中国与地区国家展现合作大气象(钟声)

uK8Wu-news 发布时间: 2020-07-14 01:28:36

“幸运飞艇全网开一样怎么会输”

ThetitleofthischaptermayhaveseemedtopromisemorethanacasualmentionofthethinkerinwhomGreekHumanismattaineditsloftiestandpurestexpression.Butinhistory,nolessthaninlife,SocratesmusteverstandapartfromtheSophists.Beyondandaboveallspecialitiesofteaching,thetranscendentdignityofacharacterwhichpersonifiedphilosophyitselfdemandsaseparatetreatment.Readerswhohavefollowedusthusfarmayfeelinterestedinanattempttothrowsomenewlightononewhowasariddletohiscontemporaries,andhasremainedariddletoafter-ages.

CHAPTERIII.THESCEPTICSANDECLECTICS:GREEKPHILOSOPHYINROME.

Platohad,intruth,aconceptionofsciencewhichnoknowledgethenattained—perhapsonemayadd,noknowledgeeverattainable—couldcompletelysatisfy.Eventherigourofmathematicaldemonstrationdidnotcontenthim,formathematicaltruthitselfrestedonunprovedassumptions,aswealso,bytheway,havelatelydiscovered.PerhapstheHegeliansystemwouldhavefulfilledhisrequirements;perhapsnoteventhat.Moreover,thattheneworderwhichhecontemplatedmightbeestablished,itwasnecessarytobeginbymakingacleansweepofallexistingopinions.WiththeurbanityofanAthenian,thepietyofadisciple,andtheinstinctofagreatdramaticartist,hepreferredtoassumethatthisindispensabletaskhadalreadybeendonebyanother.Andofallprecedingthinkers,whowassowellqualifiedfortheundertakingasSocrates?Whoelsehadwieldedtheweaponsofnegativedialecticwithsuchconsummatedexterity?Whohadassumedsuchacriticalattitudetowardsthebeliefsofhiscontemporaries?Whohadbeensoanxioustofindapointofattachmentforeverynewtruthinthemindsofhisinterlocutors?Whothereforecould,withsuch116plausibility,beputforwardintheguiseofonewholaidclaimtonowisdomonhisownaccount?ThesonofPhaenaretêseemedmadetobetheBaptistofaGreekMessiah;butPlato,intreatinghimassuch,hasdrawnadiscreetveiloverthewholepositivesideofhispredecessor’steaching,andtodiscoverwhatthiswaswemustplaceourselvesundertheguidanceofXenophon’smorefaithfulreport.MarcusAurelius,aconstantstudentofLucretius,seemstohavehadoccasionalmisgivingswithrespecttothecertaintyofhisowncreed;buttheyneverextendedtohispracticalbeliefs.Hewasdeterminedthat,whatevermightbetheoriginofthisworld,hisrelationtoitshouldbestillthesame.‘Thoughthingsbepurposeless,actnotthouwithoutapurpose.’ ‘Iftheuniverseisanungovernedchaos,becontentthatinthatwildtorrentthouhastagoverningreasonwithinthyself.’104

YetifPlato’stheology,fromitspredominantlyrationalcharacter,seemedtoneglectsomefeelingswhichwerebetter182satisfiedbytheearlierorthelaterfaithsofmankind,wecannotsaythatitreallyexcludedthem.Theunfadingstrengthoftheoldgodswascomprehendedintheself-existenceofabsoluteideas,andmoralgoodnesswasonlyaparticularapplicationofreasontotheconductoflife.Anemotionalorimaginativeelementwasalsocontributedbythetheorythateveryfacultyexercisedwithoutareasonedconsciousnessofitsprocessesandaimswasduetosomesavinggraceandinspirationfromasuperhumanpower.Itwasthus,accordingtoPlato,thatpoetsandartistswereabletoproduceworksofwhichtheywerenotabletorenderanintelligentaccount;anditwasthusthatsocietycontinuedtoholdtogetherwithsuchanexceedinglysmallamountofwisdomandvirtue.Here,however,wehavetoobserveamarkeddifferencebetweenthereligiousteacherspureandsimple,andtheGreekphilosopherwhowasadialecticianevenmorethanhewasadivine.ForPlatoheldthatprovidentialgovernmentwasmerelyprovisional;thattheinspiredprophetstoodonadistinctlylowerlevelthanthecritical,self-consciousthinker;thatratiocinationandnotpoetrywasthehighestfunctionofmind;andthatactionshouldbereorganisedinaccordancewithdemonstrablycertainprinciples.118

