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“分分彩全能版必中计划”

IV.Nuncrationulla‘strestandi,nullafacultas,

Blankmisgivingsofacreature

Undersuchguidanceasthis.Platonismhadmadebutlittleway.Wesaw,intheconcludingsectionsofthelastchapterandintheopeningsectionofthepresentchapter,thatitprofitedbythereligiousandliteraryrevivalofthesecondcentury,justasitwastoprofitlongafterwardsbythegreaterrevivalofthefifteenthcentury,somuchsoastobecomethefashionablephilosophyoftheage.Yet,eveninthatperiodofitsrenewedsplendour,thenoblestofcontemporarythinkerswasnotaPlatonistbutaStoic;andalthoughitwouldbeunfairtomeasurethemoraldistancebetweenthePorchandtheAcademybytheintervalwhichseparatesanAureliusfromanApuleius,stillitwouldseemasifnaturalismcontinuedtobethechosencreedofstrenuousanddutifulendeavour,whilespiritualismwasdriftingintoanalliancewithhystericalandsensuoussuperstition.IfwemayjudgebythepointswhichSextusEmpiricusselectsforcontroversialtreatment,Stoicismwasstillthereigningsysteminhistime,thatistosay,aboutthebeginningofthethirdcentury;andif,agenerationlater,ithadsunkintoneglect,everyrivalschool,exceptthatofEpicurus,wasinexactlythesamecondition.Thustheonlyadvancemadewastosubstituteoneformofmaterialismforanother,untilNeo-Platonismcameandputanendtotheirdisputesbydestroyingthecommonfoundationonwhichtheystood;while,atthesametime,itsuppliedacompletelyorganiseddoctrineroundwhichthenoblerelementsoftheHellenicrevivalcouldrallyforalaststandagainstthefoesthatwerethreateningitfromeveryside.

249

241

Andthecauseswhenceitsprings,

Antisthenesandhisschool,ofwhichDiogenesisthemostpopularandcharacteristictype,wereafterwardsknownasCynics;butthenameisnevermentionedbyPlatoandAristotle,nordotheyalludetothescurrilityandsystematicindecencyafterwardsassociatedwithit.Theanecdotesrelatingtothisunsavourysubjectshouldbereceivedwithextremesuspicion.Therehasalwaysbeenatendencytobelievethatphilosopherscarryoutinpracticewhatarevulgarlybelievedtobethelogicalconsequencesoftheirtheories.ThusitisrelatedofPyrrhotheScepticthatwhen6outwalkingheneverturnedasidetoavoidanyobstacleordanger,andwasonlysavedfromdestructionbythevigilanceofhisfriends.9Thisisofcourseasillyfable;andwehaveAristotle’swordforitthattheScepticstookasgoodcareoftheirlivesasotherpeople.10InlikemannerwemayconjecturethattheCynics,advocatingastheydidareturntoNatureanddefianceofprejudice,werefalselycreditedwithwhatwasfalselysupposedtobethepracticalexemplificationoftheirprecepts.ItisatanyrateremarkablethatEpictêtus,amannotdisposedtoundervaluetheobligationsofdecorum,constantlyreferstoDiogenesasakindofphilosophicalsaint,andthathedescribestheidealCynicinwordswhichwouldapplywithoutalterationtothecharacterofaChristianapostle.11

Besidesthegeneralreligiousmovementwhichhadlongbeeninaction,andwasdailygainingstrengthfromtheincreasingbarbarisationoftheempire,therewas,atthisjuncture,aparticularcausetendingtobringGreekphilosophyintoclosealliancewiththemythologywhichithadformerlyrejectedanddenounced.ThiswastherapidriseandspreadofChristianity.StAugustinehassaidthatofallheathenphilosophersnonecamenearertotheChristianfaiththantheNeo-Platonists.528Nevertheless,itwasinthemthattheoldreligionfounditsonlyapologistsandthenewreligionitsmostactiveassailants.WehavealreadyalludedtotheelaboratepolemicofPorphyry.Halfacenturylater,thesameprinciplescouldboastofastillmoreillustriouschampion.TheemperorJulianwasimbuedwiththedoctrinesofNeo-Platonism,andwaswonbacktotheancientfaithbytheteachingofitsprofessors.

