聚侨力,深耕中国不停步

8PoPD-news 发布时间: 2020-07-12 02:19:58

“手机北京赛车开奖”Itmaybesaidthatallsuchabsurditiesarepast;thattheJews,theAthenians,theChinese,theEuropeansofthemiddleagescanscarcelybecitedasreasonablebeings;thattheyhadnorationaltheoryofpunishment,andthattheirerrorshavebeenlongsincediscarded.Butatleasttheirexamplesuggeststhateveninourownsystemtheremaybeinconsistenciesandblemisheswhichcustomandauthorityhidefromoureyes.

ItisofinteresttotracesomeofthepracticalresultswhichfollowedBeccaria’streatiseduringthethirtyyearsthathelivedafteritspublication;thatis,fromtheyear1764to1794.

Infamyisasignofpublicdisapprobation,deprivingacriminalofthegood-willofhiscountrymen,oftheirconfidence,andofthatfeelingalmostoffraternitythatacommonlifeinspires.Itdoesnotdependuponthelaws.Hencetheinfamywhichthelawsinflictshouldbethesameasthatwhicharisesfromthenaturalrelationsofthings,thesameasthattaughtbyuniversalmorality,orbythatparticularmorality,whichdependsonparticularsystems,andsetsthelawforordinaryopinionsorforthisandthatnation.Iftheonekindofinfamyisdifferentfromtheother,eitherthelawlosesinpublicesteem,ortheideasofmoralityandhonestydisappear,inspiteofdeclamations,whichareneverefficaciousagainstfacts.Whoeverdeclaresactionstobeinfamouswhichareinthemselvesindifferent,detractsfromtheinfamyofactionsthatarereallyinthemselvesinfamous.

AstillgreaterhonourwasthecommentarywrittenbyVoltaire.ThefactthatonlywithinafewmilesofhisownresidenceagirlofeighteenhadbeenhungfortheexposureofabastardchildledVoltairetowelcomeBeccaria’sworkasasignthataperiodofsoftermannersandmorehumanelawswasabouttodawnupontheworld’shistory.Shouldnotapeople,heargues,wholiketheFrenchpiquethemselvesontheirpolitenessalsopridethemselvesontheirhumanity?Shouldtheyretaintheuseoftorture,merelybecauseitwasanancientcustom,whentheexperienceofEnglandandothercountriesshowedthatcrimeswerenotmorenumerousincountrieswhereitwasnotinuse,andwhenreasonindicatedtheabsurdityofinflictingonaman,beforehiscondemnation,apunishmentmorehorriblethanwouldawaithisprovedguilt?Whatcouldbemorecruel,too,thanthemaximoflawthatamanwhoforfeitedhislifeforfeitedhisestates?Whatmoreinhumanthanthustopunishawholefamilyforthecrimeofanindividual,perhapscondemningawife[14]andchildrentobegtheirbreadbecausetheheadofthefamilyhadharbouredaProtestantpreacherorlistenedtohissermoninacavernoradesert?AmidthecontrarietyoflawsthatgovernedFrance,theobjectofthecriminalproceduretobringanaccusedmantodestructionmightbesaidtobetheonlylawwhichwasuniformthroughoutthecountry.

Theotherbookwasfromamanwhomaboveallothersourforefathersdelightedtohonour.ThiswasArchdeaconPaley,whoin1785publishedhis‘MoralandPoliticalPhilosophy,’anddedicatedittothethenBishopofCarlisle.Noristhisfactofthededicationimmaterial,forthesaidBishopwasthefatherofthefutureLordChiefJusticeEllenborough,whoenjoysthemelancholyfameofhavingbeentheinveterateandsuccessfulopponentofnearlyeverymovementmadeinhistime,infavourofthemitigationofourpenallaws.ThechapteronCrimesandPunishmentsinPaleyandthespeechesofLordEllenboroughonthesubjectintheHouseofLordsare,inpointoffact,thesamething;sothatPaley’schapterisofdistincthistoricalimportance,asthe[55]chiefcauseoftheobstructionofreform,andasthebestexpressionofthephilosophyofhisday.IfothercountriesadoptedBeccaria’sprinciplesmorequicklythanourown,itwassimplythatthoseprinciplesfoundnoopponentsanywhereequaltoArchdeaconPaleyandhispupil,LordEllenborough.