AccordingtoHegel,147thePlatonicpolity,sofarfrombeinganimpracticabledream,hadalreadyfounditsrealisationinGreeklife,anddidbutgiveapurerexpressiontotheconstitutiveprincipleofeveryancientcommonwealth.Thereare,hetellsus,threestagesinthemoraldevelopmentofmankind.Thefirstispurelyobjective.Itrepresentsarégimewhererulesofconductareentirelyimposedfromwithout;theyare,asitwere,embodiedintheframeworkofsociety;theyrest,notonreasonandconscience,butonauthorityandtradition;theywillnotsufferthemselvestobequestioned,for,beingunproved,adoubtwouldbefataltotheirveryexistence.HeretheindividualiscompletelysacrificedtotheState;butinthesecondorsubjectivestagehebreaksloose,assertingtherightofhisprivatejudgmentandwillasagainsttheestablishedorderofthings.Thisrevolutionwas,stillaccordingtoHegel,begunbytheSophistsandSocrates.ItprovedaltogetherincompatiblewiththespiritofGreekcivilisation,whichitendedbyshatteringtopieces.Thesubjectiveprinciplefoundan247appropriateexpressioninChristianity,whichattributesaninfiniteimportancetotheindividualsoul;anditappearsalsointhepoliticalphilosophyofRousseau.WemayobservethatitcorrespondsverynearlytowhatAugusteComtemeantbythemetaphysicalperiod.ThemodernStatereconcilesbothprinciples,allowingtheindividualhisfulldevelopment,andatthesametimeincorporatinghimwithalargerwhole,where,forthefirsttime,hefindshisownreasonfullyrealised.Now,HegellooksonthePlatonicrepublicasareactionagainstthesubjectiveindividualism,therightofprivatejudgment,theself-seekingimpulse,orwhateverelseitistobecalled,whichwasfasteatingintotheheartofGreekcivilisation.Tocounteractthisfataltendency,PlatogoesbacktotheconstitutiveprincipleofGreeksociety—thatistosay,theomnipotence,or,inBenthamiteparlance,omnicompetence,oftheState;exhibitingit,inidealperfection,asthesuppressionofindividuallibertyundereveryform,moreespeciallythefundamentalformsofproperty,marriage,anddomesticlife.IfPlotinusroseabovethevulgarsuperstitionsoftheWest,while,atthesametime,usingtheirlanguagefortheeasierexpressionofhisphilosophicalideas,therewasonemorerefinedsuperstitionofmixedGreekandOrientaloriginwhichhedenouncedwiththemostuncompromisingvigour.ThiswasGnosticism,astaughtbyValentinusandhisschool.Towardsthecloseofourlastchapter,wegavesomeaccountofthetheoryinquestion.ItwasprincipallyasenemiesoftheworldandmalignersofitsperfectionthattheGnosticsmadethemselvesoffensivetothefounderofNeo-Platonism.Tohim,theantithesisofgoodandevilwasrepresented,notbytheoppositionofspiritandNature,butbytheoppositionbetweenhisidealprinciplethroughalldegreesofitsperfection,andunformedMatter.LikePlato,helookedonthe348existingworldasaconsummateworkofart,anembodimentofthearchetypalIdeas,avisiblepresentationofreason.ButinthecourseofhisattackontheGnostics,518otherpointsofgreatinterestareraised,showinghowprofoundlyhisphilosophydifferedfromtheirs,howentirelyhetakeshisstandonthefixedprinciplesofHellenicthought.ThusheparticularlyreproacheshisopponentsfortheirsystematicdisparagementofPlato,towhom,afterall,theyowewhateveristrueandvaluableintheirmetaphysics.519Heridiculestheirbeliefindemoniacalpossession,withitswhollygratuitousandclumsyemploymentofsupernaturalagenciestoaccountforwhatcanbesufficientlyexplainedbytheoperationofnaturalcauses.520And,morethananythingelse,heseverelycensurestheirdetachmentofreligionfrommorality.Onthislastpoint,someofhisremarksaresostrikingandpertinentthattheydeservetobequoted.