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  • 雨花郡主jeRoz

     97

  • 雪灵芝pWkQa

    214

  • 如萱紫儿AyNMJ

  • 但法国Ch7FW

    Allvirtue,withPlotinus,restsonthesuperiorityofthesoultothebody.Sofar,hefollowsthecommondoctrineofPlatoandAristotle.Butinworkingoutthedistinction,heisinfluencedbytheindividualisingandtheoreticphilosophyofthelatterratherthanbythesocialandpracticalphilosophyoftheformer.Or,again,wemaysaythatwithhimtheintellectualismofAristotleisheightenedandwarmedbythereligiousaspirationsofPlato,strengthenedandpurifiedbytheStoicpassionlessness,theStoicindependenceofexternalgoods.Inhisethicalsystem,thevirtuesarearrangedinanascendingscale.EachgradereproducestheoldquadripartitedivisionintoWisdom,Courage,TemperanceandJustice,butineachtheirrespectivesignificancereceivesanewinterpretation.Ascivicvirtues,theycontinuetobearthemeaningassignedtotheminPlato’sRepublic.Wisdombelongstoreason,Couragetopassionatespirit,Temperancetodesire,whileJusticeimpliesthefulfilmentofitsappropriatefunctionbyeach.493Butallthisonlyamountstotherestrictionofwhatwouldotherwisebeunregulatedimpulse,theimpositionofFormonMatter,thesupremacyofthesouloverthebody;whereaswhatwewantistogetridofmatteraltogether.Herealso,Platosetsusontherighttrackwhenhecallsthevirtuespurifications.Fromthispointofview,forthesoultoenergisealonewithoutanyinterference,isWisdom;nottobemovedbythepassionsofthebodyisTemperance;nottodreadseparationfromthebodyisCourage;andtoobeytheguidanceofreasonisJustice.494SuchadispositionofthesouliswhatPlatomeansbyflyingfromtheworldandbecominglikeGod.Isthisenough?No,itisnot.Wehave,sofar,beendealingonlywiththenegativeconditionsofgood,notwithgooditself.Theessentialthingisnotpurification,butwhatremainsbehindwhentheworkofpurificationis332accomplished.Sowecometothethirdandhighestgradeofvirtue,thetrulydivinelife,whichisacompleteconversiontoreason.Ourphilosopherendeavourstofitthisalsointotheframeworkofthecardinalvirtues,butnotwithoutimposingaseriousstrainontheordinarymeaningofwords.OfWisdomnothingneedbesaid,foritisthesameasrationality.Justiceistheself-possessionofmind,Temperancetheinwarddirectiontowardsreason,Couragetheimpassivityarisingfromresemblancetothatwhichisbynatureimpassive.495

     Norwasthisall.Astheworldofsensewascomingbackintofavour,theworldofreasonwasfallingintodisrepute.JustastheoldphysicalphilosophyhadbeendecomposedbytheSophisticismofProtagorasandGorgias,soalsothedialecticofSocrateswascorruptedintothesophistryofEubulidesandEuthydêmus.Platohimselfdiscoveredthatbyreasoningdeductivelyfrompurelyabstractpremises,contradictoryconclusionscouldbeestablishedwithapparently323equalforce.Itwasdifficulttoseehowadecisioncouldbearrivedatexceptbyappealingtothetestimonyofsense.Andamoralreformcouldhardlybeeffectedexceptbysimilarlytakingintoaccounttheexistingbeliefsandcustomsofmankind.

  • 大笨蛋j0ho6

    v

  • 扒皮成gfQxT

    Itmustfurtherbenotedthatdisbeliefinafuturelife,asaphilosophicalprinciple,wasnotconfinedtotheEpicureans.AllphilosophersexceptthePlatonistsandPythagoreanswerematerialists;andnologicalthinkerwhohadonceappliedhismindtothesubjectcouldacceptsuchanabsurdityastheeverlastingdurationofacomplexcorporealsubstance,whetherconsistingofgaseousoroffierymatter.AmajorityoftheStoicsallowedthesoultocontinueitsindividualexistenceuntil,incommonwiththewholeworld,itshouldbereabsorbedintotheelementalfire;butotherslookedforwardtoamorespeedyextinction,withoutceasingonthataccounttoconsiderthemselvesorthodoxmembersoftheschool.OfthesethemostremarkableinstanceisMarcusAurelius.Thegreatemperorwasnotblindtowhatseemedtheenormousinjusticeofdeath,anddidnotquiteseehiswaytoreconcilingitwiththeStoicbeliefinabeneficentprovidence;butthedifficultyoffindingroomforsomanyghosts,andperhapsalsotheHeracleiteandogmaofperpetualtransformation,ledhimtorenouncewhateverhopehemayatonetimehavecherishedofenteringonanewexistenceinsomebetterworld.359AsimilarconsequencewasinvolvedintheprinciplesofthePeripateticphilosophy;andAlexanderofAphrodisias,thefamousAristoteliancommentator,whoflourishedabout200A.D.,affirmstheperishablenatureofthesoulonhisownaccount,and,withperfectjustice,attributesthesamebelieftoAristotlehimself.360