CHAPTERXXXV.SUICIDEANDABSENCE.

Itisincomparablybettertopreventcrimesthantopunishthem.

CountPietroVerriwasthesonofGabriel,whowasdistinguishedalikeforhislegalknowledgeandhighpositioninMilan.AtthehouseofPietro,Beccariaandtheotherfriendsusedtomeetforthediscussionandstudyofpoliticalandsocialquestions.Alessandro,theyoungerbrotherofPietro,heldtheofficeof‘ProtectorofPrisoners,’anofficewhichconsistedinvisitingtheprisons,listeningtothegrievancesoftheinmates,anddiscovering,ifpossible,reasonsfortheirdefenceorformercy.Thedistressingsightshe[10]waswitnessofinthiscapacityaresaidtohavehadthemostmarkedeffectuponhim;andthereisnodoubtthatthisfactcausedtheattentionofthefriendstobesomuchdirectedtothestateofthepenallaws.ItisbelievedtohavebeenattheinstigationofthetwobrothersthatBeccariaundertooktheworkwhichwasdestinedtomakehisnamesofamous.

[32]Itisremarkablethatabookwhichhasdonemoreforlawreformthananyotherbeforeorsinceshouldhavebeenwrittenbyamanwhowasnotalawyerbyprofession,whowastotallyunversedinlegalpractice,andwhowasonlytwenty-sixwhenheattackedasystemoflawwhichhadonitssideallauthority,livinganddead.Humewasnottwenty-sevenwhen[4]hepublishedhis‘TreatiseonHumanNature,’norwasBerkeleymorethantwenty-sixwhenhepublishedhis‘PrinciplesofHumanKnowledge.’ThesimilarprecocitydisplayedbyBeccariaissuggestive,therefore,oftheinquiry,howfarthegreatestrevolutionsinthethoughtsorcustomsoftheworldhavebeenduetowritersunderthirtyyearsofage.

TheTranslatorhasabstainedfromallcriticismorcommentoftheoriginal,lessfromcompleteagreement[vi]withallitsideasthanfromtheconvictionthatannotationsaremoreoftenvexatiousthanprofitable,andarebestlefttothereadertomakeforhimself.Thereisscarcelyasentenceinthebookonwhichacommentatormightnotbeprolix.

Asit,then,wasnecessitywhichconstrainedmentoyieldapartoftheirindividualliberty,itiscertainthateachwouldonlyplaceinthegeneraldeposittheleastpossibleportion—onlysomuch,thatis,aswouldsufficetoinduceotherstodefendit.Theaggregateoftheseleastpossibleportionsconstitutestherightofpunishment;allthatisbeyondthisisanabuseandnotjustice,afactbutnotaright.[64]Punishments[124]whichexceedwhatisnecessarytopreservethedepositofthepublicsafetyareintheirnatureunjust;andthemorejustpunishmentsare,themoresacredandinviolableispersonalsecurity,andthegreaterthelibertythatthesovereignpreservesforhissubjects.

Thegoodfaithofcontractsandthesecurityofcommercecompelthelegislatortoassuretocreditorsthepersonsofinsolventdebtors.ButIthinkitimportanttodistinguishthefraudulentfromtheinnocentbankrupt,theformerofwhomshouldreceivethesamepunishmentasthatassignedtofalsecoiners,sinceitisnogreatercrimetofalsifyapieceofcoinedmoney,thepledgeofmen’smutual[217]obligations,thantofalsifythoseobligationsthemselves.Buttheinnocentbankrupt—hewho,afterasearchinginquiry,hasprovedbeforehisjudgesthatthewickednessormisfortuneofsomeoneelse,ortheinevitablevicissitudesofhumanprudence,havedespoiledhimofhissubstance—forwhatbarbarousreasonoughtsuchanonetobethrownintoprison,anddeprivedoftheonlypoorbenefitthatremainstohim,abarrenliberty,inordertosuffertheagoniesofthereallyguilty,and,indespairathisruinedhonesty,torepentperhapsofthatinnocence,bywhichhelivedpeacefullyundertheprotectionofthoselawsthatitwasnotinhispowernottooffendagainst?Laws,too,dictatedbythepowerfulbyreasonoftheirrapacity,andenduredbythefeeblebyreasonofthathope,whichgenerallyglimmersinthehumanheart,andleadsustobelievethatunfavourablecontingenciesarereservedforothers,favourableonesforourselves!Menlefttotheirnaturalfeelingslovecruellaws,howevermuch,assubjecttothemthemselves,itmightbefortheirindividualinterestthattheyshouldbemitigated;becausetheirfearofbeinginjuredbyothersisgreaterthantheirdesiretoinflictinjuriesthemselves.

