravertheftthanthelarcenyofashilling.Yetevensohecouldnotbringhimselftoconsultwiththejudgesonthesubjectofhisintendedbill,for‘hehadnottheleasthopetheywouldapproveofthemeasure.’

     

  • 绿卡纸KqrPM

     

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