     Inthisconnexion,someimportancemustalsobeattributedtothemoreindirectinfluenceexercisedbychildren;ThesedidnotformaparticularlynumerousclassintheupperranksofRomansociety;but,tojudgebywhatweseeinmodernFrance,thefewertherewereofthemthemoreattentionweretheylikelytoreceive;andtheirinterests,whichlikethoseoftheotherdefencelessclasseshadbeendepressedorneglectedunderthearistocraticrégime,werefavouredbythereformingandlevellingmovementoftheempire.OneofJuvenal’smostpopularsatiresisentirelydevotedtothequestionoftheireducation;and,inreferencetothis,thepointofviewmostprominentlyputforwardistheimportanceoftheexampleswhichareofferedtothembytheirparents.Juvenal,himselfafree-thinker,isexceedinglyanxiousthattheyshouldnotbeindoctrinatedwithsuperstitiousopinions;butwemaybesurethatadifferentorderofconsiderationswouldequallyinduceotherstogivetheirchildrenacarefulreligioustraining,andtokeepthematadistancefromscepticalinfluences;whilethespontaneoustendencyofchildrentobelieveinthesupernaturalwouldrenderiteasiertogivethemmoralinstructionunderareligiousform.

  • 草莓果G2jOH

    WellmayM.HavetsayoftheAcademicians:‘cesonteuxetnonlespartisansd’Epicurequisontleslibrespenseursdel’antiquitéouquil’auraientvouluêtre;maisilsnelepouvaientpas.’250Theycouldnot,fortheirprincipleswereasinconsistentwithanabsolutenegationaswithanabsoluteaffirmation;whileinpracticetheirrulewas,aswehavesaid,conformitytothecustomofthecountry;theconsequenceofwhichwasthatScepticsandEpicureanswereequallyassiduousintheirattendanceatpublicworship.Itis,therefore,withperfectdramaticappropriatenessthatCiceroputstheargumentsofCarneadesintothemouthofCotta,thePontifexMaximus;and,althoughhimselfanaugur,takesthenegativesideinadiscussionondivinationwithhisbrotherQuintus.Andourothergreatauthorityonthescepticalside,SextusEmpiricus,isnotlessemphaticthanCottainprotestinghisdevotiontothetraditionalreligionoftheland.251

     Iftherebeaclassofpersonswhoalthoughnotperfectlyvirtuousareontheroadtovirtue,itfollowsthattherearemoralactionswhichtheyarecapableofperforming.ThesetheStoicscalledintermediateorimperfectduties;and,inaccordancewiththeirintellectualviewofconduct,theydefinedthemasactionsforwhichaprobablereasonmightbegiven;apparentlyincontradistinctiontothosewhichwerededucedfromasingleprinciplewiththeextremerigourofscientificdemonstration.Suchintermediatedutieswouldhavefortheirappropriateobjecttheendswhich,withoutbeingabsolutelygood,werestillrelativelyworthseeking,ortheavoidanceofwhat,withoutbeinganabsoluteevil,wasallowedtoberelativelyobjectionable.Theystoodmidwaybetweenvirtueandvice,justastheprogressivecharactersstoodbetweenthewiseandthefoolish,andpreferableobjectsbetweenwhatwasreallygoodandwhatwasreallyevil.

  • 绿卡纸yCh98

    ThereligiousrevivalinitiatedbyAugustusforhisownpurposeswassoonabsorbedandlostinamuchwidermovement,followingindependentlinesanddeterminedbyforceswhoseexistenceneitherhenoranyofhiscontemporariescouldsuspect.Evenforhisownpurposes,somethingmorewasneededthanamerereturntothepast.TheoldRomanfaithandworshipweretoodryandmeagretosatisfythecravingsoftheRomansthemselvesinthealteredconditionscreatedforthembythepossessionofaworld-wideempire;stilllesscouldtheyfurnishameeting-groundforallthepopulationswhichthatempirewasrapidlyfusingintoasinglemass.Butwhatwaswantedmightbetrustedtoevolveitselfwithoutanyassistancefromwithout,oncefreescopewasgiventothereligiousinstinctsofmankind.Thesehadlongbeenkeptinabeyancebythecreedswhichtheyhadoriginallycalledintoexistence,andbytherigidpoliticalorganisationoftheancientcity-state.Localpatriotismwasadversetotheintroductionofnewbeliefseitherfromwithinorfromwithout.Oncethegeneralinterestsofacommunityhadbeenplacedundertheguardianshipofcertaindeitieswithdefinitenamesandjurisdictions,itwasunderstoodthattheywouldfeeloffendedattheprospectofseeingtheirprivilegesinvadedbyarivalpower;andwerethatrivalthepatronofanothercommunity,hisintroductionmightseemlikeasurrenderofnationalindependenceatthefeetofanalienconqueror.So,203also,noveryactiveproselytismwaslikelytobecarriedonwhentheadherentsofeachparticularreligionbelievedthatitsadoptionbyanaliencommunitywouldenablestrangersandpossibleenemiestosecureashareofthefavourwhichhadhithertobeenreservedforthemselvesexclusively.Andtoallureawaythegodsofahostiletownbythepromiseofanewestablishmentwas,infact,oneofthestratagemscommonlyemployedbythegeneralofthebesiegingarmy.312

     

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