ThesocialstudiesthroughwhichwehaveaccompaniedPlatoseemtohavereactedonhismoreabstractspeculations,andtohavelargelymodifiedtheextremeoppositioninwhichthesehadformerlystoodtocurrentnotions,whetherofapopularoraphilosophicalcharacter.ThechangefirstbecomesperceptibleinhistheoryofIdeas.Thisisasubjectonwhich,forthesakeofgreaterclearness,wehavehithertorefrainedfromentering;andthatweshouldhavesucceededinavoidingitsolongwouldseemtoprovethatthedoctrineinquestionformsamuchlessimportantpartofhisphilosophythaniscommonlyimagined.Perhaps,assomethink,itwasnotanoriginalinventionofhisown,butwasborrowedfromtheMegarianschool;andthemythicalconnexioninwhichitfrequentlyfiguresmakesusdoubtfulhowfarheeverthoroughlyacceptedit.Thetheoryis,thattoeveryabstractnameorconceptionofthemindtherecorrespondsanobjectiveentitypossessingaseparateexistencequitedistinctfromthatofthescatteredparticularsbywhichitisexemplifiedtooursensesortoourimagination.JustastheHeracleiteanfluxrepresentedtheconfusionofwhichSocratesconvictedhisinterlocutors,soalsodidtheseIdeasrepresentthedefinitionsbywhichhesoughttobringmethodandcertaintyintotheiropinions.Itmaybethat,asGrotesuggests,Platoadoptedthishypothesisinordertoescapefromthedifficultyofdefiningcommonnotionsinasatisfactorymanner.ItiscertainthathisearliestDialoguesseemtoplacetruedefinitionsbeyondthereachofhumanknowledge.AndatthebeginningofPlato’sconstructiveperiodwefindtherecognitionofabstractconceptions,whethermathematicalormoral,tracedtotheremembranceofanante-natalstate,wherethesoulhelddirectconversewiththetranscendentrealitiestowhichthoseconceptionscorrespond.Justice,temperance,beauty,andgoodness,areespeciallymentionedasexamples263ofIdeasrevealedinthismanner.Subsequentinvestigationsmust,however,haveledPlatotobelievethatthehighesttruthsaretobefoundbyanalysingnottheloosecontentsbutthefixedformsofconsciousness;andthat,ifeachvirtueexpressedaparticularrelationbetweenthevariouspartsofthesoul,noexternalexperiencewasneededtomakeheracquaintedwithitsmeaning;stilllesscouldconceptionsarisingoutofherconnexionwiththematerialworldbeexplainedbyreferencetoasphereofpurelyspiritualexistence.Atthesametime,innateideaswouldnolongerberequiredtoproveherincorporeality,whentheauthorityofreasonoversensefurnishedsomuchmoresatisfactoryagroundforbelievingthetwotobeofdifferentorigin.Toallwhohavestudiedtheevolutionofmodernthought,thesubstitutionofKantianformsforCartesianideaswillatonceelucidateandconfirmourhypothesisofasimilarreformationinPlato’smetaphysics.

Ifprivatesocietyexercisedademoralisinginfluenceonitsmostgiftedmembers,andinturnsufferedastillfurtherdebasementbylisteningtotheiropinions,thesamefatalinterchangeofcorruptionwentonstillmoreactivelyinpubliclife,sofar,atleast,asAtheniandemocracywasconcerned.Thepeoplewouldtoleratenostatesmanwhodidnotpamper199theirappetites;andthestatesmen,fortheirownambitiouspurposes,attendedsolelytothematerialwantsofthepeople,entirelyneglectingtheirspiritualinterests.Inthisrespect,Pericles,themostadmiredofall,hadbeenthechiefofsinners;for‘hewasthefirstwhogavethepeoplepayandmadethemidleandcowardly,andencouragedthemintheloveoftalkandofmoney.’Accordingly,arighteousretributionovertookhim,for‘attheveryendofhislifetheyconvictedhimoftheft,andalmostputhimtodeath.’Soithadbeenwiththeotherboastedleaders,Miltiades,Themistocles,andCimon;allsufferedfromwhatisfalselycalledtheingratitudeofthepeople.Likeinjudiciouskeepers,theyhadmadetheanimalcommittedtotheirchargefiercerinsteadofgentler,untilitssavagepropensitieswereturnedagainstthemselves.Or,changingthecomparison,theywerelikepurveyorsofluxury,whofedtheStateonadiettowhichitspresent‘ulceratedandswollencondition’wasdue.Theyhad‘filledthecityfullofharbours,anddocks,andwalls,andrevenuesandallthat,andhadleftnoroomforjusticeandtemperance.’Oneonlyamongtheelderstatesmen,Aristeides,isexceptedfromthissweepingcondemnation,and,similarly,Socratesisdeclaredtohavebeentheonlytruestatesmanofhistime.127