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  • 雨花郡主3zTNV

     Itdoesnotfollow,becausethelawsdonotpunishintentions,thatthereforeacrimebegunbysomeaction,significativeofthewilltocompleteit,isundeservingofpunishment,althoughitdeserveslessthanacrimeactuallycommitted.Theimportanceofpreventinganattemptatacrimejustifiesapunishment;but,astheremaybeanintervalbetweentheattemptandtheexecution,thereservationofagreaterpunishmentforaconsummatedcrimemaypresentamotiveforitsnon-completion.

  • 雪灵芝lXAT3

  • 如萱紫儿I4i7k

    CHAPTERXXXIX.OFFAMILYSPIRIT.

  • 但法国s0yaV

    Whoeverkillshimselfdoesalessereviltosocietythanhewhoforeverleavestheboundariesofhiscountry,forwhilsttheformerleavesthereinallhissubstance,thelattertransportshimselftogetherwithpartofhisproperty.Nay,ifthepowerofacommunityconsistsinthenumberofitsmembers,themanwhowithdrawshimselftojoinaneighbouringnationdoestwiceasgreataninjuryashewhosimplybydeathdeprivessocietyofhisexistence.Thequestion,therefore,reducesitselftothis:whethertheleavingtoeachmemberofanationaperpetuallibertytoabsenthimselffromitbeadvantageousordetrimental.

     

  • 大笨蛋zxMIR

    v

  • 扒皮成9mHXP

    ItwasthissystemthatBeccaria’slittlework[3]destroyed,andhadthatbeenitsonlyresult,itwouldstilldeservetoliveinmen’smemoriesforitshistoricalinterestalone.Foruponthelegislationofthattime,andespeciallyuponthatofItaly,thispamphletoncriminallawbrokelikearayofsunlightonadungeonfloor,makingevenblackerthatwhichwasblackbeforebytheverybrilliancywhichitsheduponit.ToBeccariaprimarily,thoughnotofcoursesolely,belongsthegloryofhavingexpelledtheuseoftorturefromeverylegaltribunalthroughoutChristendom.

     ItwastranslatedintoEnglishlongago;butthechangeintheorderoftheseveralchaptersandparagraphs,whichtheworkunderwentbeforeitwasclothedinitsfinaldress,issogreat,thatthenewtranslationandtheoldonereallyconstitutequitedifferentbooks.

  • 草莓果ALItZ

    Theveryseverityofapunishmentleadsmentodaresomuchthemoretoescapeit,accordingtothegreatnessoftheevilinprospect;andmanycrimesarethuscommittedtoavoidthepenaltyofasingleone.Countriesandtimeswherepunishmentshavebeenmostseverehaveeverbeenthosewherethebloodiestandmostinhumandeedshavebeencommitted,thesamespiritofferocitythatguidedthehandofthelegislatorhavingguidedalsothatoftheparricideandassassin;onthethronedictatingiron[168]lawsforthevillanoussoulsofslavestoobey,andintheobscurityofprivatelifeurgingtotheslaughteroftyrants,onlytocreatefreshonesintheirstead.

     …Thecriesofsagesandphilosophersareasthecriesoftheinnocentmanonthewheel,wheretheyhaveneverprevented,norwilleverpreventhimfromexpiring,withhiseyesupturnedtoheaven,whichwillperhapssomedaystirupenthusiasm,orreligiousmadness,orsomeotheravengingfolly,toaccomplishallthattheirwisdomhasfailedtodo.Itisnevertheorationofthephilosopherwhichdisarmsthepowerfulruler;itissomethingelse,whichthecombinationofchanceeventsbringsabout.Meanwhilewemustnotseektoforceitfromhim,butmustentreathumblyforsuchgoodashecangrantus,thatiswhichhecangrantuswithoutinjurytohimself.

  • 绿卡纸XUiBv

     

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