文章推荐:

栗战书同坦桑尼亚国民议会议长恩杜加伊举行会谈

“北京科技小院”工作推动会召开

地方企业、民营企业首次加入援藏队伍

【本田XR-V汽车图片】东风本田

深圳市总推出“暖工行动”八大举措

2008国家公务员面试真题集锦

石景山:消防部门联合派出所开展消防知识宣传培训

网友评论

  • 雨花郡主men9u

    Meanwhile,hehadalogicalmachinereadytohand,whichcouldbeusedwithterribleeffectagainstthePlatonicIdeas.Anyofthese—andtherewereagreatnumber—thatcouldbebroughtunderoneofthelastninecategorieswereatoncedeprivedofallclaimtoindependentexistence.TakeEquality,forinstance.Itcannotbediscoveredoutsidequantity,andquantityisalwayspredicatedofasubstance.Andthesameistrueofnumber,totheutterdestructionoftheNeo-Pythagoreantheorywhichgaveitaseparateexistence.Moreover,thecategoriesservednotonlytogeneraliseandcombine,butalsotospecificateanddivide.Theideaofmotionoccursinthreeofthem;inquantity,whereitmeansincreaseordiminution;inquality,whereitmeansalteration,asfromhottocold,orviceversa;andinplace,implyingtransportfromonepointtoanother.TheIdeaofGood,whichstandsattheverysummitofPlato’ssystem,maybetracedthroughalltencategories.242Thus,thesupposedunityandsimplicityofsuchconceptionswasshowntobeanillusion.Platonismwas,intruth,soinconsistentwiththenotionsembodiedincommonlanguage,thatitcouldnotbutbecondemnedbyalogicbasedonthosenotions.

     ItseemsasifwewerewitnessingarevivalofMediaevalism277underanotherform;asif,afterneo-Gothicarchitecture,pre-Raphaelitism,andritualism,wewerethreatenedwithareturntothescholasticphilosophywhichthegreatscientificreformersoftheseventeenthcenturyweresupposedtohaveirrevocablydestroyed.And,howeverchimericalmayseemthehopesofsucharestoration,weareboundtoadmitthattheydoactuallyexist.OneofthemostcultivatedchampionsofUltramontanisminthiscountry,Prof.St.GeorgeMivart,notlongagoinformedus,atthecloseofhisworkonContemporaryEvolution,that,‘ifmetaphysicsarepossible,thereisnot,andneverwasorwillbe,morethanonephilosophywhich,properlyunderstood,unitesalltruthsandeliminatesallerrors—thePhilosophyofthePhilosopher—Aristotle.’Itmaybementionedalso,asasymptomofthesamemovement,thatLeoXIII.hasrecentlydirectedtheworksofSt.ThomasAquinastobereprintedforuseinCatholiccolleges;having,accordingtothenewspapers,laidaside300,000lireforthatpurpose—alargesum,consideringhispresentnecessities;butnottoomuchfortherepublicationofeighteenfoliovolumes.Now,itiswellknownthatthephilosophyofAquinasissimplythephilosophyofAristotle,withsuchomissionsandmodificationsaswerenecessaryinordertopieceitontoChristiantheology.Hence,ingivinghissanctiontotheteachingoftheAngelicDoctor,LeoXIII.indirectlygivesittothesourcefromwhichsomuchofthatteachingisderived.

  • 雪灵芝04Dmz

    InpersonAristotleresembledthedelicatestudentofmoderntimesratherthantheathleticfiguresofhispredecessors.HewasnotasoldierlikeSocrates,noragymnastlikePlato.Tojudgefromseveralallusionsinhisworks,heputgreatfaithinwalkingasapreservativeofhealth—evenwhenlecturinghelikedtopaceupanddownashadyavenue.And,probably,aconstitutionalwastheseverestexercisethat290heevertook.Hespokewithasortoflisp,andtheexpressionofhismouthissaidtohavebeensarcastic;butthetraitspreservedtousinmarbletellonlyofmeditation,andperhapsofpain.Afree-spokenandfearlesscritic,hewasnotover-sensitiveonhisownaccount.Whentoldthatsomebodyhadbeenabusinghiminhisabsence,thephilosopherreplied,‘Hemaybeatme,too,ifhelikes—inmyabsence.’Hemightbeabused,eveninhisownpresence,withoutdepartingfromthesameattitudeofcalmdisdain,muchtothedisappointmentofhispetulantassailants.Hisequanimitywasbutslightlydisturbedbymorepublicandsubstantialaffronts.Whencertainhonorarydistinctions,conferredonhimbyapopularvoteatDelphi,werewithdrawn,probablyontheoccasionofhisflightfromAthens,heremarkedwithhisusualstudiedmoderation,that,whilenotentirelyindifferent,hedidnotfeelverydeeplyconcerned;atraitwhichillustratesthecharacterofthe‘magnanimousman’farbetterthananythingrelatedofAlexander.TwoothersayingshaveanalmostChristiantone;whenaskedhowweshouldtreatourfriends,hereplied,‘Asweshouldwishthemtotreatus;’andonbeingreproachedwithwastinghisbountyonanunworthyobject,heobserved,‘itwasnottheperson,butthehumanbeingthatIpitied.’181

  • 如萱紫儿FCqfY

    ThePlatonicinfluencetoldevenmoreefficaciouslyonGalileo’sstillgreatercontemporary,Kepler.WithhimaswiththeauthoroftheRepublic,mysticismtookthedirectionofseekingeverywhereforevidenceofmathematicalproportions.Withwhatbrilliantsuccessthesearchwasattended,itisneedlesstorelate.Whatinterestsushereisthefact,vouchedforbyArago,thattheGermanastronomerwasguidedbyanideaofPlato’s,thattheworldmusthavebeencreatedongeometricalprinciples.552HadBaconknownanythingabouttheworkonwhichhisadventurouscontemporarywasengaged,wemaybesurethatitwouldhaveaffordedhimanotherillustrationforhisId?la,theonlydifficultybeingwhetheritshouldbereferredtotheillusionsoftheTribe,theDen,ortheTheatre.

  • 但法国kS8Y1

     TheintroductionofTeichmüller’snameaffordsmeanopportunityformentioningthatmyattentionwasnotdirectedtohisbrilliantresearchesintovariousquestionsconnectedwithGreekphilosophy,andmoreparticularlywiththesystemsofPlatoandAristotle,untilitwastoolateformetoprofitbytheminthepresentwork.IalludemoreparticularlytohisStudienzurGeschichtederBegriffe(Berlin,1874),andtohisrecentlypublishedLiterarischeFehdenimviertenJahrhundertvorChr.(Breslau,1881).Thechiefpointsoftheformerworkare,thatPlatowasreallyapantheistormonist,not,asiscommonlybelievedandasIhavemyselftakenforgranted,adualist;that,asaconsequenceofthesuppressionofindividualitywhichcharacteriseshissystem,hedidnotreallyacceptorteachthedoctrineofpersonalimmortality,althoughhewishedthatthemassofthepeopleshouldbelieveit;thatPlatonomoreattributedatranscendentexistencetohisideasthandidAristotletohissubstantialforms;andthatinputtinganoppositeinterpretationonhisoldmaster’stheory,Aristotleisguiltyofgrossmisrepresentation.ThemostimportantpointoftheLiterarischeFehdenisthatAristotlepublishedhisEthicsxixwhilePlatowasstillaliveandengagedinthecompositionofhisLaws,andthatcertainpassagesinthelatterwork,ofwhichonerelatestofree-willandtheothertotheunityofvirtue(861,Aff.and962ff.)wereintendedasareplytoAristotle’swell-knowncriticismsonthePlatonictheoryofethics.

  • 大笨蛋Bw9oO

    v

  • 扒皮成2jj7z

     Butallthistimethepopularbeliefinomenshadcontinuedunaffected,andhadapparentlyevenincreased.ThepeculiarGreekfeelingknownasDeisidaimoniaisfirstsatirisedbyTheophrastus,whodefinesitascowardicewithregardtothegods,andgivesseveralamusinginstancesoftheanxietyoccasionedbyitspresence—allconnectedwiththeinterpretationofomens—suchasAristophanescouldhardlyhavefailedtonoticehadtheybeenusualinhistime.Norweresuchfanciesconfinedtotheignorantclasses.AlthoughtheStoicscannotbeaccusedofDeisidaimonia,theygavetheirpowerfulsanctiontothebeliefindivination,ashasbeenalreadymentionedinouraccountoftheirphilosophy.It223wouldseemthatwhateverauthoritythegreatoracularcentreshadlostwassimplyhandedovertolowerandmorepopularformsofthesamesuperstition.

  • 草莓果3GQmF

     

  • 绿卡纸qvytz

     

标